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AFRICA    FlXill,^^ 


PART  III. 


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SOUTH  AND  EAST  COASTs'^MfelCA 


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FBOM  THE 


CAPE  OF  GOOD  HOPE  TO  RAS  ASIr  (oape  guabdafui), 


INCLUDING 


/     /• 


THE  COMORO  ISLANDS. 


OEIGINALLT  COMPILED 

By  Captain  ALGERNON  F.  R.  Db  HORSEY,  R.N. 
FIFTH   EDITION/ 


PUBLISHED   BY   ORDER  OF   THE  LORDS   COMMISSIONERS   OF  THE  ADMIRALTY. 


LONDON: 
PRINTBD  FOR  THE  HYDROGRAPHIC  OFFICE,  ADMIRALTY  ; 

AND  SOLD  BY  '^^ 

J.  D.  POTTER,  Agent  for  the  Sale  of  Admiralty  Charts, 

SI  POULTRY,  AKD  11  KING  STREET,  TOWER  HILL. 

1889. 


I 


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Price  Sia:  Shillings. 


0'02  ., 


THENEW  YORK 

PUBLIC  LlLrNARY 

TtLOEN   F    I    i^AT'0»«t. 


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ADVERTISEMENT   TO   THE   FIFTH   EDITION. 


The  Fifth  Edition  of  Africa  Pilot,  Part  III.,  comprises  Sailing 
Directions  for  the  east  coast  of  Africa,  between  the  cape  of  Good  Hope 
and  Ras  Asir  (cape  Guardaf  ui),  including  the  Comoro  islands. 

The  surveys  and  directions  for  the  coast  between  the  cape  of  Good  Hope 
and  port  Natal  are  by  Captain  Dayman,  Commander  Simpson,  and 
Nav.  Lieutenants  Skead  and  Archdeacon,  R.N.,  1852-67.  For  the  coast 
between  cape  St.  Lucia  and  Delagoa  bay,  Zavora  point  to  the  Bazamto 
islands,  and  the  harbours  of  Chiluan,  Innamban  and  Kiliman, — Captain 
P.  Aldrich,  H.M.S.  Sylvia^  1884-85.  For  the  coast  between  Ras  Pekawi 
and  Kiswere — Lieutenant  Gray,  H.M.S.  Nassau,  1874-75.  For  the  islands 
and  channels  of  Mafia,  Zanzibar,  and  Pemba ;  the  coast  from  Songa 
Manara  island  to  Pangani  bay  ;  and  the  harbours  of  Tanga,  Lamu,  Manda, 
and  Kisimayu, — Commander  Wharton,  H.M.  Ships  Shearwater  and 
Fawn,  1874-77.  For  Kilifi  harbour,— Commander  T.  F.  Pullen,  H.M.S. 
Stork,  1888. 

The  description  of  the  remaining  portions  of  the  coast  is  derived  from  the 
running  surveys  of  the  late  Captains  W.  F.  W.  Owen  and  A.  T.  E.  Vidal,  R.N., 
1823-25  ;  from  the  observations  of  Captain  de  Horsey  ;  the  remark  books 
of  officers  of  H.M.  Ships,  and  other  documents  in  the  Hydrographic 
Department,  Admiralty. 

The  longitude  of  places  given  in  the  text  of  this  work  between  the  cape 
of  Good  Hope  and  Delagoa  bay  depend  upon  Cape  observatory  being  in 
18^  28'  45"  E.  of  Greenwich.  The  longitudes  between  Delagoa  bay  and 
Kisimayu  (Refuge  bay)  depend  upon  Zanzibar  (British  Consulate)  being 
in  39°  11'  11"  E.  (By  the  latest  determination,  the  Cape  observatory  is 
considered  to  be  in  long.  18°  28'  40"  E.,  and  Zanzibar  in  long.  39°  11'  8"  E., 
but  as  these  are  not  final,  places  dependent  on  them  have  not  been 
altered).  Between  Kisimayu  and  cape  Guardafui  the  longitudes  depend 
upon  Aden  (local  telegraph  office)  being  in  44°  59'  7"  E.  of  Greenwich: 

The  first  edition  of  this  work  compiled  by  Captain  A.  F.  R.  De  Horsey, 
was  published  in  1864.  The  second  edition  in  1865.  The  third  edition  was 
revised  by  Commander  J.  Penn  in  1878.  The  fourth  edition  with  an 
appendix  was  published  in  1884. 

The  present  edition  has  been  revised  by  Staff  Commander  C.  H.  C.  Lang- 
don,  R.N.,  of  the  Hydrographic  Department. 

Ofi&cers  of  the  Royal  and  Mercantile  Marine  are  requested  to  transmit 
to  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty  any  notices  of  errors  or  omissions  they 
may  discover,  as  well  as  any  fresh  information  they  may  obtain,  in  order 
that  this  work  may  be  improved  for  the  general  benefit  of  the  navigator. 

By  the  publication  of  this  work,  all  Hydrographic  Notices  relating  to 

former  editions  and  all  Notices  to  Mariners,  inclusive  of  No.  112  of  1889, 

are  cancelled. 

W.  J.  L.  W. 

Hydrographic  Offioe,  Admiralty,  London, 
April,  1889. 

S.O.  10625  a  2  - 


SYSTEM    OF   ORTHOGRAPHY. 


As  far  as  has  been  found  possible  with  existing  knowledge  the 
native  names  in  this  book  are  spelt  in  accordance  with  the  following 
system,  which  will  be  gradually  introduced  into  all  Admiralty 
Sailing  Directions. 

1.  Where  native  names  have  been  so  long  written  in  a  form,  which, 
though  not  in  accordance  with  this  system,  has  become  familiar  to 
English  eyes  from  being  so  spelt  in  all  charts  and  maps,  they  are 
retained,  and  no  European  names  are  changed  from  the  correct 
orthography. 

2.  The  true  sound  of  the  word  as  locally  pronounced  is  taken  as 
the  basis  of  the  spelling. 

3.  An  approximation  of  the  sound  is  alone  aimed  at.  A  system 
which  would  attempt  to  represent  the  more  delicate  inflections  of 
sound  and  accent  would  be  so  complicated  as  only  to  defeat  itself. 

4.  The  broad  features  of  the  system  adopted  are  that  vowels  are 
pronounced  as  in  Italian  and  consonants  as  in  English,  every  letter 
being  pronounced.  One  accent  only  is  used,  the  acute,  to  denote  the 
syllable  on  which  stress  is  laid.  This  is  very  important,  as  the 
sounds  of  many  names  are  entirely  altered  by  the  misplacement  of 
this  "  stress." 

5.  When  two  vowels  come  together,  each  one  is  sounded,  though  the 
result,  when  spoken  quickly,  is  sometimes  scarcely  to  be  distin- 
guished from  a  single  sound,  as  in  aiy  aUy  ei. 

The  amplification  of  the  rules  is  given  below. 

Information  as  to  the  proper  spelling  of  native  names,  so  as  to 
produce  the  nearest  approximation  to  the  true  sound,  by  this  system, 
is  invited. 


Letters. 

Pronunciation  and  Remarks. 

Examples. 

a 

ah,  a  as  in  father       -            -            -            - 

Java,  Banana, 

Somali,  Bari. 

e 

eh,  e  as  in  benefit        -            .            -            . 

Tel-el-Kebir, 
0161eh,      Yezo, 

i 

English  e ;  i  as  in  ravine ;  the  sound  of  ee 

Levuka,  Peru. 

in  beet.                         Thus,  not  Feejee,  but 

Fiji,  Hindi. 

o 

0  as  in  mote    ----- 

Tokio. 

u 

long  u  as  in  flute ;  the  sound  of  oo  in  boot, 
00  or  ou  should  never  be  employed  for  this 

sound.       Thus,  not  Zooloo  or  Zoulou,  but 

Zulu,  Sumatra. 

All    vowels*  are    shortened   in    sound    by 

Yarra,         Tanna, 

doubling  the  following  consonant. 

Mecca,     Jidda, 
Bonny.* 

Doubling  of  a  vowel  is  only  necessary  where 

there  is  a  distinct  repetition  of  the  single 

Nuuliia. 

sound. 

ai 

English  i  as  in  ice      -            -            -            - 

Shanghai. 

au 

ow  as  in  how  -            thus,  not  Foochow,  but 

Fuchau. 

ao 

is  slightly  different  from  au              -            - 

Macao. 

ei 

is  the  sound  of  the  two  Italian  vowels,  but 

Beirut,  Beilul. 

is   frequently  slurred   over,   when  it   is 

- 

scarcely  to  be  distinguished  from  ey  in 

the  English  they. 

•  The  tf  is  retained  as  a  terminal  in  this  word  under  rule  1  above.    The  word  is  given 
as  a  familiar  example  of  the  alteration  in  sound  caused  by  the  second  consonant. 


VI 


STSTBM  OF  ORTHOGRAPHY. 


Letters. 


Pronimcifttion  and  Bemarks. 


Examples. 


English  h. 

is  always  soft,  but  is  so  nearly  the  sound  of  8 

that  it  should  be  seldom  used. 
If  Celebes  were  not  already  recognised  it 

would  be  written  Selehes, 
is  always  soft  as  in  church    -  -  . 

English  d, 
English  /.     Ph  should  not  be  used  for  the 

sound  of/.  Thus,  not  Haiphong^  but 

is  always  hard.     (Soft  g  is  given  by^) 
is  always  pronounced  when  used. 
English  j.  Dj  should  never  be  put  for 

this  sound. 
English  k.     It  should  always  be  put  for  the 

hard  c,         -  -    thus,  not  Goreay  but 

The  Arabic  guttural  -  -  -  . 

is  another  guttural,  as  in  the  Turkish 


} 


As  in  English. 


I 


has  two  separate  sounds,  the  one  hard  as  in 
the  English  word  finger^  the  other  as  in 
singer.  As  these  two  sounds  are  rarely 
employed  in  the  same  locality,' no  attempt 
is  made  to  distinguish  between  them. 

As  in  English. 

As  in  loophole  .  -  -  - 

Stands  both  for  its  sound  in  things  and  as 
in  this.    The  former  is  most  common 

should  never  be  employed ;  the  sound  of  qu 
in  quiver  is  given  as  kw.  When  qu  has 
the  sound  of  k^  as  in  quoit,  it  should  be 
given  by  k. 


As  in  English. 


is  always  a  consonant*  as  in  yard,  and  there- 
fore should  never  be  used  as  a  terminal," 
i  or  e  being  substituted 

Thus  not  Mikinddny  but 
nor  Kwaly  but 

English  z        - 

Accents  should  not  generally  be  used,  but 
where  there  is  a  very  decided  emphatic 
syllable  or  stress  which  aJffects  the  sound 
of  the  word,  it  should  be  marked  by  an 
dcute  accent  -  -  - 


Celebes. 


Ghingchin. 


Haifong,  Nafa. 
Galapagos. 

Japan,  Jinchuen. 


Korea. 
Khan. 
Dagh,  Ghazi. 


Mokpho, 

Chemulpho. 
Bethlehem. 
Kwangtung. 


Sawakin. 
Kikiiyu. 


Mikindani. 

Kwale. 

Zulu. 

Tongatabu, 
Galapagos, 
Palawau, 
Sarawak. 


Note. — ^With  reference  to  the  last  clause  of  Rule  1 : — In  this  volume  the  Dutch  names 
in  tibie  Cape  Colony  are  retained  as  written  by  the  Dutch,  but  native  names  rendered  by  the 
Dutch  or  Portuguese  after  their  own  orthographic  systems  are  given  in  accordance  with  the 
one  here  adopted.    Thus,  the  Portuguese  form  Quiloa  is  spelt  Kilica, 


GLOSSARY  OF  A  FEW  Nativb  Geographical  Terms  oooub- 
rihg  in  the  charts  and  sailing  directions,  between 
Mozambique  and  Ras  Asir. 


Name. 

Sifirnifioation. 

Chombo 

;   Jombo 

Dhow ;  very  large  dhow. 

Fungu 

- 

- 

Bank  or  sandy  reef. 

Geneza, 

Ngome 

- 

Castle. 

Bandari, 

Bundari 

- 

Harbour. 

Khari 

- 

- 

Creek. 

Khor 

- 

- 

Salt  water  inlet,  usually  tidal. 

Kilele 

- 

- 

Peak. 

Kilima 

- 

. 

Hill. 

Kisiwa 

- 

. 

Island. 

Masika 

- 

- 

Rainy  season. 

Mlango 

- 

- 

Channel. 

Mlima 

- 

. 

Mountain. 

Mto 

. 

. 

River,  inlet  or  creek. 

Mwamba 

. 

Reef  (rocky). 

Pwani 

- 

- 

Coast. 

Ras 

- 

- 

Cape  or  point. 

Names  of  different  kinds  of  Dhows  met  with. 


Bdgala 

Bed6ni 

B6tela 

Dau 

Mtepe 


Large  dhows  with  very  high  square  sterns, 
tall  poops,  and  long  projecting  prows. 

A  dhow  with  a  sharp  stem,  high  rudder-head, 
and  a  perpendicular  cutwater. 

The  common  dhow  of  Zanzibar ;  it  has  a 
square  stem,  with  a  low  poop. 

A  small  open  vessel,  sharp  at  the  stern,  with 
a  square  matting  sail. 

A  large  open  vessel,  sharp  at  the  stem,  with  a 
large  square  matting  sail ;  the  prow  is 
made  to  resemble  a  camel's  head.  These 
belong  generally  to  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lamu. 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER    I. 

Page 

General  remarks  on  the  Gape  Colony  and  Natal ;  province  of  Mozam- 
bique ;  Zanzibar  coast  and  Somali  land. — Oommunications.  Coal. 
Docks.  Winds  and  weather.  Cyclones.  Barometer.  Tempera- 
ture. Icebergs.  Climate  and  rainfall.  Currents : — ^Agulhas  and 
counter  currents  ;  Mozambique  channel  currents ;  East  African 
coast  currents.  Passages.  Outward  (eastward)  routes;  Home- 
ward (westward)  routes        -.--.-         1-39 


CHAPTER   II. 

TABLE  BAY  TO  CAPE  AGULHAS. 

Cape  peninsula.  Table  bay  ;  Bobben  island,  Cape  Town,  breakwater 
and  docks. — ^West  coast  of  Cape  peninsula.  Hout  bay.  Cape  of 
Good  Hope.  Dangers  off  Cape  point.  False  bay.  Whittle, 
Maidstone,  and  Roman  rocks.  Simons  bay.  Cape  Hangklip. 
Walker  bay.    Danger  point ;  Birkenhead  rock.    Dyer  island  -        40-71 


CHAPTER  II  £. 

CAPE  AGULHAS  TO  CAPE  RECIFE. 

Agulhas  bank.  Cape  Agulhas.  Struys  bay,  point,  and  dangers  off. 
Atlas  reef.  St.  Sebastian  bay.  Breede  river.  Kaffir  Kuyl  bay. 
Flesh  bay.  Fish  bay.  Cape  St.  Blaize.  Moasel  bay  and  town  of 
AQwal.  Knysna  harbour.  Cape  Seal.  Plettenberg  bay.  Kour- 
boom  river.  Komkromma  or  Salt  river.  Appearance  of  coast. 
Zitzikamma  river.  Slang  bay.  Seal  point.  Cape  St.  Francis. 
Krom  bay.    Chelsea  point ;  caution,  currents  -  -  72-107 


CONTENTS. 


IX 


CHAPTER   IV. 

CAPE  RECIFE  TO  CAPE  MORGAN. 

Cape  Recife.  Algoa  bay,  and  town  of  port  Elizabeth.  Bird  islands  ; 
caution.  Bird  island  passage.  General  appearance  of  the  coast ; 
directions.  Cape  Padrone.  False  islet.  Glendower  peak.  Kowie 
river  and  port  Alfrea.  Great  Fish  point  and  river  ;  current. 
Waterloo  bay.  Stalwart  point.  Madagascar  reef.  General 
directions.  Aspect  of  coast.  Keiskamma  point  and  river.  Buffalo 
river  (East  London).    Danger  point.    Cape  Henderson.    Ikuko 


Page 


108-148 


CHAPTER   V. 

CAPE  MORGAN  TO  CAPE  CORRIENTES. 

Cape  Morgan.  Kei  river ;  current.  Sandy  and  Stony  points. 
Mazeppa  point  and  bay.  Bashee  river  ;  current.  Hole  in  the 
Wall.  Rame  head.  Gordon  bay.  Port  St.  John  or  Umzimvubu 
river  ;  current.  St.  John  reef.  Waterfall  bluff.  Port  Grovenor. 
Aliwal  shoal.  Cape  and  port  Natal ;  town  of  Durban.  Tugela 
river.  Dumford  bay.  Richards  bay.  Cape  St.  Lucia  ;  bay  and 
river.  Cape  Vidal.  Sordwana  river  Cape  Colatto.  Inyack 
island.  Delagoa  bay  ;  English  river,  town  of  Lorenzo  Marques 
and  port  Melville.    Lagoa  shoal.     Limpopo  river.     Zavora  point   - 


149-196 


CHAPTER   VI. 

MOZAMBIQUE  CHANNEL.— CAPE  CORRIENTES  TO 
PORT  MOZAMBIQUE. 

Cape  Corrientes  ;  current.  Innambdn  bay,  river  and  town.  Sylvia 
shoal.  Cape  Lady  Grey  (Burra  Falsa).  Zambia  shoal.  Cape 
St.  Sebastian.  The  Bazaruto  islands  and  bay.  Chiludn  island  and 
anchorages.  Sofala  ;  town  and  bank.  Massanzani  bay.  Pungue 
river.  Zambesi  delta  ;  caution  ;  inland  navigation  ;  Shir^  river. 
Linde  or  Indian  river.  Kilimdn  river  and  towif.  Macuse  river. 
Monega  or  Tejungo  river.  Cape  FitzwiUiam.  Primeira  islands 
and  shoals.  Moma  river.  Angoche  islands  and  river.  Antonio 
river  and  bank.  Moginkwale  point  and  river.  Muit^  (Inf  usse) 
river.    Bajone  and  Nakibu  shoals.    Mokambo  bay  and  port  -    197-235 


CHAPTER   VIL 

PORT  MOZAMBIQUE  TO  CAPE  DELGADO. 

Mozambique  harbour  ;  Pa6  and  Table  mountains  ;  currents.  Cape 
Cabe9eira.  Conduciabay,  cape,  and  port.  Port  Yelhaco.  Kisima- 
Julu  harbour.     Fernando  Yeloso  bay  ;    port  Nakala.     Belmore 

S.O.  10625 


CONTENTS. 


Page 


harbour.  Memba  bay.  Al:Qaeida  bay.  Lurio  bay.  Pomba  bay. 
Arimba  head.  Kerimba  islands.  Ibo  island,  harbour  and  town. 
Mahato  island.  Ras  Pekawi.  Mdjumbi,  Kero  Nyuni,  Namego  and 
Tambuzi  passes.  Mazimbwa  bay.  Suna  pass.  Nyuni  pass.  Eas 
Msangi.  Kif uki  and  Mtundo  islands.  Mtundo  and  Wamizi  passes.  ^ 
Maiyapa  bay  ;  port  Mluri.    Tunghi  bay.    Winds.     Current  -     236-275 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

CAPE  DELGADO  TO  RAS  KIMBIJI,  APPROACH  TO  ZANZIBAR 
CHANNEL,  INCLUDING  MAFIA  ISLAND. 

Cape  Delgado.  Keonga  bay.  Rovtima  bay  and  river ;  inland 
navigation .  Mnazi  bay.  Mikindani  bay.  Mto  Mtwara.  Mikin- 
dani  harbour.  Mgau  Mwania.  Lindi  bay  and  river.  Mchinga 
bay  (port  Nungwa).  Kiswere  bay  and  harbour.  Songa  Manara 
island.  Sangarungu  harbour ;  port  Pactolus.  Kilwa  Kisiwa. 
Kilwa  Kisiwani  harbour.  Mwamba  Rukyira.  Rukyira  bay,  bar. 
Kilwa  Kivinje  ;  main  pass.  Songo  Songa  island,  and  other  off- 
lying  islands  and  reefs.  Rufiji  delta  ;  inland  navigation.  Mafia 
island  and  channel.  Current.  Winds.  Directions  for  Mafia 
channel  and  to  Kilwa  Kivinje  -----     276-329 


CHAPTER    IX. 

RAS  KIMBIJI  TO  PANGANI  BAY,  INCLUDING  ZANZIBAR 
ISLAND  AND  CHANNEL. 

Latham  island  and  bank.  Tides  and  currents.  Kas  Kimbiji.  Sinda 
islands.  Mboamaji  harbour.  Dar-es-Salaam  bay ;  harbour  and 
town.  Msasani  bay.  Mbudya  island  and  patches.  Konduchi 
harbour :  reefs  northward  of.  Bagamoyo.  Kingani  river.  Mto 
Wami.  Saadani ;  reefs.  Maziwi  island.  Pangani  bay  and  river. 
Zanzibar  island  ;  trade  ;  climate,  &c.  ;  tides  and  currents  ;  general 
directions  ;  Ras  Kizimkazi ;  Menai  bay  ;  off-lying  islands,  and  reefs 
in  southern  approach  to  Zanzibar  town  ;  southern  pass  ;  town  ; 
western  pass  ;  northern  approaches,  English  pass  ;  Ras  Nungwe  ; 
Kokotoni  harbour  ;  directions.  East  coast  of  Zanzibar  island ; 
Cnuaka  bay    -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -    330-387 


CHAPTER  X.     • 

PEMBA  ISLAND,  AND  ADJACENT  COAST,  BETWEEN  PANGANI 
BAY  AND  THE  EQUATOR. 

Pemba  island  ;  general  remarks.  West  coast — Chaki  Chaki  bay ; 
port  Cockbum  ;  port  George ;  Kishi  Kashi  port ;  port  Kiuyu  : 
North  coast,  Msuka  bay :  East  coast :  Tides  and  currents  in  Pemba 
channel ;  directions.    Mainland  : — Tanga  bay,  town.    North  Head 


CONTBNTB.  XI 

Page 

reefs.  TJmba  rivAr.  Wasin  island  and  harbour.  Pongwe  and 
Ohala  bays.  Mombaza  island  and  port.  Ports  Tador,  Kilindini, 
and  Beitz.  Kilifi  river.  Melinda  road.  '  Melinda.  Formosa  bay  ; 
Ozy  point  and  river.  Lama  bay  and  harbour.  Manda  bay  and 
island.  Patta  island.  Manda  road.  Patta  bay.  Kwyhn  bay. 
Juba  or  Dundas  islands.  Port  Dumford.  Port  Tula.  Kisimayu 
or  Bef  age  bay.    Juba  river  ------    388-441 

•     CHAPTER   XI. 

THE  EQUATOR  TO  BAS  ASTR  (CAPE  GUARD AFUI). 

Brava.  Meurka  or  Marka.  Misigadoxa.  Current.  Warsheik  bank, 
roadstead  and  village.  Temate  and  Daphne  shoals.  Bas  Aflwad. 
Bas  Awath.  Obiat.  Bas-al-Khyle.  Wadi  Nogal.  Bas  Mabber. 
Bas  Haf tin.  Haftin  south  and  north  bays.  Khor  Hurdia.  Bas 
All  Bash  Kil.  Bas  Jard  HAftin.  Bas  Asir  (cape  Guardafui). 
Current  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -     442-469 


CHAPTER  XII. 

ISLANDS  AND  DANGERS  IN  THE  MAIN  ROUTE  THROUGH   THE 
MOZAMBIQUE  CHANNEL. 

Europa  island.  Bassas  da  India.  Pilot  shoal.  Juan  de  Nova  island. 
St.  Lazarus  bank.  The  Comoro  islands  ;  winds,  current,  climate. 
Yailheu  shoal.  Comoro  island  ;  Maroni  bay  ;  Itzanda  bay.  Mohilla 
island ;  Fumboni  bay  ;  Numa  Choa  harbour  ;  Miremani  bay. 
Johanna  island ;  climate ;  Johanna  town,  anchorage,  winds  ; 
Pomony  harbour  ;  Demony.  Mayotta  island  ;  climate ;  out-lying 
reefs ;  Zamburu,  Duamuni,  Western,  Saziley,  and  Bandeli  • 
passages  ;  Pamanzi  island  and  bay  ;  Zaudzi,  military  establishment, 
anchorages      --------    460-491 


List  of  Sailing  Directions  published  by  the  Hydrographic  Department 

of  the  Admiralty,  April  1889        -----  523-528 

List  of  Admiralty  Agents  for  the  sale  of  Charts  in  the  United  Kingdom  529 

»            »            V            M            ,»               abroad                         -  530 


nr    TBI8    VrOMM,   TBB   BSARXWaS   abb   A&&   BKAaBBXIC 
BBCBVT    -WUmMM    BKABBBB    A8    TBVB. 


BISTAMTCBB    ABB    BBVBB8SBB    IB   8BA   MIXiBB    OF 
60    TO    A    BBOBBB    OT    XiATITUBB. 


A  CABlbB'S    IbBBraXB    ZS    A8SVMBB     TO     BB    BQVAlb     TO 
lOO    rATBOMB. 

TBB   SOUBBZBraS  ABB   BBBTTCBB    TO   JmCW  "VATBB  OF 
OBBZBTABT    SVBZWa    TZBB8. 


THE    AFEICA    PILOT. 


PART  III. 


CHAPTER    I. 


GENERAL  REMARKS  ON  THE  SOUTH  AND  EAST  COASTS  OF  AFRIOA.- 
COMMUNICATIONS.—  COAL.—  DOCKS.—  WINDS  AND  WEATHER.- 
CYCLONES.— BAROMETER.— TEMPERATURE.— ICEBERGS.— CLIMATE.- 
OURRENTS.— PASSAGES. 


For  later  information  respectin.ii'  the  lights  whic;h  ai-e 
<  [escribed  in  this  work,  seamen  should  ^  consult  tlie 
Admiralty  F.ist  of  Lights  in  South  Africa,  East  Indies,  &(\ 
This  Light  List  is  published  early  in  the  current  year, 
corrected  to  the  preceding  I^l'st  December. 


of  Natal ;  its  area  is  about  225,000  square  miles. 

The  country  directly  south  of  the  Orange  river  consists  of  a 
series  of  terraces  divided  by  mountain  ranges  varying  in  height  from 
4,000  to  8,000  feet,  and  rising  gradually  from  south  to  north  as  far  as 
the  parallel  of  32^  S.,  whence  it  gradually  declines  in  a  series  of  open 
Bterile  plains  to  the  river  itself  ;  the  culminating  point  is  the  Spitz- 
koss  or  Compass  Berg,  8,500  feet  above  the  sea  level ;  the  passages 

S.O.  10626.— 2000.— 8/S8.    Wt.  24141.     D.  &  S. 


2  THB  CAPE  COLONY.  [Chap.  I. 

from  one  plateau  to  another  are  by  well  made  passes  through  the 
narrow  and  difiBctilt  gorges  or  Kloofs.  One  of  these  plateaus  is 
known  as  the  great  Karroo,  300  miles  in  length,  east  and  west,  with 
a  breadth  of  70  miles.  Where  streams  exist  the  wondrous  fertility 
of  this  plain  is  apparent,  as  also  it  is  immediately  after  thunder- 
storms, when  the  whole  area  is  covered  by  a  profuse  and  varied  vege- 
tation. The  rivers,  though  numerous,  are  practically  useless  either  for 
navigation  or  irrigation  ;  most  of  them  flow  in  deep  and  precipitous 
ravines,  and  except  when  swollen  by  the  rains  are  mere  shallow 
torrents  ;  even  the  largest  of  them  have  bars  at  their  mouths,  which 
render  in  most  cases  entrance  to  them  both  difficult  and  dangerous ; 
but  much  has  been  done  in  recent  years  to  render  some  of  the  bars 
navigable. 

The  cape  of  Good  Hope  was  discovered  in  1486,  by  Bartholomew 
Diaz,  who  named  it  Cabo  Tormentoso,  or  Stormy  cape ;  but  King 
John  II.  of  Portugal,  convinced  of  its  being  the  turning  point  of  the 
long-desired  route  to  India,  gave  the  name  of  Boa  Esperan9a,  or 
cape  of  Good  Hope  ;  his  convictions  were  confirmed  eleven  years 
after,  by  Vasco  de  Gama,  who  then  rounded  the  cape.  In  1620,  two 
English  East  India  commanders,  by  a  proclamation  dated  from 
Saldanha  bay,  took  possession  of  the  cape  in  the  name  of  Great 
Britain ;  but  no  settlement  was  formed. 

In  the  year  1652  the  territory  was  colonized  by  the  Dutch  East 
India  company,  under  Van  Riebeck,  and  continued  in  their  possession 
until  1795,  when  the  British  government  took  possession,  but  at  the 
peace  of  Amiens  in  1802,  the  colony  was  ceded  to  its  former 
possessors.  In  1806  it  was  again  taken  by  the  English  ;  confirmed  at 
the  general  peace  in  1815,  and  has  since  continued  a  British  colony. 

Cape  Town,  the  capital  of  the  colony,  and  the  seat  of  government 
stands  on  the  western  shore  of  Table  bay,  between  it  and  the  foot  of 
Table  mountain,  and  is  well  laid  out,  with  numerous  public  buildings 
schools,  hospitals,  churches,  and  several  good  squares ;  it  has  a 
population  of  40,000.  Cape  Town  is  connected  with  the  principal 
places  in  the  colony  by  railway. 

The  Population  of  the  Cape  Colony,  in  1881,  was  estimated 
to  be  811,450  ;  and  with  its  dependencies  to  nearly  1,400,000.  This 
includes  290,000  Europeans  or  whites,  11,000  Malays,  99,000  Hotten- 
tots,  86,500  Fingoes,  121,000  Griquas,  and  792,000  Kafirs  and 
Bechuanas ;  about  five  or  six  individuals  to  each  square  mile  of 
territory.  In  1885  the  total,  including  probably  the  recently  annexed 
territory,  was  1,663,000. 


Chap.  I.]  QBNBRAL  RBMABK8.  3 

Products. — Oenerally  Bpeaking,  the  eastern  and  southern  por- 
tions of  Cape  Colony  receive  an  abundant  water  supply,  are  well 
wooded  and  extremely  fertile. 

The  colonists  are  chiefly  employed  in  the  production  of  wool  and 
wine  ;  in  the  rearing  of  horses,  cattle,  sheep,  and  ostriches,  and  the 
culture  of  wheat,  barley,  oats,  and  maize.  The  waters  around  the 
coast  abound  in  fish.  The  colony  is  rich  in  minerals,  principally 
coal,  copper,  diamonds  and  manganese.  The  present  annual  produce 
of  coal  is  about  25,000  tons  ;  diamonds  are  the  most  valuable  of  the 
exports,  chiefly  found  in  the  district  of  Kimberley,  of  which  the 
declared  value  in  1886  was  £3,504,756 ;  the  value  of  wool  is  about 
one  half  that  of  the  diamonds. 

Total  exports  of  the  colony  in  1886  amounted  to  £7,125,356. 
Total  imports  „  „  „  £3,799,261. 

The  external  trade  is  considerable,  and  chiefly  carried  on  in  British 
and  colonial  vessels,  as  is  shown  by  the  tonnage  for  the  year  1886. 
Inwards— British  and  Colonial,  2,636,852  ;  foreign,  85,893.  Outwards 
British  and  Colonial,  2,641,967  ;  foreign,  82,415. 

Ports  in  Gape  Colony. — The  Cape  Colony  is  destitute  of 
natural  harbours  or  sheltered  anchorages  for  large  vessels,  with  the 
exception  of  Saldanha  bay  on  the  west  coast,  and  Simons  bay,  and 
to  supply  this  deficiency  large  sums  of  money,  amounting  in  the 
aggregate  to  over  two  millions,  have  been  spent  in  executing 
protective  works  ;  the  breakwater  and  docks  at  Cape  Town  being  the 
most,  important.  Being  exposed  to  the  swell  of  the  Southern  Ocean, 
the  sea  breaks  heavily  on  the  whole  of  the  iron-bound  coast  of  the 
Cape  Colony,  particularly  during  on-shore  winds,  and  a  vessel 
touching  on  any  part  of  it  has  not  the  slightest  chance  of  escaping 
destruction.  Landing,  consequently,  is  dif&cult,  and  at  times  danger- 
ous, even  from  the  anchorages. 

The  principal  ports  and  anchorages  are  :  Table  bay  anchorage  and 
docks,  affording  limited  accommodation  for  vessels  up  to  24  feet 
draught ;  Simons  i>ay,  the  naval  establishment,  with  shelter  for  all 
classes  of  vessels  ;  and  port  Elizabeth  which  is  said  to  be  secure  at  all 
times,  if  provided  with  good  ground  tackle,  but  the  south-east 
summer  gales  are  dangerous  ;  other  seaports  and  anchorages  are  : — 
Mossel  bay ;  Knysna ;  Plettenberg  bay  ;  port  Alfred ;  East  London ; 
and  St.  John  river ;  several  of  these  are  situated  in  the  mouths  of 
rivers  with  shallow  bars  across  the  entrances,  and  are  not  available 
during  stormy  weather  as  the  bars  then  usually  break.  Vessels  at 
anchor  in  the  roads  off  these  places  have  sometimes  to  proceed  to  sea 
on  the  approach  of  a  gale  ;  information  is  usually  given  from  the  Port 

8.0.  10625.  A  2 


4  NATAL— MOZAMBIQUB.  [CUap.  I. 

Office,  which  receives  a  weather  report  daily  from  Cape  Town. 
See  page  13.  During  the  heavy  westerly  gales  of  winter,  secure 
anchorage  will  be  found  in  Mossel,  Plettenberg,  and  Algoa  bays, 
by  vessels  working  westward  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 
Fuller  information  is  given  with  the  description  of  each  port. 

NATAL. — The  Colony  of  Natal  derives  its  name  from  the  fact  of 
its  discovery  by  the  celebrated  Portuguese  navigator,  Vasco  de  Oama, 
on  Christmas  Day,  1497.  In  1837,  the  Governor  of  the  Cape  took 
military  possession  of  the  district,  and  in  1843  the  district  of  Natal 
was  proclaimed  a  British  Colony.  In  1856  it  was  erected  into  a 
distinct  and  separate  colony,  free  from  the  control  of  the  Governor  of 
the  Cape.  It  comprises  an  area  of  about  19,000  square  miles.  The 
scenery  in  Natal  is  in  many  parts  picturesque  in  the  extreme  ;  it  is  well 
watered,  no  less  than  23  distinct  rivers  running  through  it,  but  none 
are  navigable.  Like  the  Cape  Colony,  landing  is  extremely  difficult, 
and  dangerous  at  times,  on  the  coast  of  Natal,  and  as  far  north-east- 
ward as  Delagoa  bay.  It  has  only  one  harbour,  Durban  or  Port 
Natal,  which  is  completely  landlocked,  but  the  bar  prevents  vessels 
above  15  to  16  feet  draught  from  entering,  even  under  favourable 
circumstances,  but  extensive  works  are  in  progress  for  deepening  the 
bar  and  harbour,  which  in  course  of  time  it  is  hoped  will  render  it 
available  for  large  ocean-going  vessels.  Pietermaritzbui^,  the  capital 
and  seat  of  government,  with  a  population,  14,429,  is  situated  about 
50  miles  inland  from  Port  Natal,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  a 
railway  70  miles  in  length.  The  population  of  the  colony,  1884, 
was  estimated  at  424,495;  consisting  of  Europeans,  35,453;  Zulu- 
Kafirs,  361,766  ;  Indian  coolies,  27,276. 

Products. — The  coast  region,  extending  about  15  miles  inland, 
is  highly  fertile,  and  has  a  climate  almost  tropical,  though  perfectly 
healthy.  Sugar,  coffee,  indigo,  arrowroot,  ginger,  tobacco,  rice, 
pepper  and  cotton  thrive  amazingly;  the  midland  district  is  more 
adapted  for  cereals  and  other  European  crops,  while  the  upper 
district  is  chiefly  grazing  land,  and  sheep  farming  is  the  principal 
occupation  of  the  inhabitants.  Horses  and  cattle  are  also  reared  in 
large  numbers.  The  chief  mineral  products  are  coal  and  lime.  The 
railway  from  Ladysmith  to  the  coal  mines,  18  miles  in  length,  is 
completed,  thus  bringing  them  in  connection  with  Port  Natal. 
Large  forests  of  valuable  timber  abound  in  the  kloofs  of  the  mountain 
ranges,  and  many  tracts  of  the  coast  are  also  well  wooded. 

Exports. — The  chief  exports  are  wool,  sugar,  ivory,  hides,  maize, 
angora  hair,  and  ostrich  feathers,  and  the  total  value  for  the  year  1886 


Chap.  I.]  6BNBRAL  RBMARKS.  5 

amounted  to  £960,000,  about  one  half  of  which  was  for  wool  alone. 
Imports :— £1,330,000. 

MOZAMBIQUE. — The  province  of  Mozambique  is  a  strip  of  the 
coast  lying  between  Delagoa  bay,  northward  to  near  cape  Delgado,  a 
distance  of  about  1,400  miles.  Though  the  Portuguese  claim  this 
territory,  a  few  isolated  points  only  are  occupied  by  them.  The 
province  is  divided  into  nine  districts,  viz  : — Delagoa  bay,  Innamban, 
Sofala,  Tete  and  Sena  on  the  Zambesi,  Kiliman,  Angoche,  Mozambique 
and  cape  Delgado  or  Kwerimba,  the  latter  includes  the  Kwerimba 
islands,  28  in  number,  of  which  4  only  are  inhabited,  Ibo  being  the 
principal. 

The  Portuguese  arrived  in  these  parts  in  1497,  and  took  possession 
of  the  coast,  which  was  famed  for  its  gold,  from  the  Arabs.  In  1508 
they  built  a  fort  at  Mozambique  port,  and  the  town  which  grew  up 
around  it  was  made  the  capital  of  the  province  in  1813.  The 
governor  of  Mozambique  is  the  supreme  authority,  assisted  by  a 
council  and  a  small  military  force,  chiefly  composed  of  Portuguese 
convicts.  The  number  of  whites,  Arabs,  and  Banyans  at  the  several 
stations  is  inconsiderable. 

The  Zambesi  and  Limpopo  are  the  principal  rivers,  of  which  a  full 
account  will  be  found  in  the  description  of  the  coast. 

Products. — Considerable  portions  of  the  coast  are  cultivated  and 
yield  abundant  rice  harvests,  the  forests  yield  timber,  and  the 
elephants  and  hippopotami  furnish  the  ivory  of  the  coast  trade. 
There  are  gold  washings  in  some  districts.  Sofala,  from  its  richness 
in  gold,  has  been  supposed  by  some  to  be  the  golden  Ophir  to  which 
King  Solomon  sent  his  ships  once  in  three  years.  From  the  gold 
fields  of  Manica,  about  130  miles  westward  of  Sofala,  Livingstone  is 
reported  to  have  seen  gold  as  large  as  grains  of  wheat. 

Exports. — The  principal  exports  are  ground  nuts,  india-rubber, 
beeswax,  ivory,  and  an  inferior  kind  of  gum-copal. 

Harbours. — ^The  principal  trading  ports,  beginning  from  the 
southward,  are  : — ^Delagoa  bay,  Innamban,  Chiluan,  Kongoni  mouth 
of  the  Zambesi,  Kiliman,  Angoche,  Mozambique,  and  Ibo.  Delagoa 
bay,  with  its  fine  harbour,  will  probably,  when  the  railway  now 
opened  to  the  Transvaal  boundary  is  extended  into  that  country, 
become  a  port  of  considerable  importance. 

Landingr,  like  in  the  Cape  Colony  and  Natal,  is  difficult  and 
dangerous  on  the  coast  of  the  southern  part  of  the  province  of 
Mozambique,  and  in  many  places  impracticable,  but  farther  northward 
the  coast  is  more  broken  up  into  bays,  and  fronted  in  places  by 
islands  or  reefs,  which  afford  protection  to  leeward  of  them. 


{]  ZANZIBABr— SOMALI  LAND.  [Chap.  I. 

.  ZANZIBAR  OOAST.— From  the  neighbourhood  of  cape 
Delgado,  to  Kipini  village  in  Formosa  bay  (lat.  2''  35'  S.),  for  a 
distance  of  about  10  miles  inland  the  coast  is  under  the 
sovereignty  of  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar.  The  important  islands  of 
Zanzibar,  Mafia,  and  Pemba,  the  islands  of  Lamu,  Manda  and  Patta, 
and  the  ports  of  Kisimayu,  Brava,  Muerka,  Magadoxa,  and  Warsheikh 
in  Somali  land,  near  the  equator,  also  form  part  of  his  territories. 
The  country  westward  of  the  Zanzibar  coast,  from  Rovuma  river,  near 
cape  Delgado,  as  far  north  as  lat.  4°  30'  S.,  is  under  German  influence ; 
thence  northward  to  Tana  river  in  Formosa  bay,  and  extending 
northwestward  to  Victoria  Nyanza  lake  is  under  British  influence.* 
Northward  of  the  Tana  river  is  Somali  country. 

The  principal  places  on  the  Zanzibar  coast  are,  from  the  southward, 
Kilwa  Kisi-W^ani,  Kilwa  Kivinje,  Dar-es-Salaam,  Bagamoyo,  Pangani, 
Mombasa,  Lamu,  and  Magadoxa.  Unguja  or  Zanzibar,  the  capital,  on 
Zanzibar  island,  is  the  principal  town,  and  the  only  port  regularly 
visited  by  ocean-going  steamers.  Bagamoyo,  on  the  mainland 
opposite  Zanzibar,  is  the  chief  point  of  departure  and  arrival  of  the 
caravans  which  pass  inland  to  Unyanyembe  and  the  lake  regions  by 
one  or  other  of  several  parallel  routes,  and  carries  on  a  brisk  ivory 
trade. 

The  Rovuma,  Rufiji,  Ruvu  or  Kingani,  Pangani,  Tana,  and  the  Juba 
are  the  principal  rivers  on  this  coast,  but  are  scarcely  navigable  by 
anything  larger  than  a  steam  launch. 

Products. — Most  of  the  produce  of  the  mainland  is  brought  to 
Zanzibar  town  in  dhows  for  re-shipment.  The  whole  country  is 
capable  of  producing  an  unlimited  quantity  of  cloves,  sugar,  coffee, 
nutmegs,  cinnamon,  pepper,  sesame,  indigo,  cotton,  coco-nuts,  and 
copal  gum,  and  the  ivory  trade  remains  an  important  branch  of 
traffic.  The  principal  district  for  gum-copal  is  inland  from  Dar-es- 
Salaam.  Almost  the  whole  of  the  coast  trade  is  in  the  hands  of 
Banyans,  but  there  are  several  European  establishments  at  Zanzibar. 

Harbours. — The  Zanzibar  coast  has  numerous  harbours  and 
anchorages,  many  of  which  may  be  entered  by  large  vessels. 
Zanzibar,  as  before  stated,  is  the  principal.  Kilwa  Kisiwani  and 
Kivinji  in  the  south,  and  Mombasa,  Lamu,  and  Kisimayu  in  the  north,, 
are  perhaps  next  in  importance. 

Landingr  ^^^J  generally  be  effected  from  most  of  the  anchorages, 
but  at  certain  points  of  the  coast  exposed  to  the  ocean,  landing  is  at 
times  difficult.    Northward  of  Pemba,  with  on-shore  winds,  it  is  at 

*  These  boundaries  are  not  absolnte,  but  are  merely  griven  to  afford  the  mariner 
some  knowledge  of  the  various  claims  to  the  country. 


Chap,  I.]  GBNBRAL  RBMARKB.  7 

times  dangerous.    In  many  places  the  coast  is  fronted  by  islands  and 
detached  reefs,  which  afford  smooth  water  to  leeward  of  them. 

SOMALI  LAND  is  in  the  form  of  a  triangle,  with  its  apex  at 
Ras  Asir.  Its  western  boundary  begins  at  the  head  of  the  gulf  of 
Tajiira,  in  the  gulf  of  Aden,  passes  eastward  of  Harar,  follows  the 
Haines  river  for  some  distance,  and  then  crosses  over  to  the  Juba, 
which  anciently  formed  the  limit  down  to  the  coast.  Within  the 
last  twenty-five  years,  however,  the  Somalis  have  crossed  that  river, 
driving  the  Grallas  before  them,  and  are  at  the  present  time  the  masters 
as  far  as  the  Tana  river,  in  Formosa  bay  ;  on  the  coast  various  tribes 
of  negroes  are  in  possession  (see  foot  note,  p.  6).  As  before  stated, 
the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar  has  most  of  the  sea  ports  as  far  as  Warsheik, 
which  is  450  miles  northward  of  the  Tana.  Northward  of  Ras-al- 
Khyle,  the  numerous  clans  of  the  Mijjertheyn  Somalis  occupy  the 
coast  as  far  as  Bander  Zaida,  in  the  gulf  of  Aden. 

As  far  as  is  known,  the  whole  of  the  Somali  country  has  a  gradual 
slope  from  the  heights  which  border  the  gulf  of  Aden,  south-eastward 
towards  the  Indian  ocean.  With  the  exception  of  the  Juba,  there 
appears  to  be  but  one  permanently  flowing  stream,  namely  the  Haines 
or  Doho,  locally  known  as  the  Wobbi  (meaning  river).  Some  of  its 
tributaries  flow  past  Harar,  others  from  the  more  eastern  mountain 
range,  the  highlands  of  Gurage.  This  river  flows  through  the  Ogaden 
country,  a  famous  pastoral  region,  where  the  Somali  have  large  herds 
of  camels,  ponies,  cows,  and  sheep,  and  where  gazelles  and  antelopes 
roam  about  in  vast  herds.  Numerous  agricultural  settlements  extend 
along  this  river.  Near  Magadoxa  the  river  approaches  the  coast, 
and,  running  parallel  with  it,  terminates  inland  of  Brava  in  a 
marsh,  which,  after  rain,  expands  into  a  considerable  lake.  The 
Haines  river  has  a  rapid  current  at  times,  but  to  a  steam  launch 
(which  would  have  to  be  taken  there  in  sections)  its  navigation 
appears  to  present  no  difficulty  as  high  up  as  the  town  of  Imi. 

The  Juba  has  been  traced  as  a  navigable  stream  as  far  as  Bardera, 
about  120  miles  in  a  direct  line  from  the  coast,  but  it  undoubtedly 
rises  far  inland. 

The  coast  from  the  equator  nearly  to  Ras  Aswad  is  principally 
composed  of  low  hills,  some  covered  with  stunted  bushes,  but  becoming 
bare  to  the  northward  ;  with  the  exception  of  the  high  land  between 
Ras  Aswad  and  Ras  Awath,  the  coast  is  low,  rocky,  and  sterile,  with 
sand  hills  in  places,  as  far  as  Ras  Hafiin  ;  very  little  is  known  of  it. 

.  PrOdUQts. — ^Hides,  orchilla  weed  and  oil  seeds,  with  a  little  ivory 
and  some  ostrich  feathers  from  the  interior,  are  the  principal  pro- 


8  AFRICA— SOUTH  AND  BAST  COASTS.  [Chap.  I. 

ducts ;   these  are  exchanged  for  sugar,  dates,  salt  fish,  and  arms, 
brought  by  the  dhows  in  the  north-east  monsoon  period  from  Arabia. 

Harbours. — This  eastern  coast  of  Somali  land  possesses  no 
arbours  of  any  importance  ;  the  anchorages  at  Magadoxa  and  Brava 
afford  protection  within  the  reefs  fpr  dhows  only  ;  these,  moreover, 
are  Zanzibar  territory.  Kisimayu  or  Refuge  bay,  also  Zanzibar 
territory,  in  lat.  0°  23'  S.,  is  the  most  northern  harbour  for  large 
vessels  on  this  coast.  There  is  thus  a  stretch  of  sterile  coast 
800  miles  in  length  without  shelter,  as  far  north  as  Ras  Hafiin 
peninsula,  under  which  there  is  shelter  on  either  side,  depending 
on  the  prevailing  monsoon. 

OOMMUNIOATION.— There  are  about  1,650  miles  of  railway 
open  in  the  Cape  Colony,  extending  eastward  from  Cape  Town 
to  the  Kimberley  gold  mines,  with  branches  to  port  Elizabeth,  port 
Alfred,  and  East  London  ;  the  latter  is  also  in  connection  with 
Aliwal  North.  The  colony  of  Natal  is  not  in  connection  with  this 
railway  system,  but  from  port  Natal  a  line  runs  through  Pieter- 
maritzberg,  the  capital,  to  Ladysmith,  and  to  the  coal  mines  beyond. 

Telegraph.. — The  principal  towns  in  Cape  Colony,  Natal,  and  the 
Transvaal  are  connected  by  the  electric  telegraph  ;  Cape  Agulhas 
and  St.  Francis  lighthouses  are  also  in  connection  with  the  system. 

Submarine  Oables.  —  From  Natal  a  submarine  telegraph 
cable  is  laid  to  Aden,  via  Delagoa  bay,  Mozambique  and  Zanzibar. 
Submarine  telegraph  communication  has  recently  been  completed 
between  the  Cape  and  St.  Paul  de  Loanda,  via  port  NoUoth,  Mossa- 
m6des,  and  Benguela.  Loanda  is  in  connection  with  Europe,  via  the 
Gold  Coast  ports. 

Mails. — ^There  is  weekly  mail  communication  between  England, 
Cape  Town,  the  principal  seaports  of  the  Cape  Colony  and  Natal ;  the 
passage  from  England  to  the  Cape  occupying  from  18  to  20  days;  also 
constant  communication  between  the  ports  of  Cape  Colony. 

There  is  also  monthly  mail  communication  between  the  Cape  Colony 
and  Delagoa  bay,  Innamban,  Chiluan,  Kiliman,  Mozambique,  Ibo,  and 
Zanzibar,  from  whence  there  is  a  mail  steamer  to  Aden,  &c.  The 
steamer  returning  to  the  Cape  from  Zanzibar  calls  at  the  same  ports. 

The  Messageries  Maritime  (French)  line  of  steamers  to  Reunion, 
Madagascar,  &c.,  call  at  Zanzibar  and  Mayotta  monthly. 

COAL  may  be  obtained  at  the  following  places  in  South  and  East 
Africa  : — Cape  Town  ;  Simons  Town  ;  Mossel  bay,  small  quantity  ; 
Port.Elizabeth ;  Port  Alfred,  possibly  a  small  quantity ;  East  London, 


Chap.  I.]  COMMUNICATION— COAL— DOCKS.  9 

Natal,    Delagoa  bay,  small  quantity;   Mozambique  and    Zanzibar. 
Details  of  coaling  are  given  with  the  description  of  the  ports. 

DOOK  ACCOMMODATION.— Cape  Town  is  the  only  place 
included  in  this  work  provided  with  a  dock  suitable  for  large  vessels. 

This  dock  has  a  depth  of  26  feet  on  the  sill  at  high  water  ordinary 
springs.  There  is  also  a  patent  slip  capable  of  taking  vessels  of  1,000 
burthen.  The  patent  slip  at  Simons  Town  will  take  up  vessels  of 
1,000  tons,  lightened  to  14  feet.  The  patent  slip  at  Natal  will  take 
up  vessels  of  500  tons  burthen.    For  details,  see  the  ports  referred  to. 

PILOTS. — The  statement  in  certain  places  in  this  vork  that  the 
employment  of  pilots  is  compulsory,  does  not  apply  to  H.M.  ships  of 
war* 

WINDS  AND  WEATHER. 

OFF  THE  CAPE  COLONY.^— General  remarks.— The 
district  under  discussion  lies  between  lat.  30°  to  50*^  S.,  long.  10*^  to 
40°  E.  Near  the  coast  of  Cape  Colony,  easterly  and  westerly  winds 
alternate.  In  summer,  easterly  winds  prevail ;  and  in  winter, 
westerly  winds.  Southerly  winds  (south-west  to  south-east)  prevail 
throughout  the  year  in  the  north-western  part  of  the  district  (north- 
west of  the  Cape),  but  they  extend  further  south  in  summer  than 
in  winter. 

North  and  north-east  winds  prevail  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
district  (off,  and  southward  of  Natal) ;  but  at  Natal  the  north-east 
and  south-west  winds  appear  to  be  equally  divided.  The  prevailing 
winds  at  the  different  ports  are  mentioned  with  the  description  of 
the  ports. 

Sumxner  xnontlis. — From  October  to  April,  the  summer  months, 
the  prevailing  winds  are  south-easterly,  which  occasionally  rise  to 
gales  and  last  for  three  days,  and  at  times  for  a  longer  period,  being 
followed  by  calms  and  light  westerly  winds.  These  winds  follow 
the  trend  of  the  whole  coast  of  South  Africa,  being  nearly  from  East 
between  Natal  and  Algoa  bay  ;  south-east  from  Algoa  bay  to  cape 
Agulhas,  and  from  S.S.E.  into  False  bay.  In  strength,  the  south-easters 
are  singularly  local  at  times  ;  for  instance,  being  light  at  cape 
Hanglip  and  Danger  point  to  the  south-eastward,  when  it  may  be 
blowing  a  heavy  gale  from  the  same  quarter  in  Simons  and  Table  bays. 

Westerly  winds  and  heavy  westerly  gales  are  nevertheless  not 

*  See  Admiralty  Wind  and  Current  Atlas ;  for  more  detailed  information,  see  the 
Meteorological  charts  of  the  ocean  district  adjacent  to  the  cape  of  Good  Hope,  by 
Captoixi  Toynbee,  F.B.A.S. 


10  OFF  THE  OAPB  COLONY.  [Chap.  I. 

unf  requent  in  this  season  ;  the  best  chance  of  ayoiding  them  is  to 
keep  well  in  with  the  land  ;  there  is  also  considerably  less  sea  over 
the  Agulhas  bank  than  there  is  southward  of  it. 

Winter  montllS. — Prom  April  to  October  westerly  winds  prevail, 
and  gales  are  especially  severe  and  frequent  south-eastward  of  the 
Agulhas  bank  in  the  months  of  June  and  July.  In  May,  August,  and 
September,  between  the  coast  and  lat.  37°  S.,  the  east  and  west  winds 
are  about  equally  divided ;  easterly  winds  occasionally  occur  in  the 
other  winter  months. 

The  Roaring  Forties. — It  was  formerly  thought  that  between 
40°  and  50°  South  latitude,  the  wind  was  continually  blowing  from 
the  westward.  Modern  investigation  has  shown  that  the  winds  here 
are  cyclonic  in  their  character,  and  that  as  the  central  depression  is 
generally  to  the  southward  of  45°  S.,  of  large  area,  and  has  a  pro- 
gressive movement  to  the  eastward,  the  winds  blowing  in  the  northern 
semicircle  are  mostly  from  the  northern  quarter,  and  commencing  at 
about  North  will  back  to  the  north-west  freshening  as  it  does  so,  and 
frequently  shifting  more  or  less  suddenly  to  the  south-west  where 
the  strongest  blow  will  be,  with  a  rising  barometer.  A  vessel  steering 
eastwards,  will  therefore,  hold  the  fair  wind  for  a  longer  or  shorter 
time,  dependent  on  her  own  speed,  and  the  velocity  of  the  transla- 
tion of  the  system,  and  when  the  latter  is  moderate,  may  carry  the 
westerly  winds  with  her  for  days. 

From  what  has  been  said  of  the  usual  high  latitude  of  the  lowest 
barometer,  it  will  be  seen  that  though  a  vessel  may  have  less  wind 
about  the  parallel  of  40°  S.,  she  will  probably  have  a  greater  pro- 
portion of  westerly  wind  than  if  she  went  further  south,  and  that 
generally  speaking  the  sea  will  not  be  so  heavy.  Hence  this  parallel 
is  recommended  as  the  best  for  making  easting  when  proceeding 
from  the  Cape  either  to  Mauritius,  India,  China,  or  Australia.  From 
the  shortening  of  the  distance  effected  by  following  an  approximation 
to  the  Great  Circle  track  to  Australia,  vessels  sometimes  make  quicker 
passages,  but  it  is  frequently  at  the  expense  of  much  straining  and 
anxiety. 

Should  the  area  of- lowest  barometer  of  any  system  be  further 
north  than  usual,  the  system  of  wind  above  sketched  will  not  be 
followed,  and  the  wind  will  veer  instead  of  backing,  and  a  hard 
easterly  or  south-easterly  gale  will  follow. 

GALES. — ^The  severity  of  the  gales  off  the  Cape  district  is  well 
known  to  navigators,  as  also  the  rapidity  with  which  they  succeed 
one  another,  and  their  violence  during  the  winter  months. 


Chap.  I.]  WINDS--«ALBS.  11 

The  proportion  of  gales  in  the  nsnal  track  of  outward  bound 
vessels  (about  40''  S.),  is  as  follows  :— N.W.,  42  per  cent. ;  8.W.,  29  ; 
N.E.,  5  ;  S.E.,  7  ;  exceptional,  17  ;  and  in  the  usaal  track  of  home- 
ward bound  vessels  (near  the  coast),  N.W.,  27  ;  S.W.,  36  ;  N.E.,  8  ; 
S.E.,  13;  exceptional,  16.  It  has  been  found  that,  when  during 
summer  the  barometer  falls  to  29*5,  bad  weather  may  be  expected, 
and  during  winter  that  a  fall  to  29*75  will  indicate  a  similar  change. 

A  falling  barometer  when  the  wind  is  southerly,  and  the  weather 
threatening,  is  a  most  useful  warning  in  this  part  of  the  sea. 

The  probability  of  meeting  with  gales  is  as  follows  : — 

Ontward  route  Tx^w^^-r— -i  -««*« 

January       -        -        -        8  per  cent.  -        -        6  per  cent. 
April  -        -        -      10        „  .        .        6        „ 

July  .        -        .      14        „  -        .      13        „ 

October        -        -        -        9        „  -        -      10        „ 

The  greatest  number  of  gales  are  experienced  between  the  south- 
east edge  of  the  Agulhas  bank  and  about  40°  S.,  where  the  Agulhas 
current,  deflected  to  the  southward  by  the  bank,  meets  the  north- 
easterly drift  from  the  Antarctic  ;  here  the  struggle  takes  place 
between  the  warm  and  cold  currents  of  the  sea,  and  the  warm  and 
cold  currents  of  the  air,  which  go  as  it  were  hand  in  hand.  On  the 
south-east  edge  of  the  bank,  in  the  months  of  June  and  July,  about 
30  per  cent,  of  the  winds  are  recorded  as  gales. 

The  gales  in  this  area  are  frequently  circumscribed  in  their 
limits,  and  consequently,  the  shifts  of  wind  are  sudden  and  violent, 
and  may  take  place  in  any  direction.  The  sea  is,  therefore,  at  times 
very  heavy,  particularly  during  south-west  gales,  and  this  area 
should,  if  possible,  be  carefully  avoided  by  the  seaman. 

It  frequently  happens  that  a  gale,  which  is  blowing  in  this  area 
for  a  lengthened  period,  is  either  moderate  or  not  felt  near  the  shore. 

Westerly  Qales  amount  to  about  two-thirds  of  the  whole 
number  experienced,  and  are  of  two  classes,  north-west  and  south-west 
gales.  N.W.  gales  generally  commence  with  a  falling  barometer,  and 
sometimes  their  extreme  force  is  not  felt  until  the  wind  is  about 
West.  S.W.  gales  begin  from  the  same  quarter  as  N.W.  gales,  the 
first  fall  of  the  barometer  coming  with  a  northerly  wind  shifting 
to  north-west,  the  chief  difference  being  that  with  S.W.  gale  systems, 
the  north-west  wind  does  not  attain  the  force  of  a  gale. 

Easterly  Gales.— N.E.  Gales  form  about  6  per  cent,  of  the 
number  experienced  in  the  Cape  region,  and  are  usually  met  with  in 
the  eastern  portion  of  the  area  (30°  to  40^  E.).    Tbey  are  generally 


12  OFF  THE  CAPK  COLONY.  [Chap.  I. 

short  and  of  slight  force,  and  frequently  lose  the  force  of  a  gale 
before  the  lowest  barometer  occurs.  Lightning  is  sometimes  seen  at 
the  same  time.  The  chief  danger  in  connection  with  them  lies  in 
the  fact  of  their  being  generally  followed  by  north-westerly,  south- 
westerly to  southerly,  or  even  south-east  winds,  and  that  in  many 
cases  these  winds  attain  the  force  of  a  heavy  gale.  Sometimes  the 
second  gale  sets  in  with  a  sudden  change  of  wind.  Hence  great 
precaution  is  necessary  in  watching  the  barometer,  weather,  sea,  etc., 
during  a  N.E.  gale,  more  especially  when  met  with  near  the  south- 
east coast  of  Africa.* 

S.E.  Gales  form  about  10  per  cent,  of  all  gales  met  with  off  the 
Cape  and  south  coast.  They  are  of  two  classes,  namely,  those  pre- 
ceded by  northerly  and  north-westerly  winds,  and  those  preceded  by 
southerly  or  south-east  winds.  Those  preceded  by  northerly  winds 
resemble  south-west  gales  in  their  character,  setting  in  after  the 
lowest  barometer  has  passed,  and  lightning  often  occurs  before  the 
wind  changes  from  the  northward  and  westward  to  the  south-eastward. 

Those  preceded  by  southerly  winds  are  again  subdivided,  namely, 
(1)  those  fine  weather  gales  generally  met  with  near  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  more  especially  during  the  summer  months,  and  which 
are  accompanied  by  a  slight  fall  of  the  barometer ;  these  are  closely 
related  to  the  south-easters  common  to  Table  bay. 

(2)  Those  related  to  the  south-west  side  of  cyclonic  wind  systems, 
moving  southward  or  south-eastward.  These  are  generally  accom- 
panied by  bad  weather,  and  are  sometimes  very  severe  ;  as  these  gales 
progress  the  wind  often  veers  to  the  westward  of  south,  the  change 
generally  taking  place  after  the  lowest  barometer  has  been  recorded. 
If  necessary  to  heave-to  in  such  a  gale,  the  starboard  tack  should  be 
preferred,  as  it  is  the  coming  up  tack. 

Exceptional  Qales  form  about  16  per  cent,  of  all  gales  met 
with  off  the  Cape  and  South  Coast.  These  are  gales  which 
change  quickly  from  one  quarter  to  another,  or  for  some  other  cause 
cannot  be  classed  under  those  previously  referred  to.  A  very 
dangerous  type  of  exceptional  gale  is  one  that  changes  quickly  from 
N.E.  to  N.W.  or  S.W.  ;  it  is  frequently  met  with,  but  more  especially 
near  the  south-east  coast  of  Africa. 

It  is  not  possible  to  manoeuvre  so  as  to  avoid  these,  which  shift 
suddenly  from  one  quarter  to  another,  so  that  when  lightning  and 
other  v;^eather  signs,  or  the  direction  of  the  swell  indicate  such  a 

*  Many  vessels  have  been  taken  aback,  and  have  foundered  through  neglecting 
these  signs,  partioalarly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Algoa  bay. 


Chap.  I.]  QALBS— lOBB^BGS.  13 

change,  the  chief  precaution  lies  in  reducing  sail,  especially  on  the 
main  and  mizen  masts.  In  gales  which  only  shift  from  N.E.  to 
N.W.,  and  in  which  the  barometer  begins  to  rise  as  the  wind  goes  to 
N.W.,  arid  also  in  those  which  shift  quickly  from  N.E.  through  north 
to  S.W.,  the  port  tack  should  be  preferred,  if  requisite  to  heave-to. 

TempeiratTire*. — Southward  of  Cape  Colony,  the  air,  like  the-sea, 
is  warmest  in  February  and  coldest  in  July,  strongly  influenced  by 
the  temperature  of  the  Agulhas  current.  It  averages  about  62^  in 
February  and  56°  in  July,  on  the  parallel  of  40°  S.,  and  70°  and  60° 
irespectively  near  the  coast.  For  temperature  in  Cape  Colony,  Ac, 
see  Climate  and  Rainfall,  pages  18-21. 

The  sea  temperatures  off  the  Cape  are  given  with  the  description  of 
the  Agulhas  current,  page  22. 

Icebergs  are  rarely  fallen  in  with  off  the  cape  of  Good  Hope  to 
the  northward  of  40°  S.,  or  it  may  be  said  of  43°  S. ;  nevertheless, 
there  are  instances  of  icebergs  being  seen  near  the  cape  in  April  and 
in  September,  and  it  is  therefore  desirable  to  keep  a  good  look  out 
for  them  at  all  seasons.  From  December  to  April  icebergs  are 
numerous  near  and  southward  of  45°  S.  Fogs  are  also  prevalent 
south  of  that  parallel.  Icebergs  are  farthest  north  in  the  months  of 
November  to  February,  and  therefore  more  liable  to  be  met  with  ; 
and  least  so  in  the  months  of  June  and  July.f 

In  approaching  icebergs  there  may  be  a  marked  diminution  in  the 
temperature  of  the  air  and  sea,  the  indications  therefore  of  the 
thermometer  should  never  be  neglected,  though  it  must  not  be 
assumed  to  be  an  infallible  guide. 

Weather  Signal. — ^A  weather  chart,  from  information  tele- 
graphed by  the  Meteorological  Commission  of  the  Cape  Colony,  is 
exhibited  at  each  of  the  seaports  in  the  Colony,  soon  after  10  a.m. 
daily,  for  the  information  of  masters  of  vessels  and  others. 

MOZAMBIQUE    CHANNEL. 

General  remarks. — ^The  winds  in  the  Mozambique  channel  are 
dependent  upon  the  monsoons  of  the  Arabian  sea,  but  do  not,  however, 
blow  here  with  the  same  regularity  that  is  found  further  north.  The 
northerly  monsoon  commences  between  mid-September  and  mid- 
October,  and  the  southerly  monsoon  between  mid-March  and  mid- 

*  See  also  the  diaicrams  of  Lines  of  Equal  Pressure  and  Lines  of  Equal  Temperature 
in  *'  Wind  and  Current  Atlas  for  Faoifio,  Indian  Ocean,  &c." 

t  See  loe  chart  of  the  southern  hemisphere,  No.  1241  ;  also  Admiralty  chart) 
No.  2<Q95,  on  which  icebergs  that  have  been  met  with  near  the  Cape  Colony  are 
shown. 


U  MOZAMBIQUE  OHANKBL.  [Ohap.  I. 

April.  The  change  is  generally  accompanied  by  squally  weather.  To 
the  southward  of  lat.  20°  S.,  from  abreast  the  centre  of  Madagascar, 
the  northerly  monsoon  is  not  felt  and  the  winds  are  variable, 
with  a  greater  prevalence  of  South  and  S.S.E.  winds  than  any 
other,  particularly  on  the  Madagascar  side,  near  the  south-west 
end -of  which,  S.E.  and  E.S.E.  winds  prevail  all  the  year  round, 
but  do  not  extend  far  up  the  coast.  See  also  winds  at  Natal,  p.  172, 
and  Delagoa  bay,  p.'' 190. 

The  northeply  monsoon  in  the  Mozambique  channel,  from  its 
commencement  to  nearly  the  end  of  December  is  light  and  variable, 
with  smooth  water  and  usually  fine  weather ;  westerly  winds  and 
calms  intervene.  Towards  the  end  ot  December  the  monsoon  sets  in 
strong ;  for  three  consecutive  years  the  first  decided  blow  was 
observed  to  occur  at  the  Comoro  islands,  on  the  25th  December.  It 
continues  with  some  force  until  about  the  beginning  of  February,  at 
which  time,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  channel,  the  southerly  wind 
begins  to  make  itself  felt,  and  about  the  end  of  February  it  is  fully 
established,  though  not  with  any  force  until  April.  Near  the  Mo- 
zambique coast,  from  and  after  December,  calms,  variables,  and  rain 
will  be  met  with;  though  in  mid-channel  it  is  usually  fine  with 
a  fresh  breeze.  During  this  northerly  monsoon  the  southerly  winds 
which  prevail  at  the  southern  end  of  the  channel  often  amount  to 
a  gale,  producing  a  considerable  sea ;  at  such  times  they  commonly 
force  their  way  northward,  overcoming  the  monsoon  even  as  far  north 
as  the  Comoro  islands,  and  blow  a  double-reefed  topsail  breeze.  This 
weather  is  preceded  by  heavy  banks  of  cloud  to  the  southward,  with 
gloomy  weather,  but  does  not  last  long. 

The  southerly  monsoon  blows  from  S.S.E.  to  S.S.W.  between 
Europa  island  and  the  Comoro  group  ;  it  attains  its  greatest  westing 
in  May  and  June  (S.S.W.)  ;  from  July  it  gradually  backs  to  the 
eastward  ;  September  to  November  calm  and  light  winds  are  prevalent 
until  northerly  monsoon  is  established.  The  southerly  monsoon  is 
called  the  fine  weather  sieason,  and  is  generally  free  from  gales  ;  but 
there  is  much  more  wind  and  sea  at  this  time  in  the  Mozambique 
channel  than  during  the  northerly  monsoon  ;  vessels  proceeding  to  the 
southward  will  frequently  find  a  hard  double-reef  topsail  breeze, 
and  heavy  sea. 

On  the  coast  of  Madagascar,  land  and  sea  breezes  prevail ;  the 
former  being  very  light  and  lasting  from  about  midnight  till  noon  ; 
the  sea  breeze  generally  sets  in  during  the  afternoon,  increasing  in 
force  till  sunset,  when  it  subsides  and  gradually  dies  away  towards 


^hap.IJ  MONSOONS— GYGLOKBB.  lb 

inidnight,  followed  by  the  land  wind.  In  the  evening,  within  20 
miles  of  the  coast,  lightning  and  thick  banks  of  clouds  are  common, 
having  a  threatening  appearance,  but  generally  harmless. 

At  the  Comoro  islands  the  south-west  monsoon  sets  in  about  the 
middle  of  March,  when  heavy  squalls  from  the  westward  and  much 
rain  may  be  expected ;  thence  the  monsoon  forces  its  way  up  the 
African  coast, 

Calms. — During  the  northerly  monsoon  the  frequency  of  calms  is 
about  25  per  cent.,  and  in  the  southerly  monsoon  10.  In  November 
they  are  most  prevalent,  being  about  3  times  as  many  as  in  June. 
The  Madagascar  coast  is  most  subject  to  them. 

Gales. — The  Mozambique  channel  is  subjected  at  times  to  hard 
gales  and  severe  weather,  independent  of  an  occasional  cyclone. 
These  gales  generally  occur  in  the  north-east  monsoon  period,  and 
mostly  begin  with  the  monsoon  freshening  to  a  force  of  6  to  7  ; 
it  then  slackens,  with  a  steady  barometer,  the  wind  then  shifts 
rapidly  through  west  and  then  sets  in  as  a  violent  gale  from  South  to 
S.W. ;  occasionally  the  wind  shifts  through  east.  At  times,  also,  the 
steep  gradients  are  to  the  eastward,  when  the  northerly  wind  will 
remain  steady  in  direction  but  increases  to  a  violent  gale.  The 
approach  of  these,  gales  is  generally  foretold  by  a  threatening  sky  to 
the  westward,  with  lightning.  Sometimes  these  gales  occur  after 
several  days  calm. 

Cyclones, — The  Indian  ocean  cyclones,  which  at  times  do  so 
much  damage  in  the  vicinity  of  Mauritius,  between  the  months  of 
December  and  April,  are  usually  intercepted  by  Madagascar  Before 
reaching  the  Mozambique  channel,  but  occasionally  one  passes 
northward  of  the  island  into  the  Mozambique.  One  of  these,  the 
last  recorded,  crossed  the  Mozambique  channel  on  January  28th-30th, 
1887,  in  a  westerly  direction  from  northward  of  cape  St.  Andrew, 
its  centre  passing  over  the  Castle  Line  ss.  Courland,  in  lat.  20°  S., 
long.  37°  E.,  about  50  miles  southward  of  the  Zambesi.  This 
vessel  experienced  strong  S.S.E.  winds  when  proceeding  up  the 
coast  from  Delagoa  bay.  with  violent  squalls,  a  constantly  increasing 
sea  and  falling  barometer  ;  eventually  she  was  compelled  to  head 
the  terrific  sea,  when  the  centre  passed  over  her.  The  only  notice- 
able feature  in  an  almost  uniformly  overcast  sky — over  which  the  drift 
scudded  furiously — was  a  peculiar  leaden  blue  in  the  zenith  ;  there 
was  no  heavy  solid  banking  up  of  clouds,  and  very  little  thunder 
and  lightning;  but  the  rain  was  heavy  and  continuous.  The 
barometer,  however,  jjroved  a  true  friend,  and  fell  from  29*61  at 


16  NORTHWARD  OF  OAPB  DBLaADO.  [Ohap.  I. 

noon  29th,  to  28*98  at  8  p.m.  on  30th,  at  which  time  the  centre  passed 
over  the  ship,  and  the  stars  became  visible  overhead.  The  cyclone, 
blowing  from  northward  on  the  coast  of  Madagascar,  caused  an 
extraordinary  high  tide  and  considerable  sea  at  Mourandava, 
threatening  the  destruction  of  the  houses,  which  hitherto  had  been 
considered  far  above  the  reach  of  the  sea. 

Cyclones  have  occurred  towards  the  latter  end  of  January  in 
Mozambique  harbour  in  former  years,  notably  in  the  years  1841-2-3, 
see  page  243,  and  that  place  was  visited  by  a  severe  one  on  the  1st 
and  2nd  of  April  1858,  during  which  several  vessels  were  driven 
from  their  anchors  in  the  harbour,  and  much  damage  was  done. 

The  number  of  cyclones  recorded  in  the  South  Indian  ocean  from 
1856  to  1885,  is  appended,  as  having  some  bearing  on  the  probability 
of  an  occasional  one  entering  the  Mozambique,  or  vessels  proceeding 
to  Mauritius  from  that  neighbourhood.  These  figures  may  admit 
of  modification  when  more  data  is  at  hand. 


No. 

Month. 

Progresrire. 

StaUonorjr. 

Per  cent. 
of  Stationuy. 

64 

January 

45 

19 

30 

53 

February 

47 

6 

11 

53 

March 

34 

19 

35 

49 

April 

25 

24 

50 

18 

May 

7 

11 

61 

3 

June 

1 

2 

66 

a 

July 

1 

1 

— . 

— 

August 

— 

— 

■   — 

— 

September 

— 

— 

— . 

5 

October 

2 

3 

60 

21 

November 

8 

13 

61 

32 

December 

23 

9 

28 

EAST  COAST  OF  AFRICA  NORTH  OF  CAPE  DELGADO. 

On  this  part  of  the  coast,  and  i^  the  ocean  to  the  eastward,  the 
winds  consist  of  the  monsoons  known  as  North-east  and  South-west. 

The  north-east  monsoon  commences  in  the  Arabian  sea  about 
the  middle  of  October,  but  does  not  at  times  reach  the  coast  of  Africa 
and  Zanzibar  until  the  middle  or  end  of  November ;  the  change 
which  may  occupy  a  fortnight  or  more,  is  accompanied  by  shifts  of 
winds,  calms,  squalls  of  rain  and  obscured  sky.  Occasionally  the 
north-east  monsoon  is  so  light  that  many  dhows  from  Arabia  fail  to 
reach  Zanzibar,  and  have  to  put  into  Mombaza. 


Ohap.  I.]  MONSOONS— ^STGLONBS—BAROMBTBR.  17 

From  cape  Delgado  to  the  equator,  during  the  months  of  February 
and  March,  although  part  of  the  northerly  monsoon  period,  winds 
prevail  from  E.N.E.  to  E.S.E.  At  this  season,  therefore,  it  is  practic- 
able for  dhows  to  make  their  way  thus  far  northward.  The  weather 
hereabout  during  these  months  is  fine,  with  occasional  showers  and 
sometimes  thunder  and  lightning,  but  no  heavy  sqtialls. 

The  SOUttl-west  monsoon. — ^After  an  interval  of  calms  and 
light  winds,  the  south-west  monsoon  sets  in,  reaching  Zanzibar  some 
time  in  March,  Ras  Asir  about  the  end  of  April,  and  Bombay  about 
the  first  week  in  June.  Southward  and  eastward  of  Sokotra  it 
attains  its  full  force  in  June,  and  continues  until  September,  blowing 
stronger  and  steadier  and  accompanied  by  a  heavier  sea  at  a  distance 
from  the  land  than  near  it.  On  the  east  coast  of  Africa  it  blows 
very  strong  from  about  S.S.W.  following  the  land,  and  continues 
with  full  force  through  the  channel  between  Sokotra  and  Ras  Asir. 
In  May  it  has  been  observed  to  be  influenced  by  land  and  sea  breezes 
near  Ras  Asir,  the  wind  hanging  a  great  deal  to  the  southward  and 
eastward,  with  heavy  squalls,  rain,  and  overcast  sky. 

Off  Zanzibar  and  to  the  southward  as  far  as  cape  Delgado  the 
so-called  south-west  monsoon  blows  from  S.S.E.,  hauling  south  and 
S.S.W.  as  it  approaches  the  land. 

A  cyclone,  the  only  one  on  record,  occurred  at  Zanzibar  com- 
mencing at  9h.  p.m.,  on  the  14th  April  1872,  blowing  strong  from 
S.S.W.,  accompanied  by  rain  ;  it  increased  in  force  and  backed  to 
South  till  about  Ih.  30m.  p.m.  of  the  15th,  when  it  suddenly  became 
calm,  the  barometer  having  fallen  0*9  inches  below  the  normal  height. 
At  2h.  15m.  p.m.  the  barometer  commenced  to  rise,  and  the  cyclone 
burst  upon  the  town  and  harbour  from  the  opposite  quarter  N.N.E., 
backing  by  North  to  W.N.W.,  where  it  settled,  but  moderated  con- 
siderably between  4h.  and  8h.  p.m.  One  English  steamer  alone  did 
not  part  her  cables  ;  all  the  other  vessels  in  the  harbour,  including 
several  vessels  of  war  belonging  to  the  Sultan,  and  numerous  native 
vessels  were  driven  ashore  and  wrecked. 

On  the  island  of  Zanzibar,  the  cyclone  swept  over  the  island  and 
destroyed  all  in  its  path,  but  leaving  the  southern  part  uninjured. 

BAROMETER.* 

The  average  range  of  the  barometer  in  the  higher  latitudes  between 
50^  and  60°  is  about  1*5  inches,  but  on  extraordinary  occasions  ranges 
of  2*75  and  3*0  inches  have  been  recorded. 


*  See  also  the  diagrams  of  Lines  of  Equal  Pressure  and  Lines  of  Equal  Teiuneraturo 
in  "  Wind  and  Current  Atlas  for  Pacific,  Indian  Ocean,  &c.' 
S.O.  10626.  li 


^ 


18  OAPB  COLONY— MOZAMBIQUB.  [Chap.  I. 

In  the  track  of  outward  bound  vessels  round  the  Cape,  on  the 
parallel  of  40^  S.,  the  average  height  of  the  barometer  is  29*9  inches, 
being  about  0*15  higher  in  winter  than  in  summer  ;  it  is  higher 
towards  the  coast  and  lower  towards  the  pole.  The  mean  reading 
at  Cape  Town  is  30-07,  and  at  Natal  30-10  ;  this,  however,  gives  but 
an  imperfect  representation  of  the  pressure  in  a  district  through 
which  the  areas  of  high  and  low  pressure  are  constantly  moving 
eastward,  accompanied  by  their  respective  systems  of  wind. 

In  the  intertropical  regions  the  range  varies  from  0*4  to  0*2  inches, 
and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  equator  it  seldom  exceeds  0-15 
inches,  this  small  change  being  in  great  measure  due  to  the  regular 
diurnal  variation.  The  average  movement  of  the  barometer  within 
the  tropics  being  thus  confined  within  small  limits,  any  interruption 
of  the  law  may  be  deemed  a  warning  of  the  approach  of  bad 
weather.  The  mean  reading  at  Mozambique  is  30-05  ;  Zanzibar,  30*0, 
and  Ras  Astr  29*9  inches.  During  S.W.  monsoon,  at  Mozambique  it 
is  -05  higher,  and  at  Ras  Asir  -10  lower;  Zanzibar  varies  but  little. 

The  fall  of  the  barometer  in  and  near  cyclonic  disturbances  ranges 
from  I'O  to  2*5  inches  ;  the  rapidity  of  the  fall  and  the  depression  of 
the  mercury  increases  as  the  centre  of  the  storm  approaches. 

In  the  southern  hemisphere  the  effect  of  the  shifting  of  the  wind 
on  the  barometer  is  according  to  the  following  law  : — 
With  East,  N.E.,  and  North  winds  the  barometer  falls. 

„    N.W.  winds  the  barometer  ceases  to  fall,  and  begins  to  rise. 
„    West,  S.W.,  and  South  winds  the  barometer  rises. 
„     S.E.  winds  the  barometer  ceases  to  rise,  and  begins  to  fall. 
In  the  northern  hemisphere  the  effect  of  the  veering  of  the  wind 
on  the  barometer  is  according  to  the  following  law  : — 
With  East,  S.E.,  and  South  winds  the  barometer  falls. 

„     S.W.  winds  the  barometer  ceases  to  fall,  and  begins  to  rise. 

„    West,  N.W.,  and  North  winds  the  barometer  rises. 

„    N.E.  winds  the  barometer  ceases  to  rise,  and  begins  to  fall. 

CLIMATE  AND  RAINFALL.* 
CAPE  COLONY  AND  NATAL.— The  cape  possesses  a  healthy 
climate,  which  is  doubtless  attributable  to  the  uniformity  of  tem- 
perature ;  it  is  much  favoured  by  Europeans  suffering  from  pulmonary 
complaints.  The  mean  temperature  at  Cape  Town  is  about  76°  in 
February,  and  59°  in  July.  The  summer  may  be  said  to  commence 
in  November,  and  continue  until  April. 

*  For  temperatures  of  the  air  and  sea  at  yarious  places,  if  not  f  onnd  here  nor  in 
the  body  of  the  work,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  diagrams  in  the  Wind  and  Current 
Atlas. 


Chap.  I.J  CLIHATB  AND  RAINFiJiL.  19 

The  colony  of  Natal,  though  nearer  the  tropicB,  is  extremely 
healthy  ;  the  summer  heat  being  greatly  tempered  by  clouds  and 
rain,  whereas  in  winter  the  sky  is  usually  cloudless.  The  mean 
temperature,  63^,  is  nearly  the  same  as  the  Cape,  but  it  is  subject 
to  greater  range.  Though  the  thermometer  rarely  rises  above  85°  in 
the  shade,  a  scirocco,  or  north-west  wind,  will  cause  it  to  range 
between  83°  and  97°  ;  the  minimum  for  6  years  was  29°  ;  these 
temperatures  are  for  Maritzburg.  Thunder  and  hailstorms  are  of 
frequent  occurrence  in  Natal  in  summer,  October  to  April,  the  wet 
season. 

The  rainy  season  in  the  western  portion  of  Cape  Colony,  as  far 
eastward  as  Cape  St.  Francis,  is  during  the  winter,  (the  rains  being 
brought  by  the  westerly  winds  from  the  South  Atlantic),  June  being 
the  wettest  month  ;  but  there  is  still  a  fair  proportion  of  fine  weather 
during  that  month.  Smart  showers  begin  about  March,  increasing 
gradually  up  to  June,  thence  decreasing  in  like  proportion  until 
October.  December  and  January  are  dry  months.  The  rainy  season 
in  the  eastern  portion  of  Cape  Colopy,  eastward  of  cape  St.  Francis 
and  Natal,  is  during  the  opposite  or  summer  season,  the  rain  being 
brought  by  the  easterly  winds  from  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  neigh- 
bourhood of  cape  St.  Francis,  lying  between  the  regions  watered 
by  winter  rains  on  the  west,  and  summer  rains  on  the  east,  has 
rain  nearly  equally  distributed  throughout  the  year,  though  the 
greatest  quantity  falls  at  port  Elizabeth  between  July  and  December. 

The  average  rainfall  is  as  follows  : — Cape  Town,  23  inches  ; 
Mossel  bay,  14  inches;  port  Elizabeth,  22  inches;  coast  lands  of 
Natal,  45  inches.  The  fall  is  considerably  less  generally,  inland,  as  at 
Worcester,  50  miles  from  Cape  Town,  it  is  but  14  ;  the  same  distance 
inland  from  Mossel  bay,  8  inches  ;  and  at  Maritzburg,  50  miles  inland 
from  port  Natal,  about  30  inches. 

MOZAMBIQUE  PROVINCE.— Delagoa  bay  to  cape  Delgado.— 
Nearly  the  whole  of  this  coast  consists  of  marshy  land,  and  the  large 
rivers  during  floods  bring  down  immense  quantities  of  decaying 
vegetable  matter,  particularly  in  Delagoa  bay,  and  the  delta  of  the 
Zambesi.  The  heavy  rains  which  succeed  great  heat,  the  nightly 
dews  and  the  exhalations  produced  by  a  powerful  sun,  all  constitute 
natural  causes  which  tend  to  the  insalubrity  of  this  coast.  Innamban 
is  considered  to  be  the  least  unhealthy  of  the  Portuguese  stations,  the 
temperature  there  being  as  low  as  62°  in  July ;  but  from  November  to 
May  fevers  should  be  specially  guarded  against.  The  best  precau- 
tions are  temperate  living  and  non-exposure  to  the  hot  sun. 
S.O.  10626.  B  2 


20  ZANZIBAR  COAST.     CLIMATE  AND  RAINFALL.      [Chap.  I. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Delagoa  bay  the  rainy  season  is  from 
September  to  March,  or  April ;  none  in  the  winter.  The  Gaza  country 
between  High  Transvaal  and  Matabele  Kafir  land  is  rainless. 

From  the  Limpopo  to  the  Zambesi  the  rainy  season  is  from 
November  to  April  The  valley  of  the  Zambesi  is  reached  by  the 
lesser  rains  late  in  October,  when  the  sun  is  passing  south ;  these 
diminish  in  December,  and  are  heaviest  from  January  to  the  end  of 
March  or  middle  of  April,  when  the  sun  is  passing  northward  again  ; 
the  river  soon  begins  to  fall  and  is  then  most  unhealthy.  Near  Ibo, 
however,  the  most  unhealthy  time  is  said  to  be  from  January  to 
March,  during  the  heavy  rains. 

At  Mozambique  harbour  the  rainy  season  is  from  November  to  March, 
or  later ;  between  Mozambique  an  d  lake  Nyassa  from  November  to  May. 

ZANZIBAR  COAST.— The  climate  has  a  bad  reputation,  but 
although  there  is  undoubtedly  much  of  a  severe  and  sometimes 
fatal  type  of  fever,  its  ordinary  virulence  and  effects  have  been 
somewhat  exaggerated.  Europeans  should,  if  possible,  avoid  being 
on  shore  at  night  until  they  are  acclimatized,  and  especially  so  when 
they  are  in  the  vicinity  or  rivers. 

The  worst  season  for  white  people  is  from  February  to  May,  but 
the  blacks  seem  to  suffer  more  in  July  and  August. 

July,  August,  and  September,  are  the  coolest  months,  the  thermo- 
meter on  board  ship  ranging  by  day  from  77°  to  81°,  and  by  night 
it  occasionally  falls  to  73°.  During  January,  February,  and  March, 
the  hottest  months,  the  day  range  is  from  83°  to  90°,  and  at  night  the 
temperature  falls  below  80^. 

The  Masika,  or  heavy  rains,  is  ushered  in  by  the  south-west 
monsoon,  with  squalls,  about  the  end  of  March,  and  lasts  until  the  end 
of  May ;  the  Mcho  are  occasional  showers  which  fall  through  a  month 
or  six  weeks  in  June  and  July  ;  the  Vuli,  or  lesser  rains,  continue 
for  three  or  four  weeks  from  the  latter  part  of  September  nearly 
through  October.  The  yearly  amount,  perhaps,  averages  150  inches, 
but  the  quantity,  as  well  as  the  seasons  are  exceedingly  irregular. 

On  the  coast  about  Mombasa,  the  seasons  are  remarkably  regular, 
the  heavy  rains  are  from  end  of  March  through  June  ;  after  a  pause, 
followed  by  the  Mcho  in  July  ;  August  and  September  are  dry ; 
in  October  and  November  the  lesser  rains  fall ;  then  the  dry  season 
comes,  November  to  April,  when  the  sun  blazes  furiously,  calling  up 
a  deadly  haze,  giving  the  country  a  dreary  aspect,  but  after  the  first 
fall  of  the  Masika  all  is  life  again. 

At  the  equator,  near  the  coast,  the  lesser  rains  fail  altogether,  but 
the  sky  at  that  time  is  often  heavily  clouded.     In  March,  west  winds 


Chap.  I.]  CURRBNTS— GBNBRAL  BBMARK8.  21 

begin  to  blow,  and  land  and  sea  breezes  alternate,  the  south-west 
monsoon  then  sets  in  with  heavy  squalls  and  rain.  The  climate  at 
Brava  and  neighbourhood,  is  reported  to  be  healthy.  From  the  equator 
to  Ras  Asir  the  rainy  season  is  the  same,  from  end  of  March  to  the 
end  of  June,  and  to  July  in  the  interior.  The  remaining  months  are 
dry,  and  the  Juba  river  sinks  rapidly  towards  the  end  of  September. 
From  Ras  Asir,  westward,  rain  also  falls  from  November  to  February. 

CURRENTS. 

GENERAL  REMARKS.— The  currents  on  the  south  and  east 
coasts  of  Africa  are  formed  by  the  great  trade  drift  of  the  South 
Indian  ocean,  which,  advancing  westward,  and  meeting  with 
resistance  from  the  island  of  Madagascar,  begins  to  split  near  the 
islands  of  Mauritius  and  Bourbon  ;  one  portion  passes  northward  of 
Madagascar  and  strikes  the  African  coast  near  and  northward  of 
cape  Delgado,  between  lat.  IP  and  10^  S.,  depending  on  the 
monsoon,  being  at  its  northern  limit  during  the  north-east  monsoon 
period  ;  here  it  again  splits,  one  portion  flowing  southward  through 
the  Mozambique  channel  along  the  coast,  past  cape  Corrientes  and 
on  to  Natal.  -The  southern  portion  of  the  main  drift  passes  south- 
ward of  Mauritius,  thence  southward  of  Madagascar  and  direct  for 
Natal,  uniting  with  the  stream  from  the  Mozambique,  the  two 
together  forming  the  great  Agulhas  current. 

The  northern  branch  of  the  current,  which  divides  near  cape 
Delgado,  flows  northward  past  Zanzibar,  and  thence  to  Ras  Asir 
during  the  south-west  monsoon  ;  during  the  north-east  monsoon  it  is 
deflected  from  the  land  to  the  eastward  before  reaching  the  equator. 
The  main  currents  will  now  be  described  in  detail.  The  currents 
which  prevail  off  the  various  ports  are  mentioned  with  the  description 
of  the  ports. 

THE  AGULHAS  CURRENT  is  formed  by  the  two  streams 
meeting,  as  before  mentioned,  north-eafetward  of  Natal,  in  about 
lat.  28^  30'  S.,  long.  35°  E. ;  these  form  an  enormous  body  of  warm 
water,  which  runs  to  the  south-west  and  westward,  skirting  the  coast 
of  Africa  at  from  3  to  about  120  miles  off,  and  attaining  considerable 
velocity  between  port  Natal  and  the  meridian  of  about  23°  E.,  at  times 
running  from  3  to  4^  miles  an  hour,  its  greatest  strength  being  near 
the  edge  of  the  bank.* 

The  current  in  its  progress  to  the  south-west  becomes  weaker,  and 

on  reaching  the  Agulhas  bank,  does  not,  as  a  rule,  run  over  the  bank, 

*  H.M.S.  Ocean,  8th  March  1872,  at  noon,  in  lat.  34°  S.,  long  23°  30'  E. 
experienced  daring  the  last  24  hours,  between  Buffalo  river  and  Algoa  bay,  a 
corrent  settuig  S.  50°  W.  (tme),  114  miles. 


22  OURRBNTS— CAPB  COLONY.  [Chap.  I. 

but  follows  its  contour  or  edge  with  a  tendency  to  branch  oflE,  and  in 
long,  about  22°  E.,  the  main  body  is  deflected  to  the  southward  as  far 
as  the  parallel  of  40°  S.,  whence  a  large  part,  being  opposed  by  the 
north-easterly  set  from  the  Antarctic,  recurves  to  the  eastward,  thus 
flowing  back  into  the  Indian  ocean,  but  with  diminished  strength 
and  temperature. 

It  has  generally  been  considered  that  in  the  summer  season 
(January-March)  the  Agulhas  current  attains  its  maximum  strength 
and  volume,  and  in  the  winter  season  (July-September)  that  it 
diminishes  in  force  and  extent,  but  from  recent  investigations  it  is 
considered  that  the  current  does  not  vary  much  in  strength  and 
direction  throughout  the  year.  The  velocity  of  the  current  is  said 
to  be  checked  at  times  by  westerly  gales,  and  to  run  with  increased 
strength  afterwards,  but  it  usually  runs  in  the  teeth  of  the  gale,  causing 
a  dangerous  high  sea,  especially  near  the  south-east  edge  of  the  bank. 

A  small  portion  of  the  Agulhas  current  passes  round  and  over  the 
southern  part  of  Agulhas  bank,  and  branching  off  to  the  north-west, 
past  the  cape  of  Good  Hope,  is  joined  by  the  connecting  current  of 
the  South  Atlantic  ocean,  collectively  forming  a  wide  stream  running 
northward  along  the  coast,  at  the  rate  of  one  or  1^  miles  an  hour,  with  a 
tendency  towards  the  coast  at  times,  which  must  be  guarded  against. 
This  warm  water  seldom  reaches  into  Table  bay,  the  water  there  being 
much  colder  than  Simons  bay.  The  sea  temperature  in  the  latter  is 
from  62°  to  64°  in  November ;  this  warm  water  during  long  north-west 
gales  is  occasionally  driven  out  and  replaced  by  water  from  the  south 
Atlantic,  at  a  temperature  of  about  50°,  with  a  counter  easterly 
set.  At  such  times  the  northern  branch  of  the  Agulhas  is  probably 
deflected  to  the  southward  with  the  main  portion  of  the  current. 

The  range  of  sea  temperature  near  the  land  is  greatest  in  January 
and  February  reaching  20°.  In  August,  September,  and  October,  the 
range  is  less  than  15°.  The  area  in  which  the  range  amount  to  15° 
is  greatest  in  April.  Off  Natal  the  average  temperature  is  73°,  and 
off  the  south-east  edge  of  Agulhas  bank  67°.  In  the  neighbourhood 
of  40°  S.,  where  the  warm  and  cold  currents  meet,  the  20°  range  of 
temperature  exists  throughout  the  year.  It  is  rather  larger  in  the 
winter  and  spring  than  in  the  summer*^and  autumn  months.* 

Caution.— Inner  edge  of  the  Agulhas.— Although  the 
southern  edge  of  the  Agulhas  current  has  a  tendency  to  set  from  the 
land,  the  northern  edge  on  the  contrary  has  a  tendency  to  set  towards 
the  land,  more  especially  to  the  westward  of  Algoa  bay,  where 
during  and  after  south-east,  westerly,  and  north-westerly  gales,  the 
*  See  the  Admiralty  Wind  and  Current  Charts,  with  Temperature  oharte. 


Chap.  I.]  AGULHAS  AND  COUNTKR  CURRENT.  23 

current  is  at  times  deflected  from  its  general  coarse  and  turned 
directly  towards  the  land,  causing  a  very  dangerous  element  in  the 
navigation  of  the  south-east  coast  of  Africa,  if  disregarded  and  not 
allowed  for. 

From  this  cause  a  large  number  of  valuable  vessels  have  been 
wrecked,  more  especially  between  Algoa  bay  and  cape  Agulhas,  and 
the  necessity  of  guarding  against  these  insiduous  dangers  cannot  be 
too  strongly  impressed  on  those  in  charge  of  vessels  proceeding 
along  this  coast.  See  Inshore  counter  current,  mentioned  below,  also 
p.  75. 

Agrulhas  Counter  Current.— The  remarkable  recurving  of  the 
main  body  of  the  Agulhas  current  is  due  to  the  action  of  a  polar  or 
cold  water  current  flowing  from  the  south-west ;  the  junction  of  the 
hot  and  cold  waters  of  the  two  streams  notably  taking  place  off  the 
Agulhas  bank,  giving  rise  to  the  confused  sea,  the  irregular  set  of  the 
currents,  and  by  their  effect  on  the  atmosphere  to  those  severe  and 
fitful  gales  so  well  known  to  seamen  rounding  the  cape  of  Good 
Hope.  The  meeting  of  these  currents  is  frequently  denoted  by 
a  broken,  confused,  and  heaped-up  sea,  the  warm  current  is  also 
indicated  by  a  marked  change  in  the  colour  of  the  water,  which, 
combined  with  the  agitation  of  the  sea,  frequently  conveys  the  im- 
pression that  the  vessel  is  in  soundings. 

The  large  body  of  water  deflected  and  turned  to  the  eastward  runs 
chiefly  between  the  parallels  of  37°  and  40*^  S.,  and  though  its  strength 
is  variable  its  average  ^ate  may  be  about  1^  miles  an  hour.  It  is 
rather  stronger  and  more  northerly  in  the  summer  than  in  the 
winter,  owing  probably  in  some  degree  to  the  melting  of  the  ice  in 
high  southern  latitudes,>  and  to  the  smaller  amount  of  westerly  winds 
experienced  to  the  northward  of  40  S.  in  summer.  It  becomes  more 
extensive  than  the  Agulhas  current  and  to  the  eastward  of  the 
meridian  of  28°  E.,  it  is  traced  northward  to  about  latitude  36°  S. 
A  current  of  3  miles  an  hour  has  been  experienced  in  latitude  39°  S. 
Inshore  Counter  Current. — Near  the  land,  between  capes 
Hangklip  and  Agulhas,  the  current  occasionally  sets  in  an  E.S.E. 
direction,  or  dangerously  towards  the  land,  at  the  rate  of  about  one 
mile  an  hour ;  many  vessels  have  been  lost  here  by  not  allowing 
for  this  possible  set  and  thus  keeping  a  sufficient  offing. 

Between  cape  Agulhas  and  Kowie  river  (longitude  27°  E.),an  inshore 
current  setting  eastward  at  about  the  same  rate  is  also  frequently 
experienced  in  fine  weather,  and  except  off  the  mouths  of  the  rivers, 
it  follows  the  trend  of  the  land,  and  is  said  to  extend  f/om  one  io  6 
miles  off-shore.    See  caution  on  pages  22  and  23. 


24  CURRENTS.  [Chap.  I. 

MOZAMBIQUE  CHANNEL.— As  previously  stated  (page  21), 
the  northern  branch  of  the  Indian  ocean  trade-drift  splits  in  the  neigh 
bourhood  of  cape  Delgado,  about  latitude  11^  S. ;  ranging  as  far  north 
as  10^  S.  during  the  north-east  monsoon  period.  The  portion  of  this 
branch  which  turns  to  the  southward  along  the  Mozambique  coast, 
averages  2  miles  an  hour,  increasing  at  times  during  the  strength  of 
the  northerly  monsoon  to  3  to  4  miles,  and  decreasing  during  the 
southerly  monsoon  period  to  about  one  to  2  knots,  and  at  times  during 
its  strength  to  nothing.  This  main  stream  lies  between  the  coast 
reefs  and  a  distance  of  50  to  80  miles  from  the  land,  beyond  which 
a  counter  or  variable  current  will  generally  be  experienced.  Off 
Mozambique  the  current  has  been  known  to  set  S.E.  by  E.  4  miles 
an  hour,  and  CO  miles  to  the  southward  N.N.W.  and  W.N.W.,  from 
one  to  2^  miles,  and  as  before  stated,  at  times  it  is  nil ;  so  that 
repeated  observations  for  position  are  necessary  as  well  as  a  careful 
estimation  for  the  strength  of  the  current  likely  caused  by  the  pre- 
vailing monsoon.  Between  the  Comoro  islands  and  the  outer  edge 
of  the  southerly  coast  current,  and  thence  southward  until  past  the 
nan'ow  part  of  the  Mozambique  channel,  there  is  no  dependence  to  be 
placed  on  the  direction  or  force  of  the  current — it  may  run  3  miles 
an  hour  one  way,  and  at  times  as  much  another. 

In  the  vicinity  of  the  Comoro  islands  the  current  generally  runs 
to  the  westward,  but  a  little  to  the  southward  of  the  islands  there  is 
frequently  a  counter  current  setting  to  the  eastward.  Northward 
of  the  Comoro  islands  a  north-westerly  current  of  one  or  1^  miles 
an  hour  is  generally  found. 

Ferguson's  wind  and  current  charts  show  a  current  setting  north- 
westward from  the  south  extreme  of  Madagascar,  between  the  months 
ol  May  and  August  (the  strength  of  the  southerly  monsoon)  as  far 
west  as  40^  E.,  up  past  Europa  island  and  northward  along  the  African 
coast,  but  the  observations  appear  to  be  few.  In  the  middle  of 
Mozambique  channel,  southward  of  lat.  18°  S.,  there  is  more  often  a 
northerly  than  a  southerly  current,  the  wind  being  generally  from 
the  southward.  In  the  vicinity  of  Europa  island,  in  November,  it 
has  been  found  setting  north-westward  from  2  to  2^  miles  an  hour, 
causing  strong  tide  rips.  As  the  rate  and  direction  of  these  currents 
may  not  be  the  same  for  two  consecutive  days,  frequent  observations 
for  the  vessel's  position  are  imperative,  especially  when  in  the 
vicinity  of  Europa  island  where  the  current  is  very  variable. 

The  current  setting  westward,  north  of  Madagascar,  averages  2  miles 
an  hour,  not  unfrequently  3  miles,  but  this  strength  does  not  extend 
more  than  50  miles  northward  of  cape  Amber. 


Chap.  I.]  MOZAMBIQUE  CHANNEL  AND  EAST  COAST.  25 

Near  the  north-west  coast  of  Madagascar  there  is  generally  a  north 
easterly  counter-set  of  about  one  mile  an  hour,  but  more  in  the  ofi&ng 
the  current  is  not  to  be  depended  on,  especially  during  the  northerly 
monsoons  period.  Off  cape  St.  Andrew  the  current  often  sets 
strongly  to  the  westward.* 

Between  Innamban  and  Sofala,  on  the  African  coast,  there  is  often 
a  counter  current  for  a  considerable  distance  off-shore,  especially 
towards  Sofala  :  in  May,  a  rate  of  35  miles  a  day  has  been  recorded. 

EAST  AFRICA  COAST  CURRENT.— The  velocity  of  the 
northern  portion  of  the  northern  branch  of  the  Indian  ocean  trade 
drift,  which  splits  near  cape  Delgado,  is  much  influenced  by  the 
monsoons  ;  its  average  rate  may  be  taken  at  2  miles  an  hour,  but  during 
the  south-west  monsoon  it  runs  past  Mafia,  Latham,  Zanzibar,  and 
Pemba  islands  and  channels  at  from  2  to  4  miles  an  hour,  and  in  the 
north-east  monsoon  from  one  to  2  miles  an  hour,  as  far  as  about  lat.  2^  S. 

During  tlie  south-west  monsoon  period  the  whole  mass  of 
water  continues  north-eastward  along  the  coast,  across  the  equator,  on 
to  Ras  Asir  and  Sokotra,  at  the  rate  of  from  36  to  100  miles  a  day  ;  the 
greater  rate  has  been  experienced  on  the  equator  near  the  coast,  and 
also  near  Ras  Haf  lin  and  Ras  Asir  during  the  strength  of  the  monsoon. 
The  current  becomes  weaker  as  the  distance  from  the  shore  is 
increased  on  the  equator,  in  from  48°  to  52°  E,  or  about  300  miles 
from  the  land,  there  appears  to  be  little  or  no  current. 

Also,  the  northerly  current  has  been  found  and  lost  at  about 
100  miles  eastward  of  Zanzibar  ;  in  the  early  part  of  August,  it  was 
found  setting  but  little  to  the  northward  of  West,  triw^  and  continued 
so  with  little  variation  at  the  rate  of  one  to  2  miles  an  hour  until 
to  the  northward  of  lat.  6°  S.,  in  long.  49°  E.,  from  whence  to  the 
Seychelles  to  the  northward  of  that  parallel  an  easterly  s^t  of  about 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  an  hour  was  experienced. 

Southward  of  Sokotra,  at  a  distance  of  about  150  miles,  is  a  great 
whirl  of  current,  caused  possibly  by  the  interposition  of  the  island  ; 
or,  it  may  be,  that  shoaler  water  exists  at  this  spot ;  it  commences 
about  the  parallel  of  Ras  Hafiin,  when  the  current  strikes  off  to  the 
eastward  to  the  55th  meridian,  then  to  the  southward,  to  the  6th 
parallel,  whence  it  again  curves  to  the  north-eastward,  through  west, 
forming  a  complete  whirl.  At  the  northern  limit  the  velocity  is 
about  4  miles  per  hour,  while  at  its  southern  extreme  it  is  only 

*  The  currents  on  the  coasts  of  Madagascar  will  be  found  more  fully  described  in 
the  Sailing  Directions  for  Islands  in  the  Bouthem  Indian  Ocean,  &c.,  shortly  to  be 
jmhlished. 


26  PASSAQBS.  [Chap.  I. 

about  one  mile  per  hour.  A  very  heavy  confused  sea  is  created  by 
this  whirl.  Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  the  strongest  portion  of 
the  current  in  making  the  coast  of  Africa  from  the  eastward,  by 
keeping  well  to  the  southward. 

Although  the  strength  of  this  current  along  the  coast  may  be  less 
near  the  close  of  the  south-west  monsoon,  and  at  other  periods 
capricious,  yet  it  is  occasionally  felt  strong  as  far  as  the  parallel  of 
4^  N.  up  to  the  first  week  in  December ;  but  as  the  time  of  the 
change  of  monsoon  varies,  so  at  other  periods  the  current  may  set  to 
the  southward  a  month  or  more  earlier,  and  thus  no  dependence  can 
be  placed  on  the  exact  time  of  change. 

During  the  north-east  monsoon  period,  this  northerly  set 
from  cape  Delgado  meets  the  southerly  set  from  the  Arabian  sea 
and  Sok6tra,  between  Lamu  and  Castle  point,  (lat.  1^°  to  2^®  S.),  the  two 
producing  an  off-set  from  the  land.  In  the  offing  the  southerly  set 
continues,  gradually  curving  to  the  eastward,  and  forming  the 
easterly  set  to  the  Seychelles  in  the  track  of  the  north-west  monsoon. 

The  meeting,  however,  of  the  two  currents  in  the  vicinity  of  Castle 
point  (as  at  cape  Delgado)  must  be  accepted  with  considerable 
limitation,  as  it  probably  varies  with  the  season,  extending  south- 
ward according  to  the  strength  of  the  north-east  monsoon,  the  full 
force  of  which  is  between  December  and  March. 

Although  the  current  in  the  Arabian  sea  sets  to  the  south-west 
from  about  the  middle  of  October,  it  does  not  reach  Magadoxa,  on  the 
African  coast,  until  about  the  second  week  in  December ;  it  is  said  to 
begin  to  run  off  that  place  almost  invariably  with  bad  weather  from 
the  north-east ;  at  a  distance  from  the  land  it  sets  to  the  south-west 
a  month  earlier.  It  is  also  stated  that  the  south-westerly  current 
does  not  -continue  for  a  longer  period  than  about  three  months,  its 
strength  generally  being  from  one  to  2  knots  an  hour.  In  April, 
between  Formosa  bay  and  port  Durnf ord,  a  current  setting  S.W.  by  S. 
88  miles  in  24  hours,  is  said  to  have  been  experienced  by  H.M.S. 
Lyra^  nine  days  only  before  the  south-west  monsoon  set  in,  but  this 
is  a  very  exceptional  instance. 

PASSAGES  FROM  THE  CAPE  OF  GOOD  HOPE  TO  AND 
FROM  PORTS  IN  EAST  AFRICA  AND  INDIA. 

QENERAL  REMARKS.— There  is  little  difficulty  in  passing 
eastward  round  the  cape  of  Good  Hope  at  any  period  of  the  year, 
though  a  greater  proportion  of  gales  will  be  met  with  in  the  winter 
season  (April  to  September). 

From  the  South  Atlantic,  or  from  the  Cape,  vessels  are  yecOfll- 


Chap.  I.]     EASTWARD  FROM  THE  CAPE  OP  GOOD  HOPE.  27 

mended  to  cross  the  meridian  of  20^  E.,  in  from  lat.  39°  to  40°  S.  Vessels 
may  make  quicker  passages  by  going  farther  south  (lat.  42°  to  44°, 
especially  from  November  to  March),  but  better  weather  will,  as  a 
rule,  be  found  on  or  about  the  parallel  recommended.  Should  a 
south-easterly  wind  be  blowing  on  leaving  Table  or  Simons  bays, 
stand  boldly  to  the  south-westward  until  the  westerlies  are  reached, 
or  the  wind  changes  to  a  more  favourable  direction.  In  all  cases 
where  vessels  are  making  for  the  40th  parallel  south  of  the  Cape, 
they  should  st^er  nothing  eastward  of  south,  so  as  to  avoid  the  area 
to  the  south-east  of  the  tail  of  Agulhas  bank,  where  gales  and  heavy 
cross  seas  prevail.  See  p.  11.  The  amount  of  easting  required  to  be 
made  depends  on  the  prevailing  monsoon  in  the  Indian  ocean,  for 
which,  see  the  passage  required. 

From  October  to  April  easterly  winds  prevail  as  far  south  as  the 
tail  of  Agulhas  bank  (about  37°  S.),  with  variable  winds,  principally 
westerly,  beyond  it.  In  the  months  of  May  and  September,  at  the 
tail  of  the  bank,  easterly  and  westerly  winds  are  in  equal  proportion, 
but  between  these  months  westerly  winds  prevail,  extending 
sometimes  close  into  the  coast. 

June  to  August,  inclusive,  are  therefore  the  worst  months,  and 
January  and  February  the  best  months  for  proceeding  westward 
round  the  Cape.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  there  is  much  less 
sea  on  the  Agulhas  bank,  in  from  60  to  70  fathoms  or  less,  during 
heavy  gales,  than  there  is  near  its  edge  and  southward  of  it. 
See  p.  72.  If  it  be  found  necessary  to  heave  to,  the  port  tack  should 
be  chosen,  as  (with  the  exception  of  south-east  gales  beginning  with 
south-east  winds)  the  shift  of  wind  is  almost  invariably  against  the 
hands  of  a  watch,  and  the  vessel  will  come  up  to  the  sea.  See 
page  12,  on  south-east  gales. 

OUTWARD  (EASTWARD)  ROUTES.— FULL-POWERED 
STEAM  VESSELS.* 
Mail  steamers  and  similar  full-powered  steam  vessels  leaving 
the  Cape  for  ports  in  the  Cape  Colony  or  east  coast  of  Africa,  take 
the  direct  route  in-shore,  thus  avoiding  the  strength  of  the  Agulhas 
current,  and  being  sometimes  assisted  by  a  counter  current,  extending 
from  one  to  six  miles  off-shore,  particularly  between  cape  Agulhas  and 
Kowie  river  ;  also  betweer  Natal  and  cape  St.  Lucia,  and  Kosi  river 
and  Delagoa  bay,  there  is,  as  a  rule,  no  current  within  3  miles  of 
the   shore.    The   dangerous  set  eastward,  towards  the  land,  some- 

*  See  Admiralty  chart  of  the  World,  No.  1077,  showin^r  the  tracks  followed  by 
fall-powered  steam  vessels. 


28  PASSA6BS.  [Chap.  I. 

times  experienced  between  capes  Hangklip  and  Agulhas,  and  also  the 
dangerous  set  of  the  northern  edge  of  the  Agnlhas  current,  north-west- 
ward towards  the  land,  during  and  after  gales,  in  the  vicinity  and  west- 
ward of  Algoa  bay,  must  be  particularly  guarded  against  (pages  22, 23). 
From  Algoa  bay,  if  not  wishing  to  hug  the  shore,  a  vessel  might  push 
100  miles  to  the  eastward,  where  the  current  is  weak,  thence  parallel 
to  the  shore  until  abreast  Natal,  if  bound  there.  Also,  north-eastward 
of  Natal,  if  not  desirous  of  hugging  the  shore,  a  vessel  might  push 
eastward  nearly  to  the  meridian  of  Europa  island,  whence  probably  she 
will  meet  with  a  favourable  current  and  a  southerly  wind,  carrying  her 
past  that  island,  and  to  the  Comoro  islands,  eastward  of  the  Mozam- 
bique current.  On  account  of  the  uncertain  set  of  the  currents  in 
the  Mozambique  channel,  frequent  observations  for  ascertaining  the 
position  of  the  vessel  are  imperative.  Northward  of  cape  Delgado 
the  current  is  favourable  near  the  coast. 

Zanzibar  to  Aden,  during  north-east  monsoon,  the  coast  should  be 
avoided  northward  of  2P  S.,  on  account  of  the  strong  adverse  current. 
Mail  steamers  steer  E.N.E.  until  about  120  miles  from  the  land,  then 
parallel  to  it  until  in  lat.  6°  N.,  thence  to  Ras  Asir. 

VESSELS  WITH  SAIL  AND  AUXILIARY  STEAM  POWER. 

CAPE  to  NATAL.— From  April  to  October,  inclusive, 
the  prevailing  winds  are  westerly,  when  all  classes  of  steam  vessels 
may  make  the  passage  near  the  coast,  being  sometimes  favoured 
by  a  counter  current ;  but  guarding  against  in-draught,  as  before 
mentioned,  at  pages  22,  23. 

Prom  October  to  April,  when  the  prevailing  winds  near  the 
coast  are  easterly,  vessels  must  first  make  southing  from  the  Cape,* 
crossing  the  meridian  of  20°  E.  in  from  39°  to  40°  S.,  depending  on 
the  parallel  on  which  a  steady  fair  wind  is  picked  up  (in  January 
the  permanent  westerly  winds  are  not  usually  northward  of  40^  S.)  ; 
thence  eastward,  crossing  the  meridian  of  30^  E.  in  about  39°  S.,  and 
the  meridian  of  36°  E.  in  36°  S.,  from  whence,  if  the  vessel  will  head 
N.E.  by  N.  with  steam  and  sail,  she  may  do  so,  striking  the  parallel 
of  Natal  in  about  34°  E. ;  thence  westward  to  Natal,  making  ample 
allowance  for  crossing  the  Agulhas  current,  which  will  be  found 
setting  south-westward  from  1^  to  3  miles  an  hour.  If  the  vessel 
will  not  head  N.E.  by  N.  from  the  position  mentioned,  more  easting 
should  be  made  before  turning  towards  the  port. 

*  See  General  Remarks,  pagfes  26,  27. 


Chap.  I.]     EASTWARD  FROM  THK  CAPE  OP  GOOD  HOPE.  29 

GAPE  to  MOZAMBIQUE  and  ZANZIBAR.— April  to 
October. — Along  the  coast  as  far  as  Natal,  and  beyond  if  the  winds 
remain  favourable.  Moderate-powered  vessels  might  get  up  in-shore 
in  the  same  way  as  those  of  full-power,  but  those  under  consideration, 
when  they  meet  with  adverse  north-easterly  winds,  and  are  making 
but  little  progress  in-shore,  should  stand  away  south-eastward, 
endeavouring  to  cross  lat.  30^  S.  (the  parallel  of  Natal)  in  about 
42^  E. ;  here  they  will  probably  be  within  the  influence  of  the  south- 
east trade  winds  ;  thence  the  course  is  nearly  due  north,  with  a  favour- 
able wind,  preserving  the  long.  42°  E.,  passing  between  Europa  island 
and  the  coast  of  Madagascar,  and  close  westward  of  Juan  de  Nova 
(page  462).  If  bound  to  Mozambique,  it  may  be  steered  for  when 
abreast,  bearing  in  mind  the  strong  southerly  set,  which  may  be 
experienced  when  nearing  the  land,  of  from  2  to  4  miles  an  hour.  If 
bound  to  Zanzibar,  continue  on  from  St.  Juan  de  Nova,  passing  close 
westward  of  Great  Comoro,  thence  direct  to  Zanzibar,  sighting  Mafia 
island  to  ensure  a  correct  land-fall.  Northward  of  cape  Delgado 
the  current  will  be  favourable,  and  at  the  rate  of  2  to  4  miles  per 
hour.     See  page  364,  for  approaching  Zanzibar  channel. 

October  to  April. — From  the  Cape,  same  route  as  for  Natal  as 
far  as  lat.  36°  S.,  long.  36°  E. ;  thence  continue  north-eastward, 
crossing  the  parallel  of  30°  S.  in  about  42 '  E. ;  here  the  vessel 
will  probably  meet  with  the  south-east  trade,  and  can  then  proceed  as  in 
the  months  of  May  to  September,  keeping  in  about  long.  42°  E.,  and 
passing  close  westward  of  Juan  de  Nova.  If  bound  to  Mozambique, 
make  the  land  northward  of  it,  as  both  wind  and  current  will  tend 
to  set  the  vessel  southward  on  nearing  the  coast. 

If  bound  to  Zanzibar,  pass  close  westward  of  Great  Comoro  island  ; 
a  favourable  current  will  be  experienced  when  northward  of  cape 
Delgado,  and  the  fore  and  aft  sails  will  probably  stand.  See  also  page  364. 

An  alternative  route  to  'the  Comoro  island  and  Zanzibar,  and 
perhaps  a  quicker  one  for  a  small  powered  vessel,  is  that  eastward  of 
Madagascar.  Easting  should  be  made  in  from  lat.  39°  to  40°  S. 
from  off  the  Cape,  to  about  long.  45"^  E.,  thence  north-eastward, 
crossing  lat.  30°  S.  in  long.  53°  E.,  thence  due  North  with  south-east 
trade,  passing  midway  between  Madagascar  and  Reunion,  thence  to 
sight  the  north  extreme  of  Madagascar,  when  the  wind  and  current 
will  be  favourable  to  Comoro  and  Zanzibar. 

*  ^e  Admiralty  Chart  of  the  World,  showing  tracks  followed  by  vessels  with  sail 
and  auxiliary  steam  power,  No.  1078  ;  also  the  Admiralty  Wind  and  Current  Charts 
for  Indian  Ocean,  &c. 


30  PASSAGES.  [Chap.  1. 

CAPE  to  MAURITIUS.— The  route  is  nearly  the  same  all  the 
year  round ;  make  southing  from  the  Cape,  cross  the  meridian  of 
20''  E.  in  from  39^  to  40°  S.,  thence  make  easting  to  SO""  E.,  thence 
north-eastward,  crossing  the  parallel  of  30^  S.  in  about  59^  E.,  thence 
direct  to  Mauritius  with  the  south-east  trade  wind.* 

CAPE  to  BOMBAY —April  to  October —If  bound  to 
Bombay,  proceed  as  for  Mozambique ;  thence  the  course  may  be 
set  direct  from  the  Comoro  islands,  crossing  the  equator  in  53°  E., 
but  considerable  advantage  would  be  derived  by  following  the 
strength  of  the  current  northward  from  Delgado  to  the  equator, 
crossing  in  about  45°  E.,  then  parallel  to  the  coast  to  4^  or  5°  N., 
thence  direct  to  Bombay,  keeping  well  southward  of  the  heavy  sea 
caused  by  the  whirling  current  southward  of  Sok6tra,  which  some- 
times extends  down  to  lat.  6°  N. 

Or  the  route  to  Mauritius  may  be  taken,  as  above,  thence  westward 
of  Saya  da  Malha  bank,  across  the  equator  in  62*^  E.,  thence  direct 
to  Bombay. 

A  route  midway  between  these  two  may  also  be  taken,  passing 
close  eastward  of  the  north  end  of  Madagascar. 

October  to  April. — Make  southing  from  the  cape,  crossing 
20^  E.  in  from  39°  to  40°  S.,  keeping  between  these  parallels  as 
far  as  long.  60^  E.,  thence  north-eastward,  crossing  lat.  30°  S.  in 
long.  70°  E.,  and  10°  S.  in  72°  E.,  passing  close  eastward  of  Diego 
Garcia,  and  crossing  the  equator  in  from  76°  to  78°  E.,  thence  along 
the  west  coast  of  Hindustan  to  Bombay.  See  West  coast  of  Hindustan 
pilot. 

CAPE  to  CALCUTTA.- April  to  October,- Make  southing 
from  the  Cape  to  39°  or  40°  S.,  thence  between  these  parallels  to 
about  62°  E.,  thence  north-eastward,  crossing  the  meridian  of  80°  E.  in 
26°  S.,  and  82°  E,  in  20°  S.,  thence  across  the  equator  in  about 
82°  E.,  skirting  Ceylon,  thence  to  Calcutta.    See  Bay  of  Bengal  pilot. 

October  to  April. — Making  southing  from  the  Cape,  to  39°  or 
40°  S.,  thence  eastward  between  these  parallels  as  far  as  St.  Paul's,  or  to 
about  80°  E.,  thence  north-eastwards,  keeping  in  long.  88°  E.,  between 
the  parallels  of  30°  to  10°  S.  ;  thence  north-eastward,  crossing 
the  equator  in  93°  to  95°  E.,  thence  eastward  or  westward  of  the  Nicobar 
and  Andaman  islands  to  Calcutta.  A  vessel  will  be  in  a  much  better 
position  for  getting  up  the  bay  of  Bongal,  if,  when  approaching 
Achi  head,  the  wind  admits  of  her  passing  within  100  miles  of  it, 
thence  to  windward  of  the  islands  mentioned. 

CAPE  to  SUNDA  STRAIT.— April  to  October.— Eastward 

*  See  page  27,  paragraph  1. 


Chap.  I.]     BASTWARD  FROM  THB  CAPB  OF  GOOD  HOPB.  31 

as  for  Calcutta,  in  opposite  season,  to  St.  Pauls,  or  to  about  80^  E., 
thence  to  lat.  30^  S.  long.  100^  E.,  and  20°  S.  in  105°  E.,  passing 
close  westward  of  Christmas  island  with  the  easterly  monsoon,  to 
Java  head.  See  China  Directory,  vol.  I. 

October  to  April.— Eastward  to  St.  Paul's,  as  before 
thence  north-eastward,  crossing  lat.  30""  S.  in  long.  95°  E.,  20°  S.  in 
100'  E.,  and  8°  S.  in  102°  E.,  thence  eastward  with  the  westerly 
monsoon  to  Sunda  strait.  If  contrary  winds  are  met  with  after 
passing  St.  Paul's,  a  vessel  may  steer  at  once  to  the  northward,  into 
the  westerly  monsoon,  which  monsoon  will  carry  her  direct  to  Sunda. 

CAPE  to  AUSTRALIA.— Make  southing  from  the  Cape, 
crossing  the  meridian  of  20°  E.  in  from  39°  to  40°  S.,  at  all  times 
of  the  year,  and  continue  on  or  about  that  parallel  to  the  eastward. 
See  Australia  Directory,  Vol.  I.* 

GAPE  to  KERGTTELEN,  same  route  as  to  Australia,  but  shaping 
direct  course  for  Bligh's  cape,  near  north  extreme  of  Kerguelen  island 
from  about  long.  45°  E. 

CAPE  to  OROZETS  or  PRINCE  EDWARD  ISLANDS.— 

Same  route  as  for  Australia,  but  shaping  direct  course  from  lat.  40°  S., 
long.  20°  E. 

NATAL  to  MAURITIUS.— The  route  is  about  the  same  at  all 
seasons,  standing  south-eastward  from  Natal,  making  a  circular  track 
to  about  35°  S.,  and  again  reaching  the  parallel  of  Natal  in  about  the 
meridian  of  Mauritius,  lat.  30"^  S.,  long.  58°  to  59°  E.,  thence  direct  in 
the  south-east  trade. 

MOZAMBIQUE  to  MAURITIUS.— April  to  October.— 

The  route  is  southward  from  Mozambique,  near  the  land,  keeping  in 
the  strength  of  the  Mozambique  current  as  far  as  cape  Corrientes,  or 
beyond,  into  the  south-west  winds,  thence  make  the  best  way  eastward 
in  about  the  parallel  of  30°  S.,  to  the  meridian  of  Mauritius,  thence 
direct  in  the  south-east  trade. 

November  to  April. — The  route  is  northward  from  Mozambique, 
passing  close  westward  of  Great  Comoro  and  Aldabra  islands,  thence 
making  the  best  way  eastward,  passing  round  the  Saya  da  Malha 
bank,  then  direct  to  Mauritius  in  the  south-east  trade.  The  current 
is  about  one  mile  an  hour  adverse,  to  Saya  da  Malha  bank.  The 
southern  route,  before  mentioned,  may  also  be  taken  at  this  season. 

ZANZIBAR  to  MAURITIUS.— April  to  October.- From 
Zanzibar  the  route  is  midway  between  the  Seychelles  and  the 
equator,  in  the  south-west  monsoon,  crossing  the  meridian  of  60**  E. 

*  See  page  27,  paragzai)h  1. 


32  PASSAGBS.  [Chap.  I. 

in  about  3°  S.,  thence  steaming  south-eastward  into  the  south-east 
trade  to  about  lat.  5°  S.  long.  63°  E.,  whence  passing  eastward  of  Saya 
da  Malha  bank,  Mauritius  will  be  fetched  on  the  port  tack.  See 
passage  to  Seychelles,  below. 

November  to  April. — Eastward  from  Zanzibar  with  north-east 
and  westerly  monsoons  to  Saya  da  Malha  bank,  passing  north-eastward 
of  it,  thence  steaming  southward  into  the  south-east  trade,  thence 
direct  to  Mauritius  on  the  port  tack. 

ZANZIBAR  to  SEYCHELLES.— April  to  October.— The 
quickest  way  is  to  steam  a  direct  course,  taking  advantage  of  any  slight 
shift  of  wind  to  assist  with  fore  and  aft  sails.  During  the  early  part 
of  August,  when  the  south-east  trade  blows  strongest  and  reaches  the 
African  coast,  and  the  current  is  running  strong  to  the  northward, 
the  passage  is  somewhat  tedious.  A  small  powered  vessel  might  stand 
off  on  the  starboard  tack  (as  for  Mauritius)  ;  should  she  reach  north 
of  the  equator,  she  will,  when  eastward  of  the  Seychelles  have  no 
difficulty  in  fetching  the  islands,  owing  to  the  favourable  current 
which  may  be  relied  on  as  far  south  as  lat.  4°  S.,  and  at  times  even  6^  S. 

November  to  April. — Same  route  as  to  Aden,  see  page  33. 

ZANZIBAR  to  ADEN.— April  to  October.— In  this,  the 
south-west  monsoon  period,  all  vessels  take  the  direct  route,  passing 
through  Pemba  channel  and  keeping  near  the  African  coast  the  whole 
way  to  Ras  Asir,  to  get  the  full  benefit  of  the  northerly  current  which 
runs  with  a  velocity  of  tiO  to  100  miles  per  day. 

Precautions  necessary  in  rounding  Ras  Aslr.— As  many 
large  and  valuable  vessels  have  from  time  to  time  been  wrecked  with 
loss  of  life  on  the  coast  to  the  southward  of  Ras  Asir  (cape  Guardafui), 
the  seaman  should  use  the  utmost  caution  when  bound  round  this 
headland  from  the  south  or  south-eastward,  during  the  south-west 
monsoon,  when  the  weather  is  stormy,  accompanied  by  a  heavy  sea 
and  strong  current,  and  the  land  is  generally  obscured  by  a  thick  haze. 

The  similarity  between  the  outlines  of  the  headlands  of  Ras  Jard 
Haf lin  and  Ras  Asir  is  a  fertile  source  of  disaster.  Ras  Jard  Haf lin 
is  much  the  higher  (2,900  feet),  Ras  Asir  being  about '780  feet,  and 
separated  from  Ras  Jard  Hafiin  by  a  broad  sandy  plain  of  little 
height  compared  with  the  two  headlands  that  bound  it.  In  hazy 
weather  at  night  the  steep  fall  of  Jard  Haf lin  is  dimly  seen  from 
the  deck  of  a  vessel,  and  when  this  bears  southward  of  West,  if  Ras 
Asir  is  not  sighted,  as  is  often  the  case  from  the  haze  being  thicker 
in  the  lower  strata,  and  also  from  the  light  colour  of  the  hill 
rendering  it  difficult  to  discern,  the  navigator  fancies  he  has  rounded 


Chap.  I.]  ZANZIBAR  TO   ADBN,   &C.  33 

it  already,  and  steers  to  the  westward  into  the  low  bay  of  Wadi 
Tuhom.* 

During  day-time,  a  gradual  change  will  probably  be  seen  in  the 
colour  of  the  water  from  blue  to  dark  green.  Attention  should  also 
be  paid  to  the  alteration  in  the  direction  of  the  swell  caused  by  the 
promontory  of  Ras  Hafiin ;  the  water  gets  smoother  and  the  swell 
alters  its  direction  to  the  eastward  of  south,  when  the  meridian  of 
that  cape  is  passed. 

It  has  been  stated  that  the  temperature  of  the  sea  surface  decreases 
considerably  as  the  coast  between  Ras  Hafun  and  Ras  Asir  is 
approached,  a  sudden  rise  to  a  temperature  of  about  80°  taking  place 
only  to  the  northward  of  Ras  Asir,  and  that  this  rise  in  temperature 
can  be  safely  taken  as  an  indication  that  the  cape  is  passed,  and  that 
the  vessel's  course  can  be  shaped  westwards  with  confidence. 

An  examination  by  the  Meteorological  Office  of  a  large  number  of 
observations  on  temperature  show  that  this  is  not  the  case.  While 
it  is  true  that  the  temperature  of  the  sea  north  of  Ras  Asir  is 
invarial)ly  high,  the  temperature  to  the  southward,  and  especially  off 
Ras  Jard  Hafun,  is  not  invariably  low,  and  any  action  founded  on 
the  thermometer  would,  therefore,  be  most  dangerous. 

To  ensure  safety,  when  the  land  cannot  be  clearly  seen  and  recog- 
nized, especially  at  night,  the  lead,  and  the  lead  alone,  can  be  relied  on. 

As  soundings  extend  from  10  to  12  miles  froir  the  coast,  the  deep- 
sea  lead  should  be  frequently  used,  and  the  vessel's  course  altered 
to  N.  by  E.  or  N.  by  E.  ^  E.,  or  if  necessary  more  to  the  eastward, 
immediately  soundings  are  struck,  or  the  land  sighted  in  dark  or 
hazy  weather.  By  steering  to  the  northward  as  above,  and  by  not 
standing  into  less  than  35  fathoms  water,  the  vessel's  safety  will  be 
ensured,  and  as  the  water  rapidly  deepens  northward  of  the  parallel 
of  the  cape,  the  100-fathoms  line  of  soundings  being  only  2^  miles 
from  it,  there  will  be  no  difficulty  as  to  the  time  when  the  course 
should  be  altered  to  the  westward. 

Westward  of  Ras  Asir,  the  African  coast  should  be  kept  aboard  as 
far  as  Burnt  island  ;  thence  direct  to  Aden.    See  Gulf  of  Aden  Pilot 

November  to  April. — From  Zanzibar  to  Aden  or  Seychelles, 
small-powered  steam  vessels  may  proceed  through  Pemba  channel  to 
take  advantage  of  the  favourable  northerly  current,  as  far  as  about 
lat.  3^  S.,  or  near  Lamu,  whence  she  may  gradually  steal  towards  the 

*  A  fnll  description  of  the  land  about  Kas  Asir  will  be  found  at  pages  457-8. 
From  1876-1882,  seven  vessels  were  wrecked  and  three  stranded  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Ras  Asir ;  in  August  1885  the  steamer  Dalmatia  was  wrecked  15  miles 
southward  of  it  (5  miles  southward  of  Ras  Jard  Hafiin). 

S.O.  10625.  0 


34  PASSAGBS.  [Chap.  I. 

equator,  and  on  to  the  Seychelles  on  the  port  tack.  From  Seychelles, 
the  westerly  monsoon  will  take  her,  with  a  leading  wind,  to  the 
equator,  which  should  be  crossed  in  about  long.  61°  E.,  thence 
steaming  to  the  northward,  the  wind  will  gradually  haul  through 
north  to  N.E.,  enabling  the  vessel  with  steam  and  sail,  from  lat.  about 
6°  N.,  to  fetch  Ras  Asir,  thence  with  a  fair  wind  to  Aden. 

ZANZIBAlR  to  BOMBAY.— AprU  to  October.— North- 
ward  through  Pemba  channel,  when  course  may  be  shaped  direct ; 
but  advantage  may  be  taken  of  the  strong  coast  current  as  far  as 
lat.  4°  or  5^  N.,  thence  direct  to  Bombay,  keeping  well  southward  of 
the  heavy  sea  caused  by  the  whirling  current  southward  of  Sok6tra, 
which  sometimes  extends  down  to  6°  N. 

November  to  April. — ^As  for  Aden  (page  33),  to  abreast 
the  Seychelles,  passing  on  either  side  ;  thence  with  the  westerly 
monsoon,  in  about  the  parallel  of  5°  S.,  to  long.  7°  E.  ;  from  thence, 
north-eastward  across  the  equator  in  76°  to  78°  E.,  and  northward 
up  the  west  coast  of  Hindustan  to  Bombay.  See  west  coast  of 
Hindustan  pilot. 

ZANZIBAR  to  OALOUTTA.—April  to  October.— Course 

is  direct,  passing  either  southward  of  Chagos  or  through  the  one  and 
a-half  degree  channel,  past  Ceylon,  and  up  the  west  side  of  the  bay 
of  Bengal. 

November  to  April. — Northward  through  Pemba  channel, 
to  lat.  3°  S.,  or  near  Lamu,  as  for  Aden  (page  33),  thence  on  the  port 
tack  to  Seychelles  ;  thence,  with  the  westerly  monsoon,  the  parallel 
of  5^  S.  should  be  kept,  until  in  long.  90°  E.,  crossing  the  equator 
in  92^  to  94°  E.,  thence  to  Calcutta. 


PASSAGES  FROM  THE  PORTS  IN  EAST  AFRICA  AND 
INDIA  TO  THE  CAPE  OF  GOOD  HOPE.— HOMEWARD 
(WESTWARD)  ROUTES. 

FULL-POWERED  STEAM  VESSELS. 

ZANZIBAR,  MOZAMBIQUE,  or  other  East  African 
ports,  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.— Full-powered  steam  vessels 
take  the  direct  route  alongshore  at  all  seasons  of  the  year.  From  near 
Cape  Delgado,  or  from  lat.  IQP  to  11°  S.,  the  coast  current  is  favour- 
able for  the  whole  distance  to  the  Cape,  from  one  to  3  miles  per  hour  ; 
near  Natal  at  times  it  amounts  to  4  miles  per  hour.  Between 
Algoa  bay  and  Mossel  bay  the  strength  of  the  current  lies  from  50 


Chap.  I.]    WESTWARD  TO  THB  OAPB  OP  GOOD  HOPS.         35 

to  100  miles  off-shore ;  this  distance  might  be  kept  with  advantage, 
but  it  is  advisable  to  sight  Cape  Agulhas  light.  June  to  August  are 
the  worst  months  for  passing  westward  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

CALCUTTA   and  SUNDA   STRAIT,    to  the  CAPE.— 

The  full-powered  steam  vessel  route  is  direct  to  Mauritius,  thence 
about  100  miles  southward  of  Madagascar,  making  the  African  coast 
about  200  miles  southward  of  Natal ;  thence  in  the  strength  of  the 
Agulhas  current  to  the  Cape,  as  above  mentioned. 

BOMBAY  to  the  CAPE. — ^The  route  is  direct  for  Mozambique, 
thence  down  the  African  coast  with  the  Mozambique  and  Agulhas 
current,  as  above.  During  the  height  of  the  south-west  monsoon,  on 
leaving  Bombay,  a  S.S.W.  course  should  be  taken  to  about  9^  N., 
where  the  wind  becomes  lighter  and  the  water  smoother,  thence 
across  the  equator  in  about  57^  E.,  close  westward  of  the  Seychelles 
to  Mozambique,  &c, 

ADEN  to  ZANZIBAR. — During  the  strength  of  the  south- 
west monsoon,  the  British  India  mail  steamers  make  the  passage, 
with  the  assistance  of  fore  and  aft  sails.  From  Ras  Asir,  they  keep 
nearly  close  hauled  on  the  starboard  tack  to  about  the  meridian 
of  54°  E.,  thence  making  due  South  to  about  2°  N.,  from  whence  they 
fetch  Lamu,  on  the  port  tack.  This  route  avoids  heading  the  heavy 
sea  southward  of  Sok6tra,  and  also  the  strong  north-easterly  current 
of  3  to  4  miles  an  hour,  probably  found  within  50  to  100  miles  of 
the  coast.  Little  or  no  adverse  current  will  be  found  on  the  meridian 
of  54°  E.,  southward  of  lat.  8°  N. 

Bound  to  Zanzibar,  continue  the  due  South  course  as  far  as  the 
equator,  crossing  it  in  long.  54°  E.,  thence  on  the  port  tack ;  the 
distance  may  be  shortened  under  favourable  circumstances  of  wind 
and  weather  by  crossing  the  equator  farther  west. 

VESSELS  WITH  SAIL  AND  AUXILIARY  STEAM  POWER.* 

OiiLLOUTTA   to   ZANZIBAR.— April   to  October.— Due 

South  from  Calcutta,  crossing  the  equator  in  about  long.  90^  E., 
thence  south-westward  across  the  doldrum  space  to  pick  up  the 
south-east  trade,  to  probably  5°  or  6^  S.,  thence  via  Diego  Garcia 
and  the  Seychelles  with  the  trade  to  Zanzibar.    See  page  364. 

During  the  height  of  the  south-west  monsoon,  it  might  be 
advisable  (as  in  a  sailing  vessel)  to  pass  eastward  of  the  Andamans 
and  Nicobars,  thence  westward  of  Achi   head  ;    the  equator  will 

.*  Sec  Admiralty  chart  of  the  World,  No.  1078,  showlnj?  the  tracks  for  vessels  with 
Bail  and  auxiliary  steam  power. 

S.O.  10625.  C  2 


36  PASSAGES.  [Chap.  I. 

scarcely  be  crossed  westward  of  long.  95°  E.,  but  when  well  in  the 
south-east  trade,  steer  to  the  westward  past  Diego  Garcia  and 
Seychelles  to  Zanzibar. 

October  to  April,  the  route  is  direct. 

BOMBAY  and  SEYCHELLES  to  ZANZIBAR.-May  to 
September. — Stand  on  the  starboard  tack  Avrith  fore  and  aft  sails, 
about  S.S.W.  from  Bombay ;  the  monsoon  will  abate  and  the  sea 
become  smoother  in  about  9°  N. ;  whence  stand  away  free  across  the 
equator,  crossing  in  about  long.  70°  E.,  or  more  westward  if  the  wind 
permits,  thence  southward  across  the  narrow  doldrum  space  to 
about  lat.  3°  S.,  whence  the  south-east  trade  will  carry  the  vessel  to 
Seychelles  or  Zanzibar,  making  due  allowance  for  the  strong 
northerly  current  when  approaching  the  latter  island.  In  May, 
before  the  south-west  monsoon  has  set  in  at  Bombay,  a  vessel  will 
proceed  direct  until  the  monsoon  is  met  with,  thence  on  the  starboard 
tack  into  the  south-east  trade  as  before  stated.  During  the  height  of 
the  south-west  monsoon,  it  is  advisable  to  run  down  the  coast  from 
Bombay,  eastward  of  the  Maldivh  and  Laccadivh  groups,  thence 
across  the  doldrums  and  proceeding  as  before 

October  to  April. — From  Bombay  and  Seychelles  the  route  to 
Zanzibar  is  direct. 

ADEN  to  ZANZIBAR.— May  to  September.— Having 
passed  northward  of  SokOtra,  stand  away  to  the  south-eastward, 
crossing  the  equator  in  from  70^  to  72"^  E.,  thence  as  from  Bombay,  p.  35. 

October  to  April.— From  Aden,  the  route  is  round  Ras  Asir, 
thence  direct  to  Zanzibar. 

MAURITIUS  to  ZANZIBAR.— The  route  is  direct  at  all 
seasons  of  the  year,  passing  near  the  north  end  of  Madagascar,  and 
entering  Zanzibar  from  the  southward,  taking  care  to  make  the 
land  about  the  north  point  of  Mafia  to  allow  for  the  strong  but 
variable  northerly  current  (see  p.  364). 

MAURITIUS  to  MOZAMBIQUE.— The  route  is  direct  at  all 
seasons  of  the  year,  passing  near  the  north  end  of  Madagascar, 
guarding  against  the  strong  southerly  set  of  the  current  when  ap- 
proaching the  port  of  Mozambique  (see  p.  24  and  237). 

MAURITIUS  to  NATAL  and  the  CAPE —The  route  is 
nearly  direct  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  with  a  favourable  wind  and 
current,  passing  about  100  miles  southward  of  Madagascar,  to  Natal. 
In  December  and  January  it  is  advisable  to  make  more  southing  when 
leaving  Mauritius,  as  westerly  winds  are  occasionally  found  at  that 
time  between  it  and  Madagascar,  bui  those  are  not  frequent.  If  not 
bound  to  Natal,  the  African  coast  might  be  made  about  200  miles 


Chap.  I.]    WESTWARD  TO  THE  CAPE  OP  GOOD  HOPE.         37 

southward  of  it,  thence  alongshore  in  the  strength  of  the  Agulhas 
current,  passing  about  50  miles  off  Algoa  bay,  100  miles  off  Mossel 
bay,  and  sighting  Cape  Agulhas  light  before  shaping  course  for 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

KERGUELEN  to  the  GAPE. — From  Kerguelen  the  route 
is  northward  going  free  on  the  port  tack  with  the  prevailing 
westerly  wind  into  the  south-east  trade  to  about  25°  S.,  thence  to  the 
westward,  passing  about  100  miles  southward  of  Madagascar,  and 
making  the  coast  of  Africa  about  200  miles  southward  of  Natal, 
proceeding  as  just  before  mentioned. 

GROZETS  and  PRINCE  EDWARD  ISLANDS  to  the 
GAPE. — Stand  northward  as  from  Kerguelen,  thence  to  the  African 
coast. 

SUNDA  STRAIT  to  the  CAPE.— May  to  October,  direct, 
passing  southward  of  Rodriguez,  and  about  100  miles  southward 
of  Madagascar,  and  making  the  African  coast  as  from  Mauritius,  p.  36. 

November  to  April. — From  Sunda  strait  on  the  starboard 
tack,  with  the  westerly  monsoon,  passing  westward  of  Christmas 
island  into  the  south-east  trade ;  thence  direct  for  Madagascar, 
thence  as  from  Mauritius,  page  36.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that 
this  is  the  cyclone  season,  when  the  barometer  and  weather  signs 
should  be  carefully  noted. 

TORRES  STRAITS  to  the  CAPE.— May  to  October,  the 
route  is  southward  of  Keeling  islands,  and  crossing  the  meridian 
of  80°  E.  in  lat.  18°  S.  ;  thence  passing  100  miles  south  of  Madagascar, 
as  from  Mauritius,  page  36. 

SOUTH  AUSTRALIA  to  the  GAPE.— December  to 
March,  from  Cape  Leeuwin,  the  course  is  north-westward  to 
lat.  20°  S.,  long.  80°  E.,  thence  to  about  100  miles  southward  of 
Madagascar,  as  from  Sunda  strait  and  Mauritius.  This  is  the  route 
at  all  times  of  the  year  from  West  Australia. 

GALGUTTA  to  the  GAPE.— May  to  September  or 
October. — Southward  from  Calcutta,  crossing  the  equator  in  90°  E., 
thence  direct  to  Rodriguez,  and  passing  southward  of  Madagascar  as 
from  Mauritius,  page  36. 

November  to  April,  eastward  of  Ceylon  and  Diego  Garcia, 
thence  direct  to  Mauritius  and  southward  of  Madagascar  as  from 
Mauritius,  page  36. 

BOMBAY  to  MAURITIUS  and  on  to  the  CAPE.— May 
to  September. — Down  the  coast,  eastward  of  Maldivh  islands,  cross- 
ing the  equator  in  75°  E.,  thence  direct  to  Mauritius,  or  100  miles  to 
windward   if  not  calling  there  ;    thence  100  miles  southward   of 


38  PASSAGES.  [Chap.  I. 

Madagascar,  making  the  African  coast  about  200  miles  southward 
of  Natal,  thence  in  the  strength  of  the  Agulhas  current,  which  passes 
Algoa  bay  at  about  50  miles  distance,  and  Mossel  bay  at  about  100  miles ; 
thence  sight  Agulhas  light  before  shaping  course  for  the  Cape. 

October  to  April.— From  Bombay  to  the  Cape,  steer  direct  to  and 
westward  of  Comoro  islands,  thence  near  the  African  coast  in  the 
strength  of  the  Mozambique  and  Agulhas  currents  to  the  Cape  as  in 
opposite  season.  From  Mauritius  to  the  Cape  the  route  is  similar  to 
that  taken  in  May  to  September,  but  a  little  southing  on  leaving 
Mauritius  might  be  made  before  shaping  course  for  south  end  of 
Madagascar. 

ADEN  to  the  CAPE —May  to  September —Having  passed 
northward  of  Sokotra,  stand  away  to  the  south-eastward,  and  cross 
the  equator  in  about  72°  E.  ;  thence  steaming  to  the  southward 
through  the  doldrums  and  eastward  of  the  Chagos  group,  whence 
Mauritius  will  be  fetched  on  the  port  tack  with  the  south-east 
trade  ;  thence  to  the  Cape  as  from  Mauritius,  page  36. 

October  to  April.— Direct  from  Ras  Asir,  with  a  favourable 
wind  and  current,  crossing  the  equator  in  45°  E. ;  thence  close 
westward  of  Great  Comoro  and  along  the  African  coast  in  the 
Mozambique  current,  as  from  Zanzibar  and  Mozambique  {see  below). 
Little  ground  would  be  lost  by  making  the  passage  via  Zanzibar. 

BOMBAY  to  the  CAPE.— May  to  September.— The  route  is 
via  Mauritius  {see  page  37). 

October  to  April. — Direct,  crossing  the  equator  in  53°  E.,  thence 
westward  of  Great  Comoro,  and  down  the  coast  with  the  Mozambique 
and  Agulhas  currents,  as  from  Mozambique  ;  see  below. 

ZANZIBAR,  MOZAMBIQUE,  and  NATAL  to  the 
CAPE. — Both,  seasons. — Down  the  coast  from  Zanzibar,  through 
Mafia  channel,  keeping  close  in  shore  (inside  Lazarus  bank)  until 
southward  of  cape  Delgado,  from  which  cape  the  current  will 
be  strong  and  favourable ;  although  somewhat  longer  than  the 
direct  route,  there  will  be  less  adverse  winds  and  currents,  and 
smoother  water  in  the  south-west  monsoon  period.  Vessels  bound  to 
the  north-west  coast  of  Madagascar  should  keep  the  African  coast  as 
far  as  Mozambique  port.  From  Mozambique  to  Natal  and  the  Cape, 
keep  in  the  strength  of  the  Mozambique  and  Agulhas  currents  to 
Natal ;  thence  in  the  strength  of  the  latter  current,  passing  about 
50  miles  off  Algoa  bay  and  100  miles  off  Mossel  bay  ;  cape  Agulhas 
light  should  be  sighted,  whence  course  may  be  shaped  for  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope. 


Chap.  I.]  SAILING  VB8SBLS.  39 

OUTWARD  (EASTWARD)  ROUTES.— SAILING  VESSELS. 

GAPE  to  EAST  AFRICAN  PORTS —The  routes  for 
sailing  vessels  from  the  cape  of  Good  Hope  to  East  African  ports  are 
much  the  same  as  those  given  for  vessels  with  sail  and  auxiliary  steam 
power,  but  a  little  more  easting  than  that  recommended  for  those 
vessels  might  profitably  be  made  before  leaving  the  westerly  winds.* 
The  Mozambique  channel,  or  the  passage  close  eastward  of 
Madagascar,  may  be  taken  during  the  south-west  monsoon  period 
(April  to  October)  ;  but  in  the  opposite  season,  only  the  latter 
passage.     {See  page  29). 

GAPE  to  BOMBAY.— April  to  October.- Vessels  bound 
from  the  Cape  to  the  west-coast  of  Hindustan  may,  during  the  south- 
west monsoon  period,  take  either  of  the  routes  mentioned  at  page  29, 
through  Mozambique  channel,  or  eastward  of  Madagascar,  provided 
they  are  certain  of  reaching  their  port  before  mid-October,  otherwise 
they  should  take  the  route  for  the  north-east  monsoon  period,  here 
mentioned.    See  West  coast  of  Hindustan  pilot. 

November  to  April. — During  the  north-east  monsoon  period, 
make  easting  from  the  Cape  to  long.  65°  E.,  cross  lat.  30°  S.  in  75°  E., 
lat.  10°  S.  in  70°  E.,  and  the  equator  in  80°  E.,  thence  up  the  coast 
of  Hindustan. 

GAPE  to  CALCUTTA.- April  to  October.— From  the 
Cape  to  Calcutta,  in  south-west  monsoon  period,  make  easting  from 
the  Cape  to  long.  60°  E.,  crossing  lat.  30°  S.  in  long.  72°  E.,  thence 
across  the  equator  in  78°  E.,  and  direct  to  Ceylon  or  Calcutta. 

November  to  April.—  During  north-east  monsoon,  make  easting 
to  St.  Paul's,  or  a  little  beyond  to  80°  E.,  thence  north-eastward, 
crossing  lat.  30°  S.  in  long.  95°  E.,  and  equator  in  95°  or  96°  E., 
thence  as  near  Achi  head  as  the  wind  permits,  and  eastward  or 
westward  of  Nicobar  island  ;  the  former  is  to  be  preferred,  as  the 
vessel  will  have  a  better  chance  of  fetching  up  the  Bay  of  Bengal. 
See  Bay  of  Bengal  pilot. 

HOMEWARD  (WESTWARD)  ROUTES.— The  homeward 
routes  from  India,  for  sailing  vessels,  during  the  south-west  monsoon 
period  are  similar  to  the  routes  given  for  the  small-powered  steam 
vessels  during  the  height  of  that  monsoon  {see  page  37),  but  the 
equator  will  probably  not  be  crossed  so  far  to  the  westward. 

During  the  north-east  monsoon  the  wind  is  fair  and  the  homeward 
route  is  the  same  as  for  small-powered  steam  vessels,  as  before 
described. 


♦  See  Admiralty  chart  of  the  World  showing  the  auxiliary  steam  tracks,  No.  1078. 


40 


CHAPTER  11. 


TABLE  BAY  TO  CAPE  AGULHAS. 

(Between  long.  18°  20'  and  20°  E.) 


Variation  in  1889. 

TABLE  BAY 30°  0' W. 

OAPB  AGULHAS 30°  20'  W. 


The  CAPE  PENINSULA  is  a  remarkable  promontory,  ex- 
tending about  28  miles  north  and  south,  and  from  5  to  8  miles  in 
breadth,  with  a  varying  height  from  3^550  feet  at  Table  mountain, 
and  3,200  feet  at  Constantia  berg,  to  but  a  few  feet  above  the  sea 
between  Fish  Hook  bay  on  the  east  and  Chapman  bay  on  the  west ; 
which  low  land,  however,  is  only  visible  on  particular  bearings- 
The  neck  of  land  connecting  the  peninsula  on  its  north-east  side 
with  the  main,  and  extending  from  Table  bay  to  the  head  of  False 
bay,  is  low,  and  about  11  miles  across.* 

The  Cape  peninsula  is  rocky  and  barren,  with  a  stunted  growth  of 
trees  here  and  there  ;  the  fertile  valleys,  however,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Constantia  and  Wynberg  are  pleasing  exceptions.  From  the  west- 
ward, the  peninsula  appears  high  and  rugged  from  Table  mountain 
to  within  4  miles  of  the  cape  of  Good  Hope,  where  the  mountain 
chain  terminates  at  Paulsberg,  which  stands  over  the  north  extreme 
of  Buffals  bay,  on  the  east  side  of  the  peninsula.  From  Paulsberg 
to  Cape  point  the  land  is  elevated  and  even,  with  the  exception  of 
two  peaks  at  its  southern  extremity,  which  at  a  considerable  distance 
make  like  a  saddle  island. 

Soundingrs    Westward    of  the    Cape   peninsula.— The 

ofl&ng  westward  of  the  Cape  peninsula  has  not  been  thoroughly 
sounded  ;  but  from  what  has  been  done,  it  appears  that  at  4  miles 
from  the  shore  there  is  no  bottom  at  40  fathoms,  and  off  the  liigh  land 
north-west  of  Hout  bay  there  is  none  at  40  fathoms  1^  miles  off 

*  See  the  opening  paragraph  of  Chapter  T. 


Chap.  II.]  CAPE  PENINSULA— TABLE   BAY.  41 

shore.  From  Hout  bay  to  the  Cape  the  water  is  less  deep,  the 
soundings  varying  from  24  to  10  fathoms,  rocky  bottom,  at  from  one 
to  2  miles  off  shore.  At  the  distance  of  5  miles  north  of  the  Cape, 
and  abreast  of  the  south  Whittle  western  beacon,  10  fathoms,  rock, 
were  obtained  at  IJ  miles  off  shore,  and  the  sea  breaks  on  this  spot 
in  bad  weather.  The  precaution,  therefore,  of  using  the  lead  when 
approaching  the  Cape  should  never  be  omitted  if  doubt  exists  as  to 
the  accuracy  of  the  vessel's  position. 

TABLE  BAY  is  an  indentation  on  the  northern  side  of  the  neck 
of  the  Cape  peninsula,  about  4  miles  wide  at  its  entrance  between 
Whale  rock  and  Green  point,  and  sufficiently  commodious  to 
accommodate  a  large  fleet.  The  breakwater  in  course  of  construction, 
ta  large  portion  of  which  is  now  complete,  with  its  transverse  arms, 
and  the  basin  accommodation  within,  afford  shelter  for  several  large 
vessels.  Vessels  of  24  feet  draught  can  coal  alongside  the  outer 
transverse  arm.    For  anchorage,  see  page  46*. 

Table  mountain. — The  bay  derives  its  name  from  Table 
mountain,  a  remarkable  and  gigantic  mass  of  quartzoze  sandstone, 
rising  to  an  elevation  of  3,550  feet  at  the  south  part  of  the  bay 
immediately  over  Cape  town.  The  mountain,  which  rests  on  a 
granite  base  500  feet  above  the  sea,  is  level  on  the  top,  and  falls 
nearly  perpendicularly  at  the  east  end,  until  it  joins  Devil's  peak, 
which  is  a  rugged  peaked  mountain,  3,270  feet  high,  and  separated 
from  the  former  by  a  gap.  On  the  east  side  of  Table  mountain  and 
Devil's  peak,  lies  the  low  sandy  isthmus  between  Table  and  False 
bays.  The  west  end  of  Table  mountain  is  also  nearly  perpendicular 
from  its  summit  to  a  considerable  distance,  -and  is  then  united  by 
an  abrupt  declivity  with  the  base  of  a  conical  mountain  called 
Lion's  head,  which  is  about  2,180  feet  higt,  and  is  in  some  places 
so  steep,  that  it  can  only  be  ascended  by  steps  cut  in  the  rock. 

From  the  north  side  of  the  Lion's  head  a  rounded  ridge  extends  to 
the  north-east,  where  it  reaches  an  elevation  of  1,150  feet,  and  is 
known  as  Lion's  rump,  upon  which  is  a  signal  station. 

BlaauwbePgr   (Blue    hill),    a    dark  round  hill  rising  to  an 
elevation  of  745  feet,  may  be  considered  the  northern  boundary 
of  the  approach  to  Table  bay. 

*See  Admiralty  charts  : — Table  bay  to  Donkin  bay,  No.  2,091  :  Table  bay  to  cape 
Agulhas,  with,  plan  of  Table  and  Simon's  bays  No.  2,082  ;  plan  of  Table  bay. 
No  1,920  ;  scale  m  =  2.8  inches  ;  and  Table  bay,  breakwater,  and  docks,  No.  123  ; 
scale  m  =  30  inches. 


42  TABLE  BAY.  [Chap.  II. 

Salt  river. — Southward  of  Blaauwberg,  the  shore  for  2  miles  is 
composed  of  a  number  of  white  sand  hills  from  100  to  200  feet  high, 
at  which  distance  rocks  and  breakers  extend  one-third  of  a  mile  off 
shore  ;  it  then  gradually  curves  to  the  south-westward  for  8  miles, 
to  the  mouth  of  Salt  river.  The  whole  of  this  space  is  very  deceptive 
to  vessels  standing  into  the  bay  at  night  or  in  hazy  weather,  from  the 
close  resemblance  the  sand  bears  to  the  water. 

The  mouth  of  Salt  river  is  fordable  in  summer,  but  dangerous  in 
winter,  when  it  becomes  an  extensive  quicksand.  Another  winter 
mouth  of  the  river  lies  about  2  miles  north-eastward  ;  this  mouth  is 
fronted  by  foul  ground  with  depths  of  3  to  5  fathoms  water,  to  the 
distance  of  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  shore,  and  on  which  the 
sea  breaks  after  heavy  N.W.  gales  ;  with  this  exception,  the  water 
shoals  regularly  from  8  fathoms,  to  the  sandy  beach  between 
Blaauwberg  and  Salt  river.  From  Salt  river  the  coast  sweeps  to  the 
westward  and  northward,  fronting  Cape  Town,  and  forming  Table 
bay  anchorage. 

The  Tygerberg  hills,  1,357  feet  high,  and  6  miles  in  length,  extend 
5  miles  in  a  north  and  south  direction,  within  the  eastern  shore  of 
Table  bay.  With  the  exception  of  Blaauwberg,  these  are  the  only 
elevations  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Table  bay,  north  of  Table 
mountain. 

ROBBEN  ISLAND  lies  about  5  miles  northward  of  Green  point, 
the  northern  extremity  of  the  Cape  peninsula,  and,  and  with  its 
light,  forms  an  admirable  landmark  for  the  northern  approach  to 
Table  bay.  It  is  low,  flat,  nearly  2  miles  in  length  N.N.E.  and 
S.S.W.,  with  a  breadth-of  one  mile.  The  island  is  fringed  by  reefs, 
which  project  fully  a  cable  off  its  western  side  ;  but  rocky  ground, 
with  from  5  to  11  fathoms,  extends  W.  by  N.  for  the  distance 
of  one  mile  from  its  western  extreme,  and  on  which  the  sea  breaks 
heavily  during  strong  breezes  from  S.W.  to  North.  This  rocky 
ground  rises  suddenly  from  depths  of  25  and  30  fathoms.  See  light, 
page  44. 

The  north-east  side  of  the  island  is  free  from  danger,  but  the  east 
and  south  shores  are  fronted  by  rocky  ground,  with  irregular  sound- 
ings varying  from  2  to  4  fathoms,  and  marked  by  an  abundance  of 
seaweed  to  the  distance  of  3  to  4  cables. 

Landing. — There  is  a  jetty  on  the  south-east  side  of  the  island 
for  the  convenience  of  the  lunatic  establishment,  and  there  is  also 
good  landing  on  the  north-east  side,  in  Murray  bay. 


Chap.  II.]  •  ROBBBN   ISLAND — CAPE  TOWN.  43 

Whale  rook,  with  a  depth  of  about  6  feet,  marked  -  by  seaweed, 
and  upon  which  the  sea  usually  breaks,  lies  S.  by  W.  ^  W.  1^  miles 
from  the  lighthouse  on  Robben  island.  Between  the  rock  and 
Robben  island,  there  is  a  passage  nearly  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
wide,  with  depths  varying  from  4  to  7  fathoms,  over  rocky  ground  ; 
but  this  channel  should  never  be  attempted  by  sailing  vessels, 
except  in  case  of  emergency,  as  the  currents  are  sometimes  strong 
and  uncertain  in  their  direction  about  the  rock. 

Robben  anoliorage. — On  the  north-east  side  of  Robben  island, 
there  is  fair  anchorage,  sheltered  from  W.S.W.  to  N.W,  winds.  The 
best  position  for  a  large  vessel  is  with  Whale  rock  breaker  open  eastward 
of  the  south  point  of  the  island,  bearing  S.W.,  and  the  north  extreme 
of  the  island  N.W.  ^  N.,  in  8  or  9  fathoms  water,  sandy  bottom. 
Smaller  vessels  will  find  excellent  shelter  nearer  the  island,  in  5  and 
6  fathoms.  Closer  to  the  shore  than  this,  the  ground  is  rocky. 
The  channel  between  Blaauwberg  beach  and  Robben  island  is 
nearly  4  miles  wide,  with  depths  of  7  to  10  fathoms. 

CAPE  TOWN,  the  capital  of  the  colony  and  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment, stands  on  the  western  shore  of  Table  bay,  between  it  and  the 
foot  of  Table  mountain,  and  is  well  laid  out  with  numerous  public 
buildings,  schools,  churches,  hospitals,  and  several  good  squares  ;  in 
1887  it  contained  a  population  of  about  40,000.  It  is  connected  with 
the  principal  places  in  the  Colony  by  railway  and  telegraph,  see  page  8. 

Breakwater  and  docks*— About  midway  between  Mouille  point 
and  Amsterdam  battery  on  the  north  side  of  Cape  town,  a  breakwater 
extends  about  1,000  yards  in  a  N.E.,  and  E.  by  N.  (true)  direction,  to  a 
depth  of  40  feet  at  low  water  springs*;  works  are  in  progress  to  extend 
it  a  further  distance  of  about  150  yards  in  an  E.  by  N.  direction.  A 
coaling  jetty  600  feet  long,  and  about  the  same  distance  seaward  of 
east  jetty,  has  been  built  at  right  angles  to  the  breakwater,  which 
much  facilitates  the  coaling  of  large  steamers;  additional  wharf 
accomodation  has  also  been  formed  between  these  jetties,  with  depths 
from  21  to  26  feet  alongside.  Several  buoys  have  been  placed  for  the 
convenience  of  warping. 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  of  Table  bay,  breakwater,  and  docks.  No.  128  ;  scale  to  =  30 
inches.    Anthori^,  Sir  John  Coode,  January  1889. 

It  is  proposed  to  build  a  transverse  arm  850  feet  long,  700  feet  seaward  of 
the  coaling  jetty ;  also  a  pier  parallel  with  the  breakwater,  1,500  feet  long  with  a 
cant  of  370  feet,  having  an  entrance  240  feet  wide  between  it  and  the  transverse 
pier  from  the  breakwater.  This  will,  if  carried  out,  enclose  a  considerable  space, 
with  depths  from  21  to  32  feet,  and  afford  ample  protection  from  the  dangerous 
northerly  gales. 


44  TABLE  BAY.  [Chap.  II. 

Outer  basin. — At  the  inner  end  of  the  breakwater,  on  the  Bonth 
side,  is  the  outer  basin,  840  feet  long,  260  to  380  feet  broad,  with  an 
entrance  200  feet  wide,  in  which  there  is  a  depth  of  nearly  21  feet. 
The  depth  at  low- water  springs  close  up  to  the  east  jetty  is  18  feet, 
gradually  decreasing  to  12  and  9  feet  at  the  wharves  on  the  western 
side  of  the  basin. 

The  Alflred  dooks  op  inner  basin  lies  close  southward  of 
and  within  the  outer  basin.  It  is  1,000  feet  long,  400  to  450  feet  broad 
for  two-thirds  of  its  length  from  the  north  quay,  the  remaining 
portion  being  250  feet  broad  ;  the  width  of  the  entrance  is  from  100 
to  120  feet  with  a  depth  of  nearly  21  feet  at  low  water  springs. 
Inside,  the  basin  has  a  depth  of  24  feet  over  the  northern  part, 
decreasing  to  19  and  20  in  the  southern.  Extensive  warehouses  and 
sheds,  with  cranes,  &c.,  are  erected  around  the  basin,  and  a  large 
smithy  and  factory  are  available  for  engine  repairs.  The  basins  are 
connected  by  a  railway  with  Cape  town. 

Vessels  entering  the  basins,  with  the  privilege  of  remaining  therein 
for  30  days,  including  the  day  of  arrival  and  departure,  are  charged 
at  the  rate  of  sixpence  per  each  registered  ton  ;  and  for  every  week 
or  portion  of  a  week  after  the  above  period,  at  the  rate  of  one  penny 
per  registered  ton.  Vessels  wishing  to  enter  must  first  communicate 
with  the  harbour  master. 

The  number  of  vessels  entering  annually  amount  to  about  900, 
registering  about  900,000  tons. 

Dry  dook. — The  Robinson  dry  dock  lies  at  the  north-west  angle 
of  the  inner  basin  ;  it  is  530  feet  long  overall,  500  feet  on  the  blocks, 
90  feet  wide  at  the  coping  level,  and  68  feet  wide  at  the  entrance, 
with  a  depth  on  blocks  of  22^  feet  at  the  upper  end,  25  feet  at  the 
lower  end,  and  24j^  feet  on  sill  at  high  water  ordinary  spring  tides, 
and  is  capable  of  docking  vessels  of  23  feet  draught.  Vessels  of 
heavier  draught  can  lighten  at  the  breakwater  jetty. 

The  length  of  the  dock  can  be  increased  by  IH  feet,  by  placing  the 
caisson  against  the  stop,  instead  of  the  outer  groove.  The  caisson 
can  also  be  placed  in  an  inner  groove,  thus  forming  a  dry  dock 
274^  feet  in  length,  leaving  the  outer  portion  for  use  as  a  wet  dock. 

The  patent  slip  at  the  south  end  of  the  inner  basin,  ia  capable 
of  taking  a  vessel  of  1,000  tons.     See  repairs,  page  46. 

Oommunioation.  —See  page  8. 

LIGHTS.— On  MintO  hill,  the  highest  and  southermost  eleva- 
tion on  Robben  island,  is  a  lighthouse  60  feet  high,  of  a  cylindrical 


Chap.  II.]  DOCKS— LIGHTS— SUPPLIES.  45 

form,  painted  white.  It  exhibits,  at  an  elevation  of  154  feet  above 
high  water,  ^  fixed  white  light,  which  in  clear  weather  should  be  seen 
from  a  distance  of  19  miles. 

Green  point. — ^A  lighthouse  stands  upon  Green  point,  the  west- 
ward extreme  of  Table  bay,  at  400  yards  from  the  low  water  line. 
It  is  a  rectangular  building  52  feet  high,  and  exhibits,  at  65  feet  above 
the  sea,  a  ^hiie  fl^ashing  light  every  ten  seconds^  and  should  be  visible 
in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  13  miles. 

Mouill6  point. — On  Mouille  point,  situated  about  half  a  mile 
eastward  of  Green  point,  and  at  100  yards  within  low- water  mark,  is 
a  lighthouse,  30  feet  high,  painted  in  alternate  red  and  white  bands, 
from  which  is  exhibited  at  an  elevation  of  44  feet  above  the  sea,  a 
fixed  red  light  of  the  fourth  order,  which  should  be  visible  in  clear 
weather  from  a  distance  of  about  10  miles. 

Breakwater. — Near  the  extremity  of  the  breakwater  works  in 
progress,  on  a  travelling  platform,  a*  fixed  green  light  is  exhibited  at 
an  elevation  of  25  feet  above  high  water.  Vessels  are  recommended 
to  pass  well  to  the  eastward  of  the  light,  as  in  rough  weather  it  stands 
further  in  from  the  end  of  the  breakwater. 

A  small  ,^«d  green  light  is  exhibited  during  northerly  gales,  from 
a  position  a  little  to  the  southward  of  the  inner  part  of  Prince 
Alfred  wharf  (near  the  castle). 

TIME  SIGNAL.— A  ball  is  dropped  from  a  staff  in  the  Alfred 
docks,  36  feet  above  the  ground  and  47  feet  above  high  water  (by 
electricity  from  the  Cape  observatory),  at  noon,  Cape  mean  time, 
corresponding  to  22h.  46m.  5'3s.,  Greenwich  mean  time. 

A  gun  is  fired  from  Imhoff  battery  (by  electricity  from  the  Cape 
observatory),  at  Ih.  Om.  Os.,  Cape  mean  time,  corresponding  to 
23h.  46m.  5*3s.,  Greenwich  mean  time. 

The  Cape  observatory  is  situated  in  lat.  33''  56'  Z"  S.,  long. 
18**  28'  40"  E. 

Signal  Station. — There  is  a  signal  station  on  the  Lion's  rump, 
west  side  of  Table  bay.    Port  signals,  see  page  49. 

SUPPLIES  of  all  sorts  can  be  obtained  at  Cape  town.  Water 
tanks  for  the  convenience  of  shipping  will  be  brought  alongside  at 
a  moderate  charge.    Water  is  also  laid  on  to  the  coaling  jetty. 

Tugs. — There  are  three  or  more  tugs  available  at  the  port. 

Coal  is  to  be  obtained  in  abundance  at  the  coaling  jetty,  and 
there  is  a  contract  for  coaling  men-of-war.     It  is  put  on  board  at 


46  TABLE  BAY.  [Chap.  11. 

the  rate  of  30  to  40  tons  an  hour.  In  the  summer,  vessels  going 
alongside  have  to  drop  an  anchor  and  swing  with  their  head  south- 
east, then  haul  alongside ;  in  the  winter  no  anchor  is  required, 
vessels  then  lie  with  their  heads  to  the  north-westward  ;  the  harbour 
master  invariably  comes  off  and  berths  vessels. 

Repairs  to  engines  and  boilers  of  all  classes  of  vessels  are  under- 
taken by  the  various  firms  of  engineers.  There  are  no  heavy  forging 
facilities,  but  shafts  of  40  feet  in  length  and  18  inches  in  diameter 
can  be  turned,  cylinders  of  36  inches  diameter  bored,  and  castings  of 
3  tons  made.  There  are  also  several  steam-hammers  of  15  cwt.  and 
less,  and  2  cranes  capable  of  lifting  10  tons  weight,  under  one  of 
which  there  is  a  depth  at  the  wharf  of  24  feet  at  low  water  springs. 

ANCHORAGE. — There  is  good  anchorage  for  large  vessels 
within,  and  partly  sheltered  by  the  breakwater,  in  6  fathoms,  with 
Amsterdam  battery  bearing  W.S.W.  Most  vessels  now  go  into  the 
basin  or  lie  at  the  breakwater  jetties.  The  bay  is  not  considered  safe 
between  April  and  October,  but  the  breakwater  works  in  progress  are 
daily  adding  to  its  security. 

Vessels  should  moor  with  long  scopes  of  cable.  The  best  ground 
tackle  is  required  in  the  winter  season  when  north-west  and  northerly 
winds  prevail,  and  during  gales,  precautions  should  be  taken  to 
prevent  surging  ahead  and  slacking  the  cables  between  the  gusts.  It 
is  from  want  of  this  precaution  that  most  cases  of  parting  occur. 

Vessels  touching  for  water  and  other  supplies  may  ride  at  single 
anchor,  but  it  is  particularly  recommended  to  veer  to  70  or  80  fathoms 
of  cable,  as  the  chance  of  fouling  or  starting  the  anchor  or  breaking 
the  chain  will  thereby  be  much  lessened. 

Two  sets  of  moorings  are  laid  down  inside  the  breakwater  ;  the 
northern  set  is  for  large  vessels,  and  the  southern  for  small.  See 
port  signals,  page  49. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Tabl^  bay  at 
2h.  40m. ;  springs  rise  5  feet,  neaps  3J  feet.  The  duration  of  slack 
at  high  water  varies  considerably,  and  greatly  depends  on  the 
prevailing  wind  ;  the  water  is  never  stationary  more  than  30  minutes, 
and  frequently  it  begins  to  fall  immediately  oti  reaching  high  water. 
There  is  no  sensible  stream  of  tide,  either  in  the  bay  or  on  the 
adjacent  ceast.  The  time  of  high  water  and  its  rise  is  nearly  the 
same  at  Simons  bay,  and  all  the  bays  along  the  coast  from  the  cape 
of  Good  Hope  to  cape  Agulhas. 

OuPPent. — ^A  current  varying  in  strength  from  half  a  knot  to  2 
or  3  knots,  sets  to  the  northward  past  Table  bay  and  Robben  island, 
but  during  the  winter  months,  when  N.W.  winds  prevail,  a  current 


Chap,  II.]  ANCHORAGE— DIRBCTIONS.  47 

sets  into  Table  bay  from  the  N.N.W.,  and  impinging  on  the  south- 
east shore  of  the  bay,  about  Salt  river,  divides  into  two  streams,  the 
one  setting  northward  along  the  coast  and  out  between  Robben 
island  and  the  main  land  at  Blaauwberg,  while  the  other  takes  a 
westerly  course  as  far  as  Cape  town  castle,  then  northerly,  sweeping 
the  south-west  shore  of  the  bay,  and  carrying  away  loose  soil  from 
the  south  sides  of  the  jetties  and  projecting  rocky  points. 

During  the  summer  season  it  has  been  observed,  particularly 
during  south-easters,  that  a  gentle  stream  sets  round  Mouill6  point 
south  south-eastward  into  the  bay,  and  out  by  the  Blaauwberg  beach, 
as  in  the  winter.  The  rocks  about  the  beach  from  Green  point  to 
Amsterdam  battery  are  bare,  and  always  free  from  sand,  but  in  the 
depth  of  the  bay,  from  the  Castle  to  Salt  river,  vast  quantities  of  sand 
and  sea  weed  are  removed  from  the  beach  by  the  drawback  of  the 
rollers,  and  carried  away  by  the  current,  leaving  the  sea-shore  a 
platform  of  solid  rock,  which  is  again  covered  up  to  the  depth  of 
2  to  3  feet  during  the  summer  months. 

DIRECTIONS. — No  special  directions  are  required  for  steam 
vessels  entering  or  leaving  Table  bay  in  the  daytime.  Sailing  vessels 
during  the  Cape  summer  months  should  shorten  sail  before  hauling  in 
for  Green  point,  as  south-easters  blow  hard  at  times  on  opening  the 
bay. 

If  it  is  found  to  be  blowing  hard  after  passing  Mouill6  point,  they 
may  with  advantage  anchor  in  10  or  12  fathoms,  where  they  will  be 
in  a  good  position  for  dropping  into  the  inner  anchorage  on  the 
following  morning,  as  the  wind  invariably  falls  light  there  during 
the  night,  although  the  S.E.  wind  may  continue  to  blow  hard  on  the 
east  side  of  the  bay. 

If  compelled  by  a  south-easter  to  bear  up. from  Green  point,  in 
order  to  seek  shelter  under  Robben  island,  take  care  to  avoid  the 
Whale  rock,  and  bring  up  on  the  north-east  side  of  that  island 
(page  43),  under  easy  sail.  With  ordinary  precaution,  there  is  little 
probability  of  losing  an  anchor  in  bringing  up  in  this  place  of 
shelter ;  but  should  she  part  in  trying  to  bring  up  during  a  south- 
easter, there  is  an  open  sea  to  leeward.    Tugs  are  available. 

During  daylight  vessels  may  round  Green  and  Mouill6  points  at 
half  a  mile  distant,  in  not  less  than  10  fathoms  water,  but  this  distance 
must  not  be  judged  by  the  eye,  as  the  points  are  low  and  deceptive  ; 
thence  to  the  anchorage,  passing  the  breakwater  at  a  prudent  distance, 
but  giving  it  a  wide  berth  in  bad  weather. 


48  TABLE  BAY.  [Chap.  II. 

There  can  be  no  excuse  for  neglecting  the  lead  in  entering  Table 
bay,  the  greatest  depth  of  water  in  mid-channel  between  Green  point 
and  the  Whale  rock  being  20  fathoms,  and  from  which,  towards  the 
beach,  the  soundings  gradually  decrease.  The  bottom  is  foul  and 
rocky  to  the  north-west  of  a  line  joining  the  Lion's  head  and  rump, 
but  east  of  this  it  is  clear,  and  a  vessel  may,  if  necessary,  anchor  in 
any  part  in  from  8  to  10  fathoms,  sandy  bottom. 

Caution. — From  neglecting  the  precaution  of  using  the  lead, 
vessels  have  sailed  on  to  Green  and  Mouille  points  without  seeing 
land,  whilst  their  masts  were  seen  over  a  fog  from  the  elevated 
ground  at  the  foot  of  Lion's  rump.  The  fogs  that  obscure  the  lights 
are  frequently  confined  to  the  low  ground  in  the  vicinity  of  Green 
and  Mouill6  points,  extending  upwards  only  100  to  150  feet.  Under 
these  circumstances  it  is  advisable  to  send  a  mast-head  man  aloft, 
who  will  probably  see  land  when  it  is  invisible  from  the  deck. 

At  night. — ^Vessels  bound  for  Table  bay  from  the  southward 
should  not  shut  in  Cape  point  light  with  the  land  at  Slangkop  point 
until  the  fixed  white  light  on  Robben  island  (which  will  be  seen 
before  the  flashing  white  light  on  Green  point)  bears  N.E.  \  E., 
when  they  may  steer  for  it ;  and  when  Green  point  light  bears  East, 
an  E.N.E.  course  maybe  followed  until  th.e  fixed  r^^c^  light  on  Mouill6 
point  bears  S.E.  by  S.  (This  route  will  clear  Vulcan  rock  and  all 
dangers  between  it  and  Table  bay.) 

The  course  may  now  be  altered  to  S.E.  by  E.  \  E.,  which  will  lead 
one  mile  northward  of  Mouille  point  light,  and  within  this  distance 
no  stranger  should  round  the  point  at  night.  When  Mouill6  point 
light  bears  S.S.W.,  a  course  about  S.  by  E.  ^  E.  may  be  steered  for  the 
anchorage,  bearing  in  mind  not  to  approach  the  green  light  near  the 
end  of  the  breakwater,  too  close  ;  when  past  it  a  vessel  may  anchor 
in  6  fathoms  water,  partly  sheltered  by  the  breakwater.  Small 
vessels  may  get  closer  to  the  breakwater  in  4  to  6  fathoms. 

Vessels  bound  to  Table  bay  from  the  northward  should  pass  about 
2  miles  westward  of  Robben  island  light,  and  steer  for  Green  point 
light  bearing  S.  by  E.  (which  will  lead  nearly  2  miles  westward  of 
Whale  rock)  until  Robben  island  light  bears  N.E.,  then  steer  S.E. ; 
and  when  Mouill6  point  light  bears  S.S.W.  proceed  as  before. 

Entering  Table  bay  from  the  northward,  between  Robben  island 
and  the  main,  keep  Mouill6  point  light  S.S.W.  ^  W.  until  past  Robben 
island,  with  the  lead  going.  When  the  water  deepens  to  11  or  12 
fathoms,  or  Robben  island  light  bears  N.N.W.,  steer  about  S.  by  W. 


Chap.  II.]  DIRECTIONS— PORT  SIGNALS.  49 

for  the  anchorage.  It  is,  however,  not  prudent  for  a  sailing  vessel 
to  enter  the  bay  by  this  channel  on  account  of  the  northerly 
current. 

Wopkingr  in* — In  working  between  Robben  island  and  the  main, 
the  soundings  shoal  regularly  towards  the  island ;  but  when  ap- 
proaching the  main,  it  is  necessary  to  tack  at  the  first  cast  of 
8  fathoms. 

In  standing  to  the  eastward  when  southward  of  Whale  rock,  avoid 
bringing  Robben  island  light  westward  of  N.N.W.,  and  when 
approaching  the  anchorage,  not  westward  of  N.  by  W. ;  this  will 
prevent  accidents  from  the  low  Blaauwberg  beach,  on  the  eastern 
shore  of  the  bay,  which  is  very  deceptive  at  night.  Little,  if  any- 
thing, can  be  lost  in  thus  beating  in,  as  a  constant  northerly  current 
sets  out  between  Robben  island  and  the  main  land  ;  added  to  which 
the  wind  blows  with  greater  violence  from  the  S.E.  on  the  east  side 
of  the  bay  than  it  does  more  to  the  westward,  though  not  in  such 
sudden  and  violent  gusts. 

Strangers  are  not  recommended  to  beat  into  Table  bay  at  night, 
especially  in  squally  or  thick  weather,  but  to  stand  off  and  on  until 
daylight,  at  a  prudent  distance  to  the  westward  of  Green  point. 

Leaving  Table  bay. — Vessels  leaving  Table  bay  and  bound  to 
the  northward,  should  pass  between  Robben  island  and  the  mainland 
An  almost  continuous  current  sets  to  the  northward  through  this 
channel,  and  during  the  summer  months  a  fresh  south-easter 
frequently  blows,  whilst  a  few  miles  to  the  westward  of  the  island 
the  wind  is  light  and  baffling,  or  fails  altogether.  Vessels  bound  to 
the  southward  should  reverse  the  directions  previously  given  for 
entering  the  bay. 

PORT  SIGNALS. — The  following  signals  will  be  shown  when, 
from  local  experience  and  good  barometers,  a  severe  gale  may  be 
expected.  It  is  strongly  recommended  that  they  may  be  promptly 
observed  when  made  from  the  port  office ;  and  any  neglect  in  the 
observance  of  them  will  be  reported  to  the  agents  for  Lloyd's,  as 
also  the  owners  of  the  vessels  disregarding  the  signals.  See  also 
page  13,  for  weather  signals. 

White  pierced  blue,  over  union-jack. — Clear  hawse,  and  prepare  to 
veer  cable. 

Union-jack  over  white  pierced  blue.— Veer  to  a  whole  cable,  and 
Bee  the  third  anchor  clear. 

S.O.  106^6  D 


50  TABLE  BAY.  [Chap.  II. 

Blue,  white,  blue,  horizontal,  over  union-jack. — ^Down  top-gallant 
yards  and  masts,  and  point  yards  to  the  wind,  and  see  everything 
clear  for  working  the  ship  as  far  as  practicable. 

Union-jack  over  No.  3,  white  and  red,  vertical. — Shorten  in  cable 
to  same  scope  as  when  first  moored. 

When  it  is  considered  necessary  to  make  any  of  the  above  signals, 
it  is  strongly  recommended  that  all  commanders  immediately  repair 
on  board  their  respective  vessels,  and  that  the  above  signals  may  be 
answered  by  hoisting  the  answering  pendant,  or  the  ensign  at  the 
peak  end  or  any  of  the  mast  heads. 

The  above  signals  will  be  repeated  from  the  Lion's  rump  signal 
station. 

Vessels  can  make  their  wishes  known  to  their  agents  in  blowing 
weather,  through  the  port  office,  by  the  International  Code  of 
Signals,  and  any  assistance  required  will  be  strictly  attended  to,  as 
far  as  practicable. 

Should  vessels  part  from  their  anchors  during  a  northerly  gale 
and  cannot  work  out,  they  are  strongly  recommended  to  run  for  the 
green  light,  shown  on  the  shore  near  the  castle,  and  beach  close  to 
the  southward  of  the  Castle  ditch,  the  crews  remaining  by  their 
vessels,  by  which  means  little  or  no  danger  of  life  is  to  be  appre- 
hended. It  is  also  recommended  that,  in  the  case  of  such  vessels 
taking  the  ground,  any  after  sail  that  may  have  been  set  in  running 
for  the  beach  should  immediately  be  taken  in,  keeping  the  foresail 
or  fore-topsail  set,  as  the  case  may  be,  until  the  vessel  is  firmly 
grounded. 

The  following  signals  may  be  made  from  the  most  convenient 
point  of  the  shore  to  vessels  that  may  be  stranded. 

In  day-time,  a  number  will  be  shown,  white  upon  a  black  ground. 
At  night,  the  number  will  be  shown  transparent. 

No.  1.  You  are  earnestly  requested  to  remain  on  board  until 
assistance  is  sent ;  there  is  no  danger  to  life. 

No.  2.  Send  a  line  on  shore  by  cask,  and  look  out  for  line  from 
rocket  or  mortar. 

No.  3. — Secure  the  rope  ;  bend  a  warp  or  hawser  to  it,  for  us  to 
haul  it  on  shore  for  the  boat,  or  for  us  to  send  you  a  stout  rope,  to  be 
made  fast  to  some  firm  part  of  the  wreck,  that  we  may  haul  off  a 
boat  for  bringing  you  on  shore. 

No.  4.  Life-boat  will  communicate  at  low  water,  or  as  soon  as 
practicable. 


Chap.  II.]  PORT  SiaNALS— WINDS.  51 

No.  5.  Have  good  long  lines  ready  for  life-boat,  and  prepare  to 
leave  your  vessel ;  no  baggage  will  be  allowed  in  the  life-boat. 

Answering  Signals.— By  Day.— A  man  will  stand  on  the  most 
conspicuous  part  of  the  vessel,  and  wave  his  hat  three  times  over  hie 
head. 

By  Night. — ^A  light  will  be  shown  over  the  side  of  the  vessel 
where  best  seen. 

Climate  and  Rainfall.    See  page  18. 

WINDS.— During  Summer  (October  to  April)  the  prevailing 
winds  in  Table  bay  are  from  the  south-east ;  these,  although  known 
by  the  name  of  south-easters,  blow  at  about  S.  by  E.,  frequently 
with  violence  during  the  summejr  season,  and  more  or  less  in  every 
season  of  the  year,  generally  bringing  settled  weather.* 

Regular  sea  breezes  from  south-west  and  west  prevail  in  the 
mornings,  and  continue  until  noon  or  longer,  succeeded  by  the  south- 
east winds  from  the  land. 

North-westerly  gales  are  experienced  here  in  every  season  of  the 
year,  but  as  a  rule  these  do  not  blow  home  between  November  and 
May,  during  which  months  the  bay  is  considered  safe. 

The  ordinary  indications  of  a  south-easter  are  well  marked — a  high 
barometer,  a  clear  sky,  and  the  cloud  cap  on  Table  mountain,  known 
as  the  "  table  cloth."  During  the  hardest  pouth-easters,  the  Blue 
Berg  and  Hottentot  mountains  are  obscured  by  mist,  and  often 
after  the  "cloth"  has  disappeared  the  gale  continues  until  these 
mountain  ranges  are  clear.  In  autumn,  during  south-east  gales,  the 
top  of  Table  mountain  is  sometimes  quite  clear,  such  a  gale  is  called 
a  "  blind  south-easter,"  but  the  Blue  Berg  and  Hottentot  Holland 
ranges  are  covered  in  mist  24  hours  or  more  before  the  breeze  springs 
up,  by  which  sign  it  may  thus  be  confidently  foretold  ;  moreover,  the 
wind  does  not  die  away  until  these  mountains  are  clear. 

In  autumn,  the  south-easters  blow  at  times  with  great  fury  over 
Table  and  Devil  mountains,  and  through  the  gap  between  them^ 
driving  the  white  clouds  in  rolling  fleeces  like  wool  over  the  perpen- 
dicular sides  of  the  mountain.  On  those  occasions,  vessels  not  well 
moored  are  liable  to  drive,  and  bring  both  anchors  ahead.  There  have 
been  instances  of  vessels  driven  from  Table  bay  by  these  south-easters 
with  all  their  anchors  down,  and  not  regaining  the  anchorage  for  five 
or  six  days.  Sometimes  there  occurs  a  fall  of  the  barometer  whilst 
such  a  gale  is  blowing,  when  a  change  of  wind  to  north  may  be 

*  See  also  winds  and  weather  off  tlie  Cape  Colony,  p.  9. 
S.O.  10625.  D  2 


52  CAPE  PENINSULA— WEST  COAST.  [Chap.  II. 

expected ;  if  this  does  not  come,  a  black  south-easter  follows.  Some- 
times a  black  south-easter  follows  a  sudden  change  of  wind  from 
the  north.* 

The  so-called  "black  south-easter"  is  distinguished  from  the 
regular  south-easter  by  the  nimbus  or  rain  tint  of  the  cloud  on  Table 
mountain.  It  is  frequently  accompanied  by  light  rain  and  cold 
weather.  Black  south-easters  are  very  destructive  to  the  vines,  and 
to  young  vegetation,  their  appearance  the  next  day  being  as  if 
withered  by  frost. 

During:  Winter  (April  to  October)  north-westerly  winds  prevail, 
and  the  bay  is  not  safe.  A  mountainous  sea  is  thrown  into  the  bay 
by  some  of  these  gales,  and  before  the  breakwater  and  docks  were 
built  there  was  not  the  slightest  shelter.  The  breakwater  works  are 
still  in  progress.    See  page  43. 

Westerly  and  S.W.  winds  blow  strong,  and  are  often  accompanied 
with  fogs,  rain,  and  cloudy  weather,  and  with  the  south-west  wind 
hail-storms  are  frequent ;  but  the  north-west  winds  are  most  violent 
in  those  months,  often  blowing  in  severe  storms  from  north,  or 
N  .N.W.  for  several  days,  with  a  cloudy  sky,  and  sometimes  accompanied 
with  rain.  These  north-west  gales  are  preceded  by  a  gradually 
falling  barometer,  with  the  wind  at  N.N.E,  the  temperature  increasing 
to  an  unusual  height  36  hours  or  more  before  their  advent,  and  with 
cirrus  clouds  in  the  north-west.  Table  mountain  and  the  adjacent 
high  land  becomes  enveloped  in  clouds.  The  duration  of  a  north- 
wester is  from  2  to  10  days.  North-east  winds  are  less  frequent  than 
any  other,  and  never  continue  long. 

In  calm  weather  low  fogs  occasionally  occur,  particularly  in  autumn 
and  winter,  the  tops  of  the  mountains  and  high  hills  being  visible 
above  the  fog,  which  is  afterwards  dispersed  by  the  heat  of  the  sun. 

WEST  COAST  OP  THE  CAPE  PENINSULA.t— The 
distance  from  Green  point  to  the  southern  extremity  of  the  cape  of 
Good  Hope  is  about  32  miles,  the  intervening  coast  line  being  rugged 
and  indented,  whilst  the  outline  of  the  country  is  also  broken  and 
irregular.  From  Green  point  to  Duyker  point  the  distance  is  about 
9|  miles  in  a  S.W.  by  W.  direction,  and  along  this  portion  of  the 
coast  the  water  is  deep  at  one  mile  off  shore,  but  within  that  distance 

*  Extract  from  report  on  gales  in  ocean  district  adjacent  to  cape  of  Good  Hope 
Capt.  Toynbee,  F.R.A.S.,  1882.    See  also  winds  off  the  Cape,  page  9. 

t  See  Admiralty  chart :— Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  False  bay,  No.686,  For  a  descrip- 
tioA  of  the  PeninsuU  and  soundings  off,  see  page  40. 


Chap.  II.]  LIONS  PAWS— HOUT  BAY.  53 

there  are  numerous  off-lying  rocks,  and  patches  of  rocky  reef. 
Vessels  navigating  in  this  locality  should  maintain  an  ofifing  of  2  or  3 
miles,  for  inside  these  limits  the  wind  is  generally  light  and  baffling 
from  the  close  proximity  of  the  high  land. 

From  the  western  end  of  Table  mountain,  a  high  serrated  ridge  of 
mountains,  named  the  Twelve  Apostles,  extends  in  a  south-west 
direction,  towards  Hout  bay.  They  present  a  steep  precipitous  face 
to  seaward,  and  are  terminated  by  a  remarkable  conical  hill,  similar 
in  appearance  to  the  Lions  head,  though  not  so  high,  and  having  at  its 
southern  slope  a  very  conspicuous  white  sand  patch.  To  the  south- 
ward of  this,  about  1^  miles  distant,  rises  Suther  peak,  a  lofty  rugged 
hill,  which  is  divided  by  a  saddle  ridge  from  Captain  peak,  a 
remarkable  hill  of  considerably  less  elevation,  overhanging,  and  to 
the  westward  of  Hout  bay. 

Lions  Paws. — Between  2^  and  3  miles  W.S.W.  from  Green  point 
lighthouse,  and  just  to  the  northward  of  Camps  bay  are  two  clusters 
of  rocks,  4  cables  apart,  known  as  the  North  and  South  Lions  Paws  ; 
these  rocks  are  awash,  but  with  7  and  9  fathoms  close-to,  and  they 
lie  one-half  and  one-third  of  a  mile  off  shore,  the  Lions  head  bearing 
S,E.  and  E.S.E.  from  them  respectively.  Robben  island  lighthouse 
bearing  N.E.  J  N.,  leads  one  mile  westward  of  the  outer  danger ;  and 
Green  point  lighthouse  bearing  East,  leads  half  a  mile  northward  of 
the  Paws.  Besides  the  Lions  Paws  there  are  several  other  straggling 
rocks  along  the  shore,  both  north  and  southward. 

DuykeP  point,  is  rocky,  forming  the  western  extremity  of  the 
Cape  peninsula.  At  half  a  mile  north-eastward  of  Duyker  point,  is 
the  Oude  Schep,  a  dry  ledge  of  rocks  extending  about  one-third  of  a 
mile  off  shore,  with  a  detached  rock  outside  it.  There  is  no  bottom 
with  40  fathoms,  at  1^  miles  off  shore,  and  Green  point  light  bearing 
E.  by  N.  I  N.,  clears  the  point  about  that  distance. 

Vulcan  POCk,  the  central  and  highest  of  a  cluster,  about  150 
yards  in  extent,  is  awash  at  high  water,  and  has  from  11  to  20  fathoms 
from  one  to  two  cables  distant  all-round.  It  lies  nearly  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  off  shore,  with  Duyker  point  N.N.E.  |  E.,  distant  1^  miles. 
A  line  of  breakers  extends  3  or  4  cables  from  Duyker  island  (a  low 
flat  rock  close  to  the  shore,  abreast  Vulcan  rock)  to  a  mid-channel 
position.    Vessels  should  pass  outside  Vulcan  rock. 

HOUT  BAY  is  formed  by  a  deep  indentation  in  the  high  coast 
line,  at  2^  miles  south-eastward  of  Duyker  point,  and  is  about  one 


54  CAPE  PENINSULA— WEST  COAST.  [Chap.  II, 

mile  in  depth.  It  affords  anchorage  in  from  12  to  5  fathoms,  sand, 
but  is  open  to  south-westerly  winds.* 

This  bay  is  scarcely  ever  visited,  and  yet  it  possesses  advantages 
as  a  place  of  shelter,  especially  for  steamers  ;  the  only  objection  to  it 
for  sailing  vessels,  is  one  that  is  applicable  to  all  harbours  surrounded 
by  high  land,  namely,  variable  winds  and  strong  gusts  from  the  shore 

The  coast  on  either  side  of  the  entrance  is  high  and  rugged,  par- 
ticularly on  the  eastern  side,  which  is  quite  inaccessible.  Here  the 
hills,  rising  precipitously  from  the  coast,  are  broken  by  a  succession 
of  ravines,  which  renders  walking  around  the  shore  impracticable. 
There  is  no  landing  on  this  side. 

On  the  western  side  of  the  bay  is  York  point  and  battery  in  ruins, 
with  rocks  extending  about  one  cable  off  ;  within  the  point  there  is 
good  landing  even  in  S.W.  gales  ;  on  the  opposite  side  is  Blockhouse 
point.  The  head  of  the  bay  is  low  and  marshy,  with  a  stream  of 
running  water. 

Anchorage. — Constantia  berg,  3,200  feet  high,  seen  over  the  high 
cliffs  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  bay,  bearing  E.  l^  S.,  leads  directly 
into  the  bay.  A  line  of  foam,  giving  a  false  appearance  of  danger,  is 
frequently  seen  across  the  entrance.  It  is  ad  visible  to  anchor  as  close 
in,  round  York  point,  as  the  vessel's  draught  will  admit.  It  is  said 
that  with  an  inside  berth  a  vessel  may  lie  safely  in  all  weather,  and 
that  the  port  is  capable  of  affording  shelter  to  six  or  eight  vessels  of 
ordinary  size  in  all  winds,  if  properly  moored,  and  on  the  whole  is  a 
better  harbour  than  would  appear  at  first  sight.  The  S.W.  wind  is 
said  not  to  blow  home  against  the  high  land. 

Supplies. — Fresh  water  is  abundant  at  Hout  bay,  but  there  are 
no  conveniences  for  getting  it  on  board.  Provisions  may  easily  be 
obtained  from  Cape  town,  and  fish  of  good   quality  is  abundant. 

COAST.— Slang-kop  point.— Above  Chapman  point,  which 
is  common  to  Hout  and  Chapman  bays,  is  Chapman  peak,  of 
dark  appearance  and  considerable  elevation.  From  Chapman  point 
to  Slang-kop  point  the  distance  is  about  3^  miles  in  a  south-west 
direction  ;  the  intervening  shore  falling  back  into  the  curved  sandy 
beach  forming  Chapman  bay,  which  is  fringed  with  rocks,  and  being 
exposed  to  north-westerly  winds,  should  not  on  any  account  be  used 
as  an  anchorage.  A  sunken  reef  extends  about  3  cables  off  Chapman 
point.f 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  of  Hout  bay,  No.  636  ;  scale,  m=21  inches. 
t  See  Admiralty  chart  Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  False  bay,  No.  636. 


Chap.  II.]  SLANG-KOP  POINT— ALBATROSS  ROCK.  55 

Immediately  at  the  back  of  Slang-kop  point  the  cliffs  rise  300  or 
400  feet  above  the  sea ;  but  the  point  itself  is  low  apd  rocky,  with  a 
ledge  of  sunken  reefs  fringing  the  shore,  at  the  distance  of  one  mile. 
(This  coast  has  not  been  sounded  out.)  The  sea  breaks  over  this 
reef  in  westerly  winds  when  there  is  usually  a  heavy  swell.  From 
Slang-kop  point  to  the  Kromme  river,  a  distance  of  5^  miles  in  a 
southerly  direction,  the  coast  becomes  higher  and  rugged  ;  thence  to 
Olifants  Bosh  point  and  the  cape  of  Good  Hope  it  is  elevated  from 
300  to  400  feet  above  the  sea,  and  is  tolerably  regular  in  outline. 

Albatrosa  rock,*  on  which  the  Kafir  probably  struck,  is  400 
yards  long,  less  than  6  feet  water,  with  7  to  13  fathoms  around,  and 
5  fathoms  between  it  and  Olifants  Bosh  point ;  its  outer  part  lies 
with  Olifants  Bosh  point  bearing  East,  distant  6  cables. 

About  one  mile  northward  of  Albatross  rock,  and  4  cables  from  the 
shore,  a  detached  rocky  patch  of  small  extent,  with  less  than  6  feet 
water,  also  exists. 

One  mile  westward  of  Albatross  rock  the  soundings  increase  to 
27  and  30  fathoms,  and  nearly  the  same  depths  are  found  at  the 
distance  of  2  miles  in  the  same  direction. 

In  proceeding  northward,  keep  the  Cape  light  in  sight  (eastward 
of  S.S.E.  I  E.)  until  Duyker  point  is  open  of  Slang-kop  point. 

A  POCky  bank,  with  irregular  depths  of  10  to  16  fathoms,  and 
one  mile  in  extent  north  and  south,  fronts  the  point  situated  about 

2  miles  southward  of  Olifonts  Bosh  point,  to  the  distance  of 
2\  miles. 

From  the  shoalest  part  of  the  bank  the  cape  of  Good  Hope  light- 
house bears  S.E.  \  S.,  6  miles,  and  the  point  abreast,  E.  \  S.,  distant 
1^  miles. 

This  rocky  bank  lies  somewhat  in  the  fairway  for  vessels  passing 
round  the  coast  to  and  from  Table  bay,  and  as  in  heavy  southerly 
gales  a  continuous  line  of  breakers  has  been  observed  to  extend 
between  this  ledge  and  the  shore,  vessels  should  not  approach  this 
part  of  the  coast  in  bad  weather. 

CAPE  OP  GOOD  HOPE. — The  southern  extremity  of  the 
Cape  peninsula  is  a  high  precipitous  cliff,  surmounted  by  two  peaks 
distant  from  each  other  1,800  yards  in  a  north-west  and  south-east 

*  The  Union  Mail  steamer  Kafir  was  reported  to  have  struck  on  a  sunken  danger 

3  miles  off  Olifants  Bosh  point ;  a  close  examination  of  the  locality  was  made  by 
Commander  W.  J.  Wharton,  H.M.  Surveying  vessel  Farjcn^  1878,  who  found  no 
indication  of  sunken  rooks  beyond  6  cables  from  the  point. 


56  THE  CAPE  OF  GOOD  HOPE.  [Chap.  II. 

direction.  The  one  to  the  north-west,  880  feet  high,  is  known  as 
Vasco  da  Gama  peak ;  and  on  the  other,  800  feet  high,  near  the 
pitch  of  the  Cape,  stands  the  lighthouse. 

LIGHT. — From  a  lighthouse,  30  feet  high  and  painted  white,  on 
Cape  point,  is  exhibited,  at  an  elevation  of  816  feet,  a  revolving 
white  light  showing  a  bright  face  for  the  space  of  ttvelve  seconds 
every  minute.  It  is  visible  all  round,  except  where  cut  off  by  the 
land  between  the  bearings  of  S.S.W.  and  S.  ^  E.,  and  between 
S.S.E.  ^  E.  and  S.S.E.  |  E.,  and  in  clear  weather  should  be  seen  from 
a  distance  of  about  36  miles.  Its  position  is  in  lat.  34°  21J'  S., 
long.  18°  29^'  E. 

Caution  is  necessary  when  approaching  this  light,  as  from  its  great 
elevation  it  is  frequently  obscured  by  mist,  although  at  the  same 
time  clear  round  the  horizon. 

A  Signal  Station  has  been  established  on  Cape  point  close  to 
the  lighthouse  ;  and  passing  vessels  showing  their  number,  will  be 
duly  reported. 

Reef^  oflf  the  Cape.— South-west  reef^,  which  are  generally 
breaking,  appear  to  be  the  outer  projections  of  a  rocky  ledge,  extend- 
ing one  mile  from  cape  Maclear,  the  south-west  extreme  of  the  cape 
of  Good  Hope.  From  the  outer  patches,  of  5  fathoms,  the  lighthouse 
bears  E.  \  N.  If  miles.  Under  no  circumstances  should  vessels 
attempt  to  pass  inside  these  j)atches,  and  coming  from  the  northward 
Blang-kop  point  should  be  kept  in  sight  until  Cape  point  bears 
E.  by  N. 

Bellows  rook,  from  which  the  lighthouse  on  Cape  point  bears 
N.N.E.  I  E.  distant  2^  miles,  is  awash  at  high  water,  and  always 
breaks.  The  water  is  deep  close  round  this  rock  except  on  its 
south-west  side,  where  there  are  sunken  rocks  about  a  cable  distant, 
on  which  the  sea  does  not  always  break. 

Anvil  POOk  has  a  depth  of  6  feet  at  low  water  springs,  and  lies 
on  the  eastern  end  of  a  3  fathoms  rocky  patch  about  2  cables  in 
length  and  with  Cape  point  bearing  N.N.W.  J  W.,  distant  IJ  miles. 
It  breaks  only  at  low  water  with  a  heavy  swell,  and  the  depths  to 
seaward  are  from  14  to  18  fathoms  close-to.  Yasco  de  Gama  peak, 
open  northward  of  the  lighthouse,  leads  northward  of  Anvil  rock,  and 
Constantia  Berg  well  in  sight  leads  eastward. 

Dias  rock,  about  8  feet  high,  is  connected  with  Cape  point  by  a 
sunken  reef.     The  water  is  deep  at  2  cables  seaward  of  the  rock. 


Chap*  II.]  LIGHT— REEFS— DIRECTIONS.  57 

Three  pinnacle  rocks  with  4^  and  5  fathoms  lie  between  Dias  and 
Anvil  rock,  rendering  the  passage  between  them  unavailable  for 
vessels  of  large  draught,  or  even  for  small  vessels  in  bad  weather. 

DIRECTIONS.— Making  the  Cape  from  the  West- 
ward.*— ^Vessels  approaching  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  from  the 
westward  may,  if  the  weather  be  clear,  make  Cape  point  light  at  the 
distance  of  about' 36  miles,  unless  it  should  happen  to  bear  between 
S.S.E.  ^  E.  and  S.S.E.  |  E.  (or  behind  Vasco  de  Gama  peak).  Caution 
is  therefore  necessary  not  to  continue  a  course  between  these  bearings 
when  making  the  land  at  night,  or  in  hazy  weather.  Should  a  vessel 
be  near  the  coast  at  night,  and  the  land  not  visible,  she  should  be 
kept  to  the  south-westward  until  her  position  is  ascertained. 

As  the  wind  seldom,  if  ever,  blows  from  the  east  or  north-east  (i.e., 
directly  off  the  peninsula),  sailing  vessels  bound  either  for  Table  bay 
or  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  should  ensure  a  weatherly  position 
to  the  northward  or  southward,  according  to  the  season  of  the  year. 
Those  for  Simons  bay  have  been  detained  many  days  by  south-easters 
off  the  Lions  head  and  Hout  bay,  in  consequence  of  their  making  the 
land  £oo  far  to  the  northward  during  the  summer  season.  The  same 
winds  would  have  been  fair  for  them  had  they  been  30  miles  farther 
south.  On  the  other  hand  a  vessel  bound  for  Table  bay  in  the 
winter  season  will  find  it  difficult  to  make  her  port  from  a  position 
off  Cape  point,  during  the  continuance  of  North  and  N.W.  winds, 
notwithstanding  the  general  prevalence  of  a  N.N.W.  current. 

RoTinding  the  Cape  flrom  the  Westward.— Vessels  rounding 
the  Cape  from  the  westward,  and  bound  into  False  bay,  should  pass 
about  half  a  mile  southward  of  Bellows  rock  (which  is  always  visible 
by  the  breakers),  thence  steer  East  until  Constantia  Berg  is  well  in 
sight,  bearing  N.  |  E.,  or  Yasco  de  Gama  peak  opens  eastward  of  the 
lighthouse  hill,  either  of  which  marks  lead  eastward  of  Anvil  rock.* 

Vessels  proceeding  to  the  eastward  along  the  coast,  having  passed 
the  Cape  at  a  prudent  distance,  should  take  careful  bearings  of  the 
cape  of  Good  Hope  light  as  long  as  it  is  in  sight,  and  make  every 
allowance  for  a  possible  easterly  on-shore  set,  so  as  to  avoid  the 
dangerous  neighbourhood  of  the  Birkenhead  rock,  page  69.  Cape 
Agulhas  light  is  not  visible  when  bearing  southward  of  S.E.  by  E.f 

*  Direotious  for  False  and  Simons  bays,  see  p.  66 ;  Table  bay  p.  47. 

t  Passages  1x>  the  cape  of  Gk>od  Hope,  from  England,  west  coast  of  Africa).&c., 
will  be  found  in  the  African  Pilot,  part  1  ;  and  from  the  Cape  to  East  African 
ports,  &o.,  at  pp.  26-^9  of  this  work. 


58  FAL8B  BAY  WEST  SHORB.  [€hap.  II. 

Steam  vessels  bound  into  Simons  bay  often  pass  inside  the  Bellows 
and  Anvil  rocks,  but  the  discovery  of  the  pinnacle  rocks,  mentioned 
in  page  57,  makes  it  advisable  for  large  vessels  to  pass  seaward  of  the 
Anvil,  Vessels  taking  the  inside  route,  when  nearing  cape  Maclear, 
must  not  bring  Bellows  rock  to  bear  southward  of  S.E.  ^  S.,  until 
Dias  rock  bears  E.  J  N.,  or  until  cape  Maclear  is  midway  between 
Vasco  de  Gama  peak  and  a  gap  which  separates  the  lighthouse  from 
that  peak,  which  will  lead  clear  of  South-west  reefs  ;  then  steer  to 
pass  from  1^  to  -2  cables  southward  of  Dias  rock. 

Beachingr. — There  is  a  small  sandy  cove  between  the  lighthouse 
and  cape  Maclear,  in  which  vessels  in  a  sinking  state  may  be  beached 
in  greater  safety  than  on  any  other  part  of  the  adjacent  sea-coast. 

Rounding:  the  Cape  fipom  the  Eastward.— When  Cape  point 
light  is  in  sight,  vessels  in  standing  in  towards  the  land,  should  be 
guided  by  frequent  bearings ;  at  the  greatest  range  of  the  light  its 
bearings  will  give  an  idea  of  the  vessel's  position  with  reference  to 
Danger  point,  which  with  the  rocks  off  it  should  be  carefully  avoided, 
but  when  to  the  westward  of  Danger  point,  the  light  should  not  be 
brought  to  bear  more  westward  than  N.W.  ^  W.,  which  will  clear  all 
danger  off  Mudge  point  and  cape  Hangklip.  As  cape  Hangklip,  and 
the  narrow  neck  of  land  which  connects  it  to  the  shore,  is  very  low, 
great  caution  is  necessary  in  passing  it  in  hazy  weather. 

If  bound  for  Table  bay  from  the  eastward,  vessels,  after  rounding 
the  cape  of  Good  Hope*  and  the  coast  northward  to  Slangkop  point, 
at  the  distance  of  about  5  miles,  should  not  shut  in  Cape  point  light 
with  Slangkop  point,  until  Robben  island  light  bears  N.E.  ^  E.,  or 
the  light  on  Green  point  becomes  visible,  which  will  be  on  an 
E.  by  N.  I  N.  bearing.  This  latter  bearing  leads  about  three  miles 
westward  of  Vulcan  rock.     See  directions  at  page  47. 

The  precaution  of  using  the  lead  when  approaching  the  cape  of 
Good  Hope  should  never  be  omitted. 

FALSE  BA  Y.t — The  entrance  to  False  bay  lies  between  the  cape 
of  Good  Hope  and  cape  Hangklip,  about  16  miles  apart.  Within 
these  points,  the  bay  extends  to  the  northward  about  18  miles.  There 
are  several  dangers  in  it,  but  the  middle  and  eastern  sides  are  clear, 
though  the  bottom  is  foul  and  generally  unfit  for  ^anchorage.     The 

*  The  south  Whittle  beacon  (black,  with  staff  and  ball)  situated  on  a  lower  hill 
about  3  miles  northward  of  Cape  lighthouse,  is  often  visible  when  the  lighthouse  is 
enyelox)ed  in  mist,  and  is  a  good  mark  for  recognizing  the  locality. — Ed. 
See  Admiralty  chart : — The  cape  of  Good  Hope  and  False  bay,  No.  636. 


Chap.  II.]  WHITTLE  BOCK— BUFF ALS  BAY.  59 

general  depth  varies  from  46  fathom^  at  its  entrance  to  20  fathoms 
about  5  miles  from  its  head,  whence  it  gradually  shoals  to  the 
breakers,  which  break  in  from  4  to  5  fathoms  about  half  a  mile  off 
the  beach.  At  the  entrance  of  the  bay  there  is  a  rocky  bank,  on 
which  the  least  water  is  13  fathoms,  and  its  north-west  end  lies  with 
Cape  point  lighthouse  bearing  N.N.W.  ^  W.  distant  5  miles. 

Whittle  POOk,  with  7  feet  water,  is  about  6  feet  in  diameter,  and 
but  seldom  breaks.  It  rises  on  the  south  side  of  a  rocky  patch  nearly 
one  mile  in  circumference,  upon  w-hich  the  depths  vary  from  7  to  10 
fathoms.  It  lies  with  Cape  point  lighthouse  bearing  S.W.  by  W.  ^  W. 
distant  7J  miles,  and  the  lighthouse  on  the  Roman  rocks  N.N.W. 
distant  6^  miles. 

Oleaplng  Marks.— Beacons.— A  beacon,  35  feet  high,  and  56 
feet  above  high  water,  painted  white  with  a  red  band  in  the  centre, 
stands  on  a  flat-topped  rock,  near  Oatland  point,  and  1,700  yards 
from  an  inner  white  beacon,  with  staff  and  ball,  on  the  shoulder  of 
the  hill  beneath  Simons  berg.  From  the  Whittle  rock,  these  two 
beacons,  as  well  as  a  large  whitewashed  patch  on  the  hill  north-west 
of  Simons  town,  are  in  line  N.W.  by  N. ;  as  are  also  the  black  and 
white  beacons,  each  with  staff  and  ball,  standing  on  the  land  over 
Buffals  bay,  bearing  W.  J  S. ;  consequently,  if  these  respective 
beacons  are  kept  open  of  one  another  the  Whittle  rock  will  be 
cleared. 

Also  Chapman  ^eak,  well  open  to  the  westward  of  Elsey  peak 
N.'  by  W.  i  W.  leads  4  cables  westward  of  the  Whittle  ;  and  Roman 
rocks  lighthouse,  in  line  with  Elsey  peak  N.  ^  W.  leads  midway 
between  Whittle  rock  and  Miller  point. 

West  shore  of  False  bay.— Buffals  bay,  on  the  western 
shore  of  False  bay,  and  2  miles  northward  of  Cape  point, 
is  a  small  indentation  in  the  coast  line,  marked  by  a  white  sand 
patch.  On  the  ridge  of  hills  behind  the  bay  is  a  black  beacon,  which 
shows  out  clearly  as  a  mark  for  the  Whittle  rock.  A  white  beacon 
for  the  same  purpose  also  stands  near  the  sea,  just  to  the  northward 
of  the  bay.  The  depth  of  water  is  4  or  5  fathoms  near  the  shore, 
and  in  a  north-west  breeze  a  vessel  may  anchor  off  it  in  8  to  20 
fathoms,  sand,  if  unable  to  beat  to  windward  ;  this  is  preferable  to 
going  to  sea,  and  if  a  south-easter  comes  on,  a  vessel  will  have  room 
to  weigh,  cast,  and  run  up  to  Simons  bay,  if  anchored  in  the  greater 
depth.  There  is  a  fishing  establishment  and  a  landing  place  in  the 
bay. 


60  FALSE  BAY— WEST  SHORE.  [Chap.  !1. 

Between  Buffals  bay  and  Smithwinkle  bay,  3J  miles  northward, 
the  shore  is  overlooked  by  foar  sharp  peaks.  Off  both  points  of 
Smithwinkle  bay,  rocks,  some  of  which  are  above  water,  project  one- 
third  of  a  mile  from  the  shore ;  Batsata  rock,  8  feet  high,  is  the 
highest  of  those  off  the  southern  point. 

Rockland  point,  situated  about  7^  miles  northward  of  Cape 
point,  is  the  most  prominent  point  between  Cape  point  and  Simons 


The  point  slopes  off  to  a  ledge  of  dry  rocks,  beyond  which  at 

2  cables  distance,  south-eastward,  there  is  an  isolated  rock  9  feet  high, 
named  Bakkoven,  which  has  11  fathoms  close-to  ;  Castle  rock,  lying 

3  cables  southward  of  Bakkoven,  dries  only  at  low  water. 

At  1^  miles  northward  of  Rockland  point,  is  Oatland  point,  with  a 
few  rocks  off  it,  on  one  of  which  is  a  beacon  for  the  Whittle  rock, 
previouEly  described.  Between  these  points  sunken  rocks  extend 
from  3  to  5  cables  off. 

Noahs  Ark  is  a  flat-topped  rock,  in  shape  resembling  a  bam, 
about  100  feet  long  by  30  feet  high,  lying  3  cables  off  shore,  and 
about  a  mile  northward  of  Oatland  point.  Beyond  the  distance  of 
50  yards,  the  depths  are  from  6  to  7  fathoms.* 

PllCBnix  rook. — For  a  distance  of  3^  cables  in  a  N.N.W.  direc- 
tion from  Noahs  Ark,  the  ground  is  shallow  and  foul,  terminating 
with  Phoenix  rock,  which  has  but  3  feet  over  it.  A  red  buoy  with 
staff,  and  the  word  Rock  painted  on  its  flag,  lies  off  the  nortji 
side  of  Phoenix  rock.  Nimrod  rock,  with  8  feet  water,  lies  nearly 
midway  between  Noahs  ark  and  Phoenix  rock. 

Mafdstone  rook,  with  22  feet  at  low-water  springs,  lies 
S.E.  i  E.  2  cables  from  the  south-west  end  of  Noahs  Ark,  The 
base  of  this  rock  is  about  20  feet  in  diameter,  rising  to  a  sharp  peak 
the  summit  of  which  is  so  small  that  it  is  difficult  to  keep  the  lead 
on  it.  The  marks  for  it  are,  the  south-west  end  of  Noahs  Ark  on 
with  the  north  comer  of  mount  Curtis  garden  wall,  N.W.  ^  W. ; 
cottage,  and  the  Roman  rocks  a  sail's  breadth  open  eastward  of  the 
foot  of  Muizenberg. 

There  is  also  a  small  patch  of  29  feet,  which  is  steep-to  on  all 
sides,  lying  one  cable  S.S.E.  ^  E.  from  the  Maidstone  rock. 

Roman  rooks  are  a  cluster,  occupying  a  space  of  about  three- 
quarters  of  a  cable,    one   of    the    rocks,  on  which  a  lighthouse  is 

*  See  Admiralty  oharfc,  Table  bay  to  cape  Agulhas,  with  plan  of  Simons  bay, 
No.  2,082  ;  and  plan,  of  Simons  bay,  No.  1,849  ;  scale,  m=8  inches. 


Chap.  II.]  APPBOAOHES  TO  SIMONS  BAT.  61 

built,  being  above  water,  the  rest  are  awash,  and  the  whole  sur- 
rounded by  foul  ground.    See  light,  p.  62. 

Castor  rook,  with  15  feet  water,  is  detached  from  the  Roman 
rocks  cluster,  and  lies  N.N.E.  |  E.  distant  2  cables  from  the  light 
tower.  A  red  buoy  with  staff,  and  the  word  Rock  painted  on  its 
flag,  is  moored  one-third  of  a  cable  N.E.  of  the  rock.  Between  the 
rock  and  the  lighthouse  there  are  patches  of  19  and  24  feet. 

Seal  island  is  a  low  rocky  islet,  two  cables  long  north  and  south, 
and  one  cable  wide.  It  lies  E.  ^  S.  distant  6J  miles  from  the  Roman 
rocks  lighthouse,  and  is  surrounded  by  sunken  rocks,  upon  which 
the  sea  usually  breaks.  Landing  is  difficult  except  in  very  smooth 
water.  It  is  the  resort  of  penguins,  whose  eggs  may  be  collected 
in  considerable  numbers  at  the  proper  season. 

York  shoal,  the  nearest  part  of  which  lies  S.  \  E.  one  mile  from 
Seal  island,  is  a  rocky  patch  with  from  one  to  4^  fathoms,  about 
4  cables  long  and  1^  cables  wide.  The  sea  is  generally  breaking 
on  it. 

Ilast  shoal  has  depths  of  from  4  to  8  fathoms,  excepting  in  one 
small  spot  near  the  middle  that  nearly  dries  at  low  water  springs, 
and  on  which  the  sea  is  always  breaking.  The  shoal  is  about  half  a 
mile  long  and  one  quarter  of  a  mile  broad,  with  Seal  island  bearing 
N.W.  \  W.  distant  3^  miles. 

Abreast  of  Gordons  bay,  in  the  north-east  corner  of  False  bay,  is 
another  shoal  patch,  about  a  third  of  a  mile  in  diameter,  with  from 
6  to  9  fathoms,  and  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  heavy  gales.  The 
shoalest  part  lies  ^^  miles  off  shore,  and  S.E.  by  E.  §  E.  nearly  6  miles 
from  East  shoal. 

SIMONS  BAY,  situated  about  11  miles  northward  of  Cape 
point  and  near  the  north-west  corner  of  False  bay,  is  accessible  all 
the  year  round,  and  affords  complete  shelter,  for  with  heavy  south- 
easters,  the  only  winds  that  cause  any  inconvenience,  vessels  ride 
safely  ;  and  though  the  bay  is  exposed  to  east  and  north-east  winds, 
these  never  blow  strong.  The  shores  of  the  bay  may  be  approached 
to  within  2  cables,  and  the  closer  a  vessel  lies  to  the  patent  slip  and 
hospital,  the  more  sheltered  she  will  be  in  south-east  winds  ;  but  in 
bringing  up,  care  is  required  not  to  foul  the  several  pairs  of  moorings 
laid  down  for  men-of-war.  If,  therefore,  it  is  purposed  taking  an 
inshore  berth,  it  is  better  to  bring  up  on  the  south-east  side  of  the 
bay,  well  under  Blockhouse  point,  on  which  stands  a  fort  and  round 
white  tower  one-third  of  a  mile  from»the  sea. 


62  SIMONS  BAT.  [Chap.  II. 

Whapf  POCk,  having  9  feet  of  wa4;er,  lies  2,500  yards  East  of  the 
entrance  to  the  Dockyard  boat  camber ;  and  is  marked  by  a  beacon 
with  the  word  Rock  on  it. 

The  Dockyard,  though  small,  is  a  complete  establishment,  and 
has  all  the  necessaries  required  for  refitting  and  provisioning  Her 
Majesty's  vessels.  Ten  sets  of  Government  moorings  are  laid  down 
in  depths  varying  from  4  to  9  fathoms  of  water,  with  many  lighter 
sets  nearer  the  shore  for  dockyard  craft. 

There  is  a  Government  patent  slip,  which  at  spring  tides  is  capable 
of  taking  up  vessels  of  1,000  tons,  that  can  be  lightened  to  a  draught 
of  14  feet.     See  repairs. 

There  is  also  a  naval  hospital  and  a  recreation  room. 

Simons  bay  is  in  telegraphic  communication  with  Cape  town.  A 
railway  connects  Cape  town  with  Kalk  bay,  distant  6  miles  by  the 
road,  from  Simons  town.  The  mail  steamers  do  not  tpuch  here. 
Population  is  about  2,500. 

Position.— The  dockyard  flagstaff  is  in  latitude  34°  11'  32^"  S., 
longitude  18^  25' 5r  E. 

Time  Slgrnal. — A  circular  disc,  attached  to  a  lever  arm  working 
on  a  mast,  is  situated  close  to  Simons  town  telegraph  office.  The 
disc  is  raised  to  a  right  angle  with  mast  at  5  minutes  before  signal, 
and  falls  (by  electricity  from  the  Cape  observatory)  at  moment  of 
Ih.  Om.  Os.  p.m.  Cape  mean  time,  corresponding  to  23h.  46m.  5*3s. 
Greenwich  mean  time.  When  signal  fails  in  accuracy,  the  disc  is 
kept  up  till  2  o'clock,  then  lowered. 

LIGHT. — From  a  light-tower,  48  feet  high,  painted  in  red  and 
white  horizontal  bands,  erected  on  Roman  rocks,  is  exhibited,  at  an 
elevation  of  54  feet  above  high  water,  a  revolving  white  light,  which 
shows  a  bright  face  for  twelve  seconds  every  half  minute^  and  visible 
in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  12  miles. 

Supplies. — The  water  in  Simons  bay  is  excellent ;  it  is  brought 
alongside  in  a  tank.  There  is  a  smaller  tank  for  merchant  vessels,  but 
the  dockyard  tank  is  frequently  lent  to  water  merchant  ships  on 
application. 

Supplies  of  all  kind,  if  in  excess  of  what  Simons  town  can  supply, 
are  obtained  from  the  interior  and  from  Cape  town,  distant  by  road 
and  rail  about  20  miles.  Fish  is  abundant,  and  the  beaches  are  good 
for  hauling  the  seine. 

Repairs. — Moderate  repairs  to  engines,  and  to  boilers  of  500  horse 
power  are  undertaken  in   the  dockyard.      Ten-inch  shafts  can  be 


.Chap.  II.]  DOCKYARD— AlSrOHORAGB— WINDS.  63 

turned,  cylinders  of  40  inches  diameter  bored,  and  castings  of  5  tons 
made.  There  are  two  steam-hammers  of  15  and  10  cwt.,  and  the 
crane  on  the  boat  camber  pier  is  capable  of  lifting  2^  tons. 

Coal. — ^A  large  supply  of  coal  is  kept  in  stock  ;  it  Is  delivered 
alongside  in  bags  in  small  lighters  at  the  rate  of  250  tons  per  day. 
At  times  coaling  is  interrupted  by  gales.     Labour  is  plentiful. 

Caution. — There  is  a  fish  in  Simons  bay  commonly  called  toad- 
fish,  about  6  inches  long  ;  back  dark,  with  deep  black  stripes  ;  belly 
white,  with  faint  yellow  patches  ;  it  swims  near  the  surface,  and  is  a 
constant  attendant  on  lines  employed  fishing.  When  taken  from  the 
water  it  puffs  out  considerably.  Should  any  portion  of  the  fish  be 
eaten,  death  ensues  in  a  few  minutes. 

Anchorage. — A  good  berth  for  a  large  vessel  in  Simons  bay.  is 
about  half  a  mile  off  shore,  in  9^  to  10  fathoms,  with  Noah's  Ark 
S.E.  I S.,  and  the  dockyard  clock  W.  by  S.  ^  S.  Vessels  moor  in  this 
road  north-west  and  south-east,  with  the  stoutest  ground  tackle  to  the 
north-west  from  May  to  September,  for  this  being  the  winter  season, 
the  winds  prevail  from  that  quarter,  and  often  blow  in  strong  gusts 
over  the  hills.  From  September  to  May  the  S.E!  and  South  winds 
may  be  expected  to  predominate  ;  then  the  best  bower  should  lie  to 
the  south-eastward. 

Compass  Deviation. — Iron  and  other  vessels  desirous  of  testing 
their  compasses,  to  ascertain  the  local  attraction,  will  find  it 
convenient  to  use  Sharp  peak,  a  conspicuous  mountain  to  the  north- 
east of  Hangklip  berg,  which  rises  over  cape  Hangklip,  instead  of 
having  a  person  stationed  on  shore  taking  simultaneous  observations. 
The  true  bearing  of  this  peak  from  the  anchorage  is  S.  71°  E.  ; 
and  as  the  peak  is  24  miles  distant,  the  bearing  will  not  be  materially 
affected  by  the  change  of  position  of  the  vessel  in  any  part  of  the 
anchorage  in  Simons  bay. 

TidQS. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Simons  bay  at 
2h.  44m. ;  springs  rise  5J  feet,  neaps  .3|  feet.  There  is  but  little 
current  perceptible  in  the  bay  at  any  time. 

Directions  for  False  and  Simons  bays  will  be  found  on  page  66. 

Winds. — From  October  to  April,  south-easterly  winds  generally 
prevail,  but  do  not  continue  longer  than  five  or  eight  days  at  a  time, 
and  are  succeeded  by  variable  winds.  In  Simons  bay  as  in  False 
bay,  it  frequently  happens  that  these  winds,  after  blowing  very  hard 
for  a  day  and  part  of  the  night,  abate  towards  morning,  and  are 
succeeded  by  a  land  breeze  from  the  W.N.W.    By  taking  advantage 


64  FALSE  BAY— BASTERN  SHOKB.  [Chap.  II. 

of  this,  and  weighing  with  the  first  of  the  breeze,  a  sailing  vessel 
may  sometimes  get  to  sea  before  the  return  of  the  south-easterly 
wind.  If  unable  to  accomplish  this,  the  most  prudent  plan  will  be  to 
return  to  the  anchorage  in  Simons  bay. 

In  the  south-east  season,  these  winds  blow  frequently  and  with 

violence  from  S.S.E.,  making  landing  in  boats  disagreeable  and  at 

times  almost  inpracticable.     It  is  often  found  that  when  blowing 

hard  from  the  south-eastward  in  False  bay,  there  is  a  gentle  breeze 

■  from  the  north-westward  in  Table  bay. 

From  April  to  October,  north-westerly  winds  are  most  prevalent 
with  frequent  gales  and  rain  from  that  quarter.  These  gales  occur 
at  times  all  the  year  round,  but  they  are  rare  in  the  south-east  season. 
The  wind  scarcely  ever  blows  from  the  north-east,  and  never  with 
violence.  The  south-west  wind  (commonly  called  the  kloof  wind) 
is  cold  and  frequently  rainy.  During  this  wind  no  boats  should  sail 
in  the  bay  on  account  of  the  violent  and  variable  squalls  which 
come  down  from  the  hills. 

If  the  barometer  stands  at  30'2  to  30*3  and  falls  suddenly  to  30*0 
or  22*95,  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten  it  will  blow  a  strong  S.S.E.  gale. 
The  Muizenberg  capped  with  white  cloud  is  generally  the  precursor 
of  a  south-east  wind ;  and  if  the  Hottentot  Holland  range  on  the 
east  side  of  False  bay  is  also  capped,  the  south-easter  will  probably 
be  violent  and  of  long  continuance.  When  Simons  berg  has  a  misty 
cloud  on  its  summit,  rain  may  be  expected  within  an  hour  or  two.* 

NORTH  AND  EAST  SHORES  OP  FALSE  BAY —North- 
ward  of  Simons  bay  the  land  ranges  in  height  from  800  to  1,200  feet  as 
far  as  Muizenberg  mountain,  which  is  1,651  feet  high.  There  are  four 
remarkable  sand  patches  on  this  coast — the  first  on  the  north-west 
shore  of  Simons  bay,  the  second  between  that  and  Elsey  peak,  the 
third  in  Elsey  bay,  and  the  fourth  in  Fish-hook  bay.f 

Kalk  .  bay  (pronounced  Cork),  is  the  present  terminus  of  the 
railway  from  Cape  Town.  From  a  small  fishery  station  a  few  years 
ago  it  has  now  become  a  fashionable  watering  place,  and  several  hotels 
have  been  erected.  The  only  good  landing  along  the  north  shore  is 
at  Kalk  bay,  where  a  projecting  ledge  of  rocks  makes  a  little 
shelter. 

*  Captain  Lord  Charles  Scott,  H.M.S.  Bacchante,  1881,  remarks,  that  the 
Hottentot  Holland  range  are  the  first  to  cover  on  the  approadi  of  a  south-easter, 
and  that  if  the  Muizenberg  does  not  coyer  it  may  not  blow  home  to  Simons  bay. 
See  also  p.  9,  winds  off  the  Cape,  &c. 

j-  See  Admiralty  chart :  Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  False  bays,  No.  636, 


Chap.  II.]  KALK  BAY— CJAPB  HANGKLIP.  65 

Eastward  of  Kalk  bay  the  shore  is  a  low  sandy  beach  with  a 
continuous  line  of  breakers  fronting  it,  and  no  landing.  This 
portion  is  not  frequented. 

The  eastern  shore  of  False  bay  to  the  southward  of  Gordons  bay 
is  bold,  having  no  outlying  dangers  more  than  one  quarter  of  a  mile 
off.  The  high  land  comes  close  down  to  the  south  side  of  Gordons 
bay,  whence  to  Hangklip  is  an  unbroken  chain  of  mountains. 

The  Strand  is  a  fishing  station  about  2^  miles  north  of  Gordons 
bay.  It  has  a  boat  harbour  formed  by  a  circle  of  sunken  rocks 
extending  some  distance  from  shore.  The  entrance  is  narrow,  but 
when  inside  it  affords  good  shelter. 

Gtordons  bay  is  formed  on  the  north-east  side  of  False  bay,  and 
affords  shelter  from  south  and  easterly  winds.  As  it  is  quite  exposed 
to  westerly  winds  vessels  can  only  lie  there  in  the  summer  months. 

H.M.S.  Boscawen  anchored  here  in  December  1857  in  10  fathoms, 
with  the  south  point  of  the  bay  S.W:  |  W.  The  wind  shifted  to  the 
S.W.  and  a  very  heavy  swell  set  in,  but  it  was  not  dangerous,  as  the 
ship  lay  broadside  on  with  a  slack  cable. 

Kogrel  bay  lies  about  h\  miles  to  the  southward  of  Gordons  bay  ; 
it  is  about  three  miles  across  and  falls  back  to  the  eastward  more 
than  a  mile  ;  but  the  bottom  in  many  parts  being  rocky  it  is  not  a 
good  anchorage,  although  shelter  may  be  obtained  from  south  and 
easterly  winds. 

Pringrle  bay  or  cove,  3  miles  north-north-east  of  cape  Hangklip, 
is  open  to  westerly  winds.  It  affords  good  shelter  in  S.E.  gales,  in 
depths  of  9  to  10  fathoms.  H.M.S.  Sidon  rode  out  a  stroEg  S.E. 
gale  here.* 

Cape  Hangklip. — The  quoin-shaped  hill  of  this  name  (some- 
times called  False  cape),  1,448  feet  high,  is  the  eastern  point  of 
entrance  to  False  bay,  and  makes  as  an  island  in  approaching  from 
the  southward.  Its  western  face  appears  to  overhang  from  some 
points  of  view  (hence  its  name),  and  a  conspicuous  sand  patch 
extends  half  way  up  its  south-east  side.  The  cape  itself,  about  1^^ 
miles  southward  of  this  hill,  is  very  low,  and  a  heavy  sea  always 
breaks  upon  it ;  a  sunken  rock  lies  N.W.  |  N.  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  from  the  cape,  at  one-third  of  a  mile  off  shore,  and  as  the  sea 
breaks  some  distance  outside  of  this  rock,  it  is  not  advisable  to  pass 
within  one  mile  of  the  cape. 

*  Navigating  Lieutenant  F.  Skead,  R.N. 
S.O.  10626.  E 


66  FALSE  AND  ST.  SIMONS  BAYS.  [Chap.  II. 

Inside  Hangklip  the  land  is  low,  then  rises  to  a  sharp  peak  2,780 
feet  high,  at  the  distance  of  3^  miles  from  Hangklip  hill.  This  peak 
is  the  commencement  of  a  chain  of  mountains  extending  to  the 
eastward. 

DIRECTIONS.— False  and  Simons  bays.— Steam  vessels  or 
sailing  vessels  with  a  fair  wind  coming  from  the  westward  by  day, 
and  having  opened  the  clearing  marks  for  Anvil  rock  {see  page  56), 
should,  if  bound  to  Simons  bay,  steer  N.N.E.  midway  between 
Whittle  rock  and  the  shore  ;  and  when  Elsey  peak  is  in  line  with 
Roman  rocks  lighthouse,  bearing  N.  \  W.,  steer  for  it,  altering 
course  when  within  one  mile  of  the  lighthouse,  so  as  to  pass 
midway  between  it  and  Noahs  Ark;  when  the  blockhouse  on 
Blockhouse  point  bears  W.  by  S.,  the  vessel  will  be  past  Phoenix 
rocks,  and  may  haul  into  Simons  bay,  taking,  however,  sufficient 
sweep  to  have  time  to  choose  a  berth  and  room  for  rounding-to. 

Working. — ^Vessels  working  in  westward  of  Whittle  rock  and 
nearing  that  danger,  will  easily  avoid  it  by  keeping  the  beacons 
erected  to  show  its  position  well  open  of  each  other  ;  or  Chapman 
peak  (a  dark  peak  over  the  southern  side  of  Hout  bay)  well  open 
west  of  Elsey  peak,  N.  by  W.  ^  W.  A  line  drawn  from  Oatland 
point  beacon  to  Roman  rocks  lighthouse,  N.N.E.  \  E.,  passes  one 
cable  eastward  of  the  29  feet  patch,  and  nearly  2  cables  eastward  of 
Maidstone  rock ;  vessels  of  heavy  draught  should  not  therefore 
pass  within  this  line  until  the  Admiral's  house  is  open  its  breadth 
northward  of  Noahs  Ark,  bearing  N.W.  by  W. 

The  ordinary  channel  for  vessels  entering  Simons  bay  is  between 
Noahs  Ark  and  the  Roman  rocks,  a  width  of  7  cables  ;  but  if  the  wind 
be  N.W.,  and  the  vessel  under  sail,  the  passage  east  and  north  of  the 
Roman  rocks  should  be  taken,  as  it  affords  better  working  space.  A 
vepsel  of  large  draught,  however,  when  passing  north-eastward  of 
Roman  rocks  lighthouse  should  give  it  a  berth  of  3  cables  to  avoid 
Castor  rock. 

The  four  sand  patches  on  the  hills  northward  •of  Simons  bay,  are 
usually  conspicuous  and  serve  as  good  landmarks  for  the  bay ;  the 
western  patch  is  a  streak  stretching  down  from  the  top  of  the  hill.* 

In  thick  weather,  and  uncertain  of  the  position  of  the  vessel,  it  is 
advisable  to  anchor  when  the  soundings  come  under  20  fathoms. 

If  apprehensive  of  being  near  the  Whittle  rock  in  thick  weather, 
it  may  be  of  service  to  know  that  on  its  south-east,  south,  and  south- 

*See  Bketcli  on  Admiralty  chart,  Xo.  636. 


Chap.  II.]  DIRBOTIONS.  67 

west  sides  at  half  a  mile  distance,  the  depths  are  22  and  23  fathoms, 
large  bits  of  whitish  shell  without  any  sand  ;  the  same  bottom  in  24 
and  25  fathoms,  will  be  found  in  some  other  places  in  the  vicinity  of 
this  rock,  but  in  no  other  part  of  the  bay  is  the  bottom  of  a  similar 
nature. 

At  Night. — Care  should  be  taken  in  rounding  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope  for  Simons  bay  to  give  it  a  berth  of  not  less  than  3  miles  ;  by 
not  going  into  less  than  45  fathoms  until  the  Cape  light  bears  north- 
ward of  N.  by  E.  ]^  E.,  a  vessel  will  clear  Bellows  rock. 

When  eastward  of  Anvil  rock,  with  Cape  point  light  bearing  about 
N.W.  by  N.,  distant  3  miles,*  steer  N.N.E.  until  Roman  rocks  light 
bears  N.  ^  W.,  then  steer  for  it  to  within  half  a  mile  of  the  light 
when  alter  course  to  N.W.,  which  should  lead  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
northward  of  Phoenix  rock,  and  haul  gradually  into  the  anchorage. 

Unless  thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  navigation  and  favoured 
with  moonlight,  vessels,  at  night,  should  always  pass  eastward  of 
Roman  rocks.  The  four  large  sand  patches  on  the  hills  northward  of 
Simons  bay  are  visible  on  bright  nights,  and  in  steering  for  Simons 
bay  they  will  be  ahead  or  on  the  starboard  bow  ;  bearing  this  in 
mind  will  prevent  the  Muizenberg  being  mistaken  for  the  hills 
southward  of  Simons  bay  ;  these  patches,  with  the  exception  of  that 
over  Buffels  bay,  are  the  only  sand  patches  on  the  west  side  of  False 
bay. 

Passing  Eastward  of  Whittle  rook.— Running  for  Simons 
bay  do  not  bring  the  Cape  light  to  the  southward  of  W.S.W.  until  the 
Roman  rock  light  is  between  the  bearings  of  N.N.W.  ^  W.  and 
N.W.  by  W.  i  W.,  between  which  bearings  a  vessel  will  be  clear  of 
the  Whittle  on  the  one  hand  and  York  shoal  on  the  other.  If 
working  in,  make  short  tacks  between  the  above  bearings  of  the 
Roman  rock  light,  until  certain  of  being  within  5  miles  of  it. 

By  day.  Chapman  peak  touching  the  western  edge  of  the  sand  in 
Fish-hook  bay,  leads  two-thirds  of  a  mile  eastward  of  Whittle  rock 
The  whitewashed  mark  on  the  hill  over  Simons  bay,  kept  well  open 
eastward  of  the  Whittle  beacons,  on  Oatland  point,  also  leads  east- 
ward of  the  rock. 

Running:  for  Simons  bay  in  a  South-easter.— It  is  not 
advisable  for  a  vessel  in  a  strong  south-easter  to  run  for  Simons  bay 

*  The  Roman  rocks  light  (also  a  reyolving  light)  may  be  aeon  from  near  this 
position,  if  not  from  tlie  deck,  from  the  masthead. 
S.O.  10625.  E  2 


68  CAPE  HANGKLIP  TO  CAPE  AGULHAS.     [Chap.  II. 

at  night,  for  the  gusts  of  wind  are  violent,  and  there  is  a  risk  in 
bringing  up  ;  but  should  stand  off  and  on  the  Cape  under  easy  sail 
till  daylight. 

It  has  been  recommended  when  entering  Simons  bay  in  a  heavy 
south-easter,  that  vessels  should  pass  outside  the  Roman  rocks,  so  as 
to  have  more  room  for  rounding  to  ;  but  as  by  doing  so  the  last  mile 
must  be  passed  with  the  wind  abeam,  there  will  be  a  risk  of  sails  or 
spars  i^nless  close  reefed.  It  is  perhaps  better  to  come  in  between 
the  Roman  rocks  and  Noahs  Ark,  shortening  sail  so  as  to  have  all 
furled  when  abreast  of  the  latter,  and  to  round  to  under  the  spanker 
only.  The  sheet  cable  should  invariably  be  bent,  and  the  anchor 
cleared  away,  when  entering  False  bay  in  a  south-easter. 

The  COAST  between  cape  Hangklip  and  Danger  point,  about  27 
miles  to  the  south-eastward,  forms  a  bight  from  8  to  10  miles  in  depth 
Mudge  point  lies  about  midway  with  Sandown  bay  to  the  westward, 
and  Walker  bay  to  the  eastward  of  it.  The  remainder  of  the  bight  is 
composed  of  rocky  projecting  points,  and  landing  can  usually  only 
be  effected  in  certain  places,  and  which  are  shown  on  the  chart.* 
P<»lmiet  river,  9  miles  to  the  eastward  of  cape  Hangklip,  is  a  rapid 
stream  in  the  winter  season,  but  its  entrance  is  always  blocked  up 
with  sand.  About  three-quarters  of  a  mile  eastward  of  it  is  a  small 
rocky  cove,  where  a  boat  may  land  at  high  water,  in  fine  weather. 

Mudge  point  is  low  and  rocky,  and  there  are  many  sunken 
rocks  off  it,  which,  with  the  masses  of  kelp  about  them,  form  the 
south  side  of  D'Urban  cove,  where  there  is  good  landing  in  east  and 
south-east  winds.  The  gig  of  H.M.S.  Birkenhead  landed  after  the 
wreck,  of  that  vessel,  in  a  small  rocky  cove  at  the  south  extremity  of 
the  sand  in  Sandown  bay,  where  there  is  a  fishing-station,  but  the 
landing  at  D'Urban  cove  is  the  better  and  safer  of  the  two.  A  coast 
range  of  hills  terminates  near  Mudge  point  in  Onrust  berg,  a  square 
bluff,  1,575  feet  high,  which  has  a  pile  on  it. 

WALKER  BAY  is  remarkable  for  the  immense  tracts  of  sands 
and  high  sand-hills  at  its  head,  which  are  visible  a  long  distance  at 
sea,  and  give  a  distinctive  character  to  the  land,  which  would  have 
been  aptly  expressed  by  the  name  Sandown.  About  midway  along 
the  sand  and  one  mile  inland  is  a  sand  hill  pyramid  427  feet  above  the 
sea.  A  long  heavy  swell  always  rolls  into  the  bay,  and  the  water  is 
deep  within  one  mile  of  the  beach. 

*  See  Admiralty  charts : — Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  adjacent  coasts,  No.  2,095 ; 
Table  bay  to  cape  Ag^ilhas,  No.  2,082  ;  and  cape  Hangklip  to  Dyer  island,  No.  2,571 ; 
scale,  m^  I'O  inch. 


Chap.  II.]   WALKER  AND  HYDRA  BAYS— DANGER  POINT.  69 

Klein  river,  in  the  northern  bight  of  Walker  bay,  is  a  stream  of 
considerable  size  inland,  but  its  mouth  is  choked  with  sand. 

Stanford  oove,  a  smadl  rocky  inlet,  similar  to  D'Urban  cove 
before  described,  also  affords  landing  in  east  and  south-east  winds 
It  lies  in  the  rocky  southern  shore  of  Walker  bay,  5  miles  north- 
east of  Danger  point.  There  are  several  rocky  patches  off  it,  which, 
with  the  heavy  swell,  renders  it  less  available  than  Hydra  bay 
There  are  some  fishermen's  huts,  and  plenty  of  good  water  near 
Stanford  cove. 

Hydra  bay,  lying  between  Stanford  cove  and  Danger  point,  is 
the  best  anchorage  under  that  point,  as  farther  in  Walker  bay  the 
swell  is  heavier.  It  is  easily  distinguished  by  a  sand  patch  which 
marks  the  face  of  the  hillock  over  it.  In  approaching  Hydra  bay 
from  the  southward,  the  pitch  of  Danger  point  should  not  be 
approached  nearer  than  2  or  3  miles  ;  the  bluff  hill  of  Mudge  point 
may  be  steered  for  until  the  sand  patch  is  well  open,  when  the  rocky 
spit  projecting  from  Danger  point  will  be  cleared.  Then  haul  up 
for  the  bay,  and  anchor  in  12  or  14  fathoms,  about  three-quarters  of 
a  mile  from  the  shore,  taking  care  to  keep  the  low  extreme  of 
Danger  point  open  of  the  intermediate  points,  to  avoid  the  3  fathoms 
rocky  patch  in  the  centre  of  the  bay,  upon  which  the  sea  does  not 
always  break. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  this  neighbourhood ^ 
at  2h.  50m. ;  springs  rise  5  feet.  The  rise  of  the  tide  and  the 
establishment  at  Simons  bay,  Dyer  island,  and  Struys  bay  are  very 
nearly  the  same,  and  the  stream  of  tide  along  the  whole  coast  between 
cape  Hangklip  and  Struys  bay  is  inconsiderable  and  uncertain. 

DANGER  POINT,  the  south-west  extreme  of  Walker  bay,  is  a 
tongue  of  low  hummocky  sandy  land  covered  with  bushes  and 
stunted  trees,  projecting  about  4J  miles  from  the  base  of  Duin 
Fontein  berg,  which  is  1,130  feet  high,  and  a  conspicuous,  remark- 
able bluff  hill  from  every  point  of  view  at  sea.  This  point  affords 
shelter,  in  Hydra  bay,  from  the  S.E.  gales  of  summer. 

The  depths  are  irregular  off  Danger  point.  If  approaching  it  at 
night,  do  not  go  into  less  than  35  or  40  fathoms. 

Birkenliead  rock. — Several  detached  sunken  rocks  are  met 
with  off  this  part  of  the  coast,  the  most  dangerous  of  which  lies 
about  one  mile  from  the  pitch  of  Danger  point,  with  2  fathoms 
water,  and  from  10  to  18  fathoms  within  a  short  distance.     It  has 


70  CAPE  HANGKLIP  TO  CAPB  AGULHAS.  [Chap.  II. 

acquired  a  melancholy  celebrity  as  having  caused  the  loss  of  H.M.S. 
Birkenhead  and  436  lives,  in  February  1852,  hence  its  name.  There 
is  a  channel  with  irregular  depths  between  Birkenhead  rock  and  the 
reef  stretching  out  from  Danger  point,  but  it  is  advisable  to  pass 
seaward  of  the  rock.  The  sea  breaks  with  violence  on  the  rock,  but 
often  only  at  intervals  of  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour. 

DYER  ISLAND,  6^  miles  south-eastward  of  Danger  point,  is  a 
low  rocky  islet,  visible  only  at  a  short  distance.  It  is  the  abode  of 
rabbits  and  numerous  sea  birds,  and  a  little  guano  may  be  collected  on 
the  island.  Geyser  island  is  smaller,  and  formerly  the  resort,  in  certain 
seasons,  of  seals,  for  killing  which  there  was  a  permanent  establish- 
ment on  Dyer  island.  These  islands,  together  with  the  numerous 
rocks,  extending  nearly  1^^  miles  to  the  westward  of  them,  form  a 
natural  breakwater,  under  which  vessels  may  find  shelter  in  south 
and  south-east  gales.* 

Landing  is  not  good,  and  at  times  impracticable.  The  best  is  near 
a  small  staff  and  shed,  the  marks  of  a  disused  sealing  station. 

Anchorage.— Directions.— Dyer  and  Geyser  islands,  being  low 
and  white,  are  made  out  with  difficulty  when  seen  against  the  sand 
hills  on  the  adjacent  coast.  In  approaching  them  from  the  south- 
ward, keep  Palmiet  valley  (in  the  high  land  near  cape  Hangklip) 
open  of  Danger  point  until  Geyser  island  is  in  line  with  Gunners 
Quoin  to  avoid  the  reef,  which  does  not  break  in  fine  weather, 
extending  westward  of  Dyer  and  Geyser  islands ;  then  haul  up  for 
Duin  Fontein  berg,  and  when  Gunners  Quoin  is  open  northward  of 
Dyer  island,  steer  for  it,  and  anchor  in  10  to  12  fathoms,  with  the 
extremes  of  Dyer  island  bearing  about  S.S.E.  and  S.  by  W.,  distant 
about  one  mile. 

The  bottom  is  sand,  and  the  holding  ground  good,  but  the  reef 
affords  no  shelter  from  south-west  winds.  There  is  a  narrow 
channel,  with  depths  of  3  fathoms  between  the  east  end  of  Dyer 
island  and  the  rock  above  water  inshore,  which  a  small  vessel  might 
find  practicable  under  favourable  circumstances,  but  it  cannot  be 
recommended ;  the  sea  breaks  across  it  in  southerly  winds.  Foul 
ground,  with  heavy  breakers,  extend  from  the  Sandy  point  abreast, 
to  within  one  mile  of  Dyer  island. 

THE  COAST  from  Danger  point  to  Quoin  point,  a  distance  of 
nearly  19  miles  south-eastward,  is  low  near  the  sea,  and  backed  by 
bare  rugged  hills  of  moderate  elevation,  one  of  which,  called  False 

See  also  Admiralty  chart :  Dyer  island  to  Strnys  bay,  No.  2572  ;  scale,  wi  =  1  inch. 


Chap.  II.]  DYER  ISLAND — GUNNBRS  QUOIN.  71 

Quoin,  from  its  shape,  is  888  feet  high,  and  about  half-way  between 
Danger  and  Quoin  points.  A  long,  heavy  swell  constantly  breaks 
on  the  shore,  which  is  inaccessible. 

At  about  5^  miles  eastward  of  Danger  point  at  the  head  of  a  bay, 
is  the  mouth  of  the  Uilkraal,  a  small  stream,  checked  at  its  junction 
with  the  sea  by  sand. 

Patohes. — ^About  half-way  between  Dyer  island  and  Quoin  point 
are  two  rocky  patches,  1^  miles  oflE  shore,  upon  which  the  least  water 
found  was  4  fathoms.  The  sea  breaks  upon  them  when  there  is  any 
swell. 

Guimers  Quoin  (Buffel  Jagt  berg),  is  a  conspicuous  bluflE  hill, 
997  feet  in  height,  named  from  its  resemblance  to  a  quoin,  which, 
however,  it  does  not  bear  when  viewed  from  the  westward.  Quoin 
point  is  a  square  projection  of  hummocky  land,  from  the  base  of  the 
Gunners  Quoin,  and  is  3  miles  from  it.  It  is  fronted  by  sunken 
rocks  and  heavy  breakers  to  the  distance  of  1^  miles  from  the  shore, 
and  is  distinguished,  when  seen  from  the  southward,  by  two  sandhills 
near  its  extremity. 

The  Coast  from  Quoin  point  to  cape  Agulhas,  18  miles  to  the 
south-eastward,  is  low  ^nd  sandy,  except  abreast  of  the  flat-topped 
range  named  Zoet  Anys,  where  it  is  steep  and  rocky.  The  whole  is 
exposed  to  the  full  force  of  the  ocean  swell,  and  landing  is 
impracticable. 

The  depths  are  shallower  along  this  part  of  the  coast  than  they  are 
oflE,  and  to  the  westward  of  the  Quoin ;  and  between  about  2  and  4 
miles  eastward  of  the  south-east  face  of  Quoin  point  and  If  miles 
from  the  shore  are  several  rocky  patches,  some  of  which  are  above 
water. 

Directions. — In  standing  towards  any  part  of  this  coast,  cape 
Agulhas  light  should  not  be  lost  sight  of,  and  a  vessel  should  stand 
off  before  the  light  disappears  on  a  S.E.  by  E.  bearing.  From  the 
westward,  having  passed  Quoin  point  at  a  distance  of  5  or  10  miles, 
a  S.E.  ^  E.  course,  made  good,  will  round  cape  Agulhas  at  a  simiiar 
distance.    See  page  77. 

There  is  tolerable  shelter  and  smooth  water,  in  strong  north-west 
winds,  under  the  lee  of  the  reefs  4  miles  eastward  of  Quoin  point, 
and  it  is  possible  that  a  small  vessel  might  find  the  same  shelter  close 
under  the  east  extreme  of  Quoin  point. 


72 


CHAPTER  III. 

CAPE  AGULHAS  TO  CAPE  RECIFE,  ALGOA  BAY. 
(Long.  20°  E.  to  25°  40'  E.) 


VARIATION  IN  1889. 

CapeAgulhas 30°  20' W. 

Cape  Recife 29°  50' W. 


AGTTLHAS  BANK.— The  limits  of  this  extensive  bank, 
southward  of  cape  Agnlhas,  have  been  fairly  defined.  The  100 
fathoms  line  appears  to  extend  from  near  the  shore  in  the  vicinity 
of  Bashee  river  to  the  south-westward,  passing  cape  Recife  at  about 
20  miles  distant,  and  the  meridian  of  Mossel  bay  at  60  miles ;  here 
it  trends  southward,  reaching  its  outer  limit  in  lat.  36°  45'  S., 
long.  20°  45'  E.,  thence  it  inclines  northward,  passing  the  Cape 
peninsula  at  a  minimum  distance  of  5  miles.  Nowhere  does  the 
edge  of  the  bank  appear  to  be  very  steep  ;  the  general  soundings  on 
it  are  from  45  to  80  fathoms. 

Eastward  of  cape  Agulhas  the  bottom  is  generally  rocky,  or  coarse 
sand,  shells,  and  small  stones,  whilst  to  the  westward  of  Agulhas, 
mud  or  green  sand  will  be  found  southward  of  lat.  35°  15'  S.,  but 
within  50  fathoms  the  bottom  is  rock,  sand,  or  stones,  and  beyond 
90  fathoms  generally  sandy,  with  black  specks.  The  quality  of  the 
bottom  is  not,  however,  sufficiently  ascertained'  to  enable  seamen  to 
determine  their  position  by  it. 

There  is  one  marked  effect  of  the  Agulhas  bank  in  quieting  the 
heavy  seas  which  roll  up  to  it.  A  vessel  may  be  exposed  to  a 
turbulent  and  irregular  sea  while  in  deep  water  and  outside  the 
bank,  endangering  spars  and  threatening  to  break  over  her,  but  the 
moment  soundings  of  60  to  70  fathoms  are  gained  the  sea  becomes 
comparatively  tranqu;!. 


Chap.  III.]  AGULHAS  BANK— OAPB  AOULHAS.  73 

CAPE  AQTTLHAS  is  a  rocky  projection,  and  the  most  southern 
part  of  Africa.*  The  features  of  the  land  about  cape  Agulhas 
distinguish  it  from  the  neighbouring  headlands.  Viewed  from  a 
distance  seaward,  east  or  west,  the  north  and  south  elevations 
resemble  two  oblong  hummocks.  At  a  distance  from  the  southward 
the  two  appear  united.  The  highest  part  is  455  feet  above  the  sea, 
and  its  distance  from  the  extreme  of  the  cape  about  one  mile. 

On  the  first  undulation  within  cape  Agulhas  is  the  lighthouse, 
which  is  at  times  somewhat  difficult  to  distinguish  from  the  south- 
ward against  the  higher  land  behind. 

Westward  of  the  cape,  the  coast  trends  a  north-west  direction  to 
Quoin  point.  Immediately  to  the  eastward  of  the  cape  are  two  small 
indentations,  the  first  of  which  is  named  St.  Mungo  bay.  The  whole 
of  the  coast  about  cape  Agulhas  and  thence  to  Northumberland 
point  consists  of  rugged  sandstone  and  quartz  rocks,  or  rocky  reef, 
extending  out  one-third  of  a  mile,  and  perfectly  impracticable  for 
boats  to  approach. 

Exposed  to  the  uninterrupted  oscillations  of  the  Southern  ocean, 
the  sea  breaks  heavily  all  along  on  this  iron-bound  shore,  particularly 
during  southerly  winds.  A  vessel  touching  on  it  has  not  the  slightest 
chance  of  escaping  destruction.    See  directions,  page  77. 

LIGHT. — ^The  lighthouse  on  cape  Agulhas  is  a  round  tower 
100  feet  high,  painted  with  horizontal  red  and  white  bands  alter- 
nately. It  exhibits  a  fixed  white  light  at  an  elevation  of  128  feet 
above  the  sea,  visible  from  seaward  between  the  bearings  of  West 
and  S.E.  by  E.,  and  in  clear  weather  should  be  seen  from  a  distance 
of  18  miles.     It  is  frequently  invisible  at  this  distance. 

Northumberland  point  lies  3  miles  eastward  of  Agulhas 
lighthouse.  It  is  low  and  sandy  immediately  on  the  beach,  but  a 
dangerous  ledge  of  rocks  surrounds  the  point,  and  shallow  water 
extends  in  a  south-east  direction  about  one  mile  from  the  point.  A 
detached  rock,  which  breaks  at  times,  lies  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.  distant 
1 J  miles  from  the  point.  Westward  of  the  point  the  reef  extends 
off  about  one-third  of  a  mile,  and  the  sea  breaks  heavily  near  it 
with  S.E.  winds. 

A  bank  about  one  mile  in  extent,  with  from  7  to  9  fathoms  water, 
lies  with  its  north  edge  on  the  parallel  and  eastward  of  the  light- 
house, and  distant  from  it  b\  miles.  The  sea  breaks  on  it  in  bad 
weather. 

*  See  Admiralty  charts  : — Cape  of  Good  Hope  and  adjacent  coasts,  No.  2,096 ; 
No.  2,572,  and  cape  Agulhas  to  Mossel  bay.  No.  i!,088  ;  scale,  m  =  OS  inches. 


74  CAPE  ALGULHA8  TO  MOSSEL  BAY.  [Chap.  III. 

STRUTS  BAY,  lying  between  Struys  and  Northumberland 
points,  affords  shelter  in  West  to  N.W.  winds,  but  is  wholly  un- 
safe in  any  wind  from  W.S.W.  round  southerly  to  East.  From 
opposite  the  houses  in  the  west  part  of  the  bay  the  beach  is  clean 
sand  to  within  2  miles  of  Struys  point,  where  flat  jagged  rocks 
commence  ;  behind  this  sandy  beach  is  a  line  of  sand  hills,  the 
highest  of  which  is  100  feet  above  the  sea  ;  some  are  bare,  and  others 
are  more  or  less  covered  with  bush  (a  feature  which  distinguishes  the 
coast  from  Struys  point  to  the  next  point  east  of  it) ;  behind  these 
again  is  a  green  covered  ridge  attaining  a  height  of  200  feet  which, 
at  an  average  distance  of  3  miles  from  the  beach,  drops  suddenly 
away  to  a  plain  extending  for  6  or  7  miles  to  the  base  of  the 
Driefontein  range  of  hills. 

Anchoragre. — The  anchorage  in  Struys  bay  is  under  Northumber- 
land point.  Vessels  from  the  westward,  intending  to  anchor,  may 
round  Northumberland  point  in  10  fathoms  water,  at  a  distance  of 
about  2  miles,  and  when  the  stone  house  bears  W.N.W.,  haul  into  the 
bay,  keeping  the  lighthouse  to  the  northward  of  W.  by  N.  J  N.  until 
Northumberland  point  bears  N.W.  i^  N.  Then  steer  N.N.E.,  which 
should  lead  half  a  mile  clear  of  the  outer  rock  off  Northumberland 
point  ;  when  the  stone  house  in  the  bay  bears  W.N.W.,  steer  to 
the  N.W.,  and  anchor  in  5  fathoms  sand,  with  the  house  bearing 
W.  ^  S.,  and  the  sandy  extreme  of  Northumberland  point 
S.W.  by  S.  Here  the  bottom  is  clear,  while  to  the  westward,  and 
nearer  to  the  reef,  where  the  water  is  smoother,  the  bottom  is  foul, 
being  composed  of  rocks  interspersed  with  patches  of  sand.  Large 
vessels  are  recommended  to  anchor  farther  out  in  7  fathoms. 

Vessels  from  the  eastward,  will  clear  the  dangers  off  Struys  point 
by  keeping  Agulhas  light  bearing  well  to  the  northward  of  West. 

Caution. — With  strong  winds  from  S.W.  through  south  to  East,  it 
is  unsafe  to  venture  into  Struys  bay,  as  the  sea  often  breaks  in  7  and 
8  fathoms  water.  It  has  been  the  scene  of  several  disastrous  wrecks 
and  it  cannot  be  recommended,  except  as  a  temporary  anchorage  in 
west  or  north-west  gales. 

As  a  general  rule,  sailing  vessels  seeking  shelter  in  this  bay  in  a 
N.W.  gale  should  put  to  sea  immediately  after  it  subsides,  for  the 
wind  frequently  changes  in  a  few  hours  from  blowing  strong  at 
N.W.  to  S.E.  or  south,  in  which  case  it  is  very  difficult  to  work  out, 
in  consequence  of  the  heavy  sea  which  then  rises. 

Landln^T* — The  landing  place  is  a  small  cove  to  the  north-west  of 
Northumberland  point,  sheltered  by  a  shelf  of  shingle  projecting 


Chap.  III.]        STRUTS   BAY  AND  POINT— TIDES,  CURRENT.  75 

from  each  extremity  of  the  cove,  but  it  is  fast  filling  up  with  sand  ; 
a  wooden  jetty  at  the  end  of  which  a  vessel  drawing  7  or  8  feet 
formerly  secured  has  been  dry  for  several  years. 

Water. — There  are  several  wells,  but  the  water  is  scarce  and 
brackish ;  it  is  procured  only  by  digging  in  the  sand  beach  above 
high  water  mark. 

Bredasdorp. — The  village  of  Bredasdorp  is  16  miles  or  three 
hours  journey  distant  from  the  landing  place  in  Struys  bay,  where 
supplies  can  be  obtained  and  where  there  is  postal  communication 
with  Cape  town. 

Honing  Nest  op  Malgles  river.— This  river  runs  into  Struys 
bay  near  the  centre  between  bare  sand  hills  :  it  is  the  outlet  of  many 
streams  flowing  from  the  hills  northward  and  westward  for  many 
miles  which  form  often  into  lagoons  in  the  flat  described  as  lying 
behind  this  coast,  flowing  sluggishly  and  under  various  names  with 
its  tributaries  as  the  Honing  Nest,  Kars,  and  Nieuw-jaar,  until  they 
unite  and  form  this  river :  it  is  unimportant  and  usually  fordable 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  mouth,  and  often  at  the  mouth,  but 
the  latter  is  dangerous.* 

Tide  and  Current.— It  is  high  water  in  Struys  bay,  full  and 
change,  at  2h.  50m. ;  springs  rise  5  feet.  During  the  examination  of 
this  part  of  the  coast,  in  September  1848,  no  current  was  observed  in 
the  bay,  or  within  2^  miles  of  the  shore,  but  the  fishermen  state  that 
a  strong  current  frequently  sets  to  the  westward  round  Northumber- 
land point.  A  vessel  becalmed  in  the  offing,  was  seen  from  the 
anchorage  drifting  to  the  eastward  more  than  one  mile  an  hour.  On 
Bwo  other  occasions,  close  to  the  shore,  about  2  miles  to  the  westward 
of  cape  Agulhas  lighthouse,  the  stream  ran  through  the  whole  night 
steadily  to  the  N.W.  at  1^  knots  per  hour.  These  changes  may 
probably  be  traced  to  the  effects  of  the  wind.t 

Several  accounts  concur  in  stating  that  eastward  of  cape  Agulhas 
the  current  has  been  found  to  set  towards  the  shore  ;  this  indraught 
seems  to  be  stronger  between  the  months  of  January-April.  A  large 
proportion  of  the  wrecks  which  have  occurred  between  capes  Agulhas 
and  Infanta  have  been  attributed  to  it.    See  pages  22  and  23. 

STRUYS  POINT,  is  a  mass  of  bare  sand  hills  200  feet  high, 
sloping  southward  for  nearly  one  mile  to  low- water  mark,  where 
it  is  rocky. 

*  The  information  from  Struys  bay  to  Breede  river  is  by  Nav.  Lieute.  D.  J.  May, 
and  W.  B.  Archdeacon,  R.N.,  1866-68. 
t  Skead. 


76  CAPE  AOULHAS  TO  MOSSBL  BAY.  [Chap.  III. 

Beacon. — ^A  stone  pyramidal  beacon  34  feet  high,  surmounted  by  a 
ball  4  feet  in  diameter,  is  erected  on  Struys  point.  The  beacon  is 
coloured  red  to  seaward,  with  red  and  white  bands  on  the  east  and 
west  sides,  and  stands  about  2  feet  above  high  water  spring  tides. 

Blinder  rock. — From  Struys  point  a  chain  of  detached  patches 
of  rock  extend  in  a  S.S.E  direction.  On  the  outer  one,  named  the 
Blinder,  there  is  a  depth  of  3  fathoms  at  low  water,  with  4  to  6 
fathoms  close-to,  and  7  to  9  fathoms  at  a  distance  of  4  cables.  The 
rock  lies  with  Struys  point  beacon  bearing  N.N.W.  distant  1^^  miles. 

At  about  3  cables  inshore  of  the  Blinder  rock  is  the  Bulldog  or 
Saxon  reef,  with  2  fathoms  at  low  water,  6  fathoms  close-to,  and 
about  4  fathoms  between  it  and  Blinder  rock.  Between  the  reefs 
lying  between  Bulldog  reef  and  Struys  point,  there  are  boat  passages, 
available  in  fine  weather. 

In  standing  towards  these  dangers,  cape  Agulhas  light  will  be  lost 
sight  of  when  bearing  West,  that  line  of  direction  passing  about  3 
cables  to  southward  of  Blinder  rock. 

Marcus  bay. — From  Struys  point  the  coast  trends  north-eastward 
for  about  5  miles  to  Hoop  point,  forming  Marcus  bay,  which  is  not 
unlike  Struys  bay  in  appearance,  but  here  there  are  no  buildings  seen, 
and  it  has  rocky  points  jutting  into  it  at  its  western  end;  fishermen 
live  near  and  beach  their  boats  on  one  of  the  sandy  beaches  in  ordinary 
weather.  Just  within  Struys  point,  at  the  first  rocky  point,  is  a  cave 
about  50  feet  in  diameter,  into  which  the  sea  washes  at  high  water 

The  shore  from  2  miles  eastward  of  Struys  point,  is  a  sandy  beach 
with  a  fringe  of  low  flat  jagged  rocks  rendering  it  unapproachable  ; 
it  is  backed  by  rocky  hills  covered  with  sand,  150  feet  high  ;  behind 
these  hills  is  a  range  of  green  covered  hills  which  drop  to  the  plain 
behind  at  2  to  3  miles  distant  from  the  coast.  Marcus  bay  has 
rocky  patches  in  it ;  but  it  affords  shelter  in  westerly  and  north- 
westerly winds  equal  to  that  of  Struys  bay. 

Martha  point,  about  5  miles  eastward  of  Hoop  point  is  so  called 
from  the  name  of  a  vessel  wrecked  here :  it  is  the  scene  of  more 
wrecks  than  any  other  part  on  the  south  coast  of  Africa,  and  the 
beach  ds  strewed  with  their  remains  ;  the  coast  between  Struys  and 
Martha  points  is  fringed  with  reefs,  with  depths  of  4  to  6  fathoms, 
and  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  heavy  weather. 

Atlas  reef,  eastward  of  Hoop  point,  with  3  fathoms  least  water, 
named  from  the  Dutch  ship  Atlas,  which  was  wrecked  on  it,  lies 
l^jy  miles  from  the  shore,  with  Struys  point  bearing  W.  ^  S.,  distant 
7  miles,  and  a  triple  isolated  peak  inland  N.W.  ^  W.    The  peak  on 


Chap.  III.]  ROUNDING  CAPE  AQULHAS.  77 

this  bearing  appears  like  a  cone.  Miles  Barton  rock,  with  4  fathoms, 
lies  6  cables  from  the  Atlas  reef,  in  the  direction  of  Struys  point ;  a 
patch  of  5  fathoms  lies  4  cables  seaward  of  Miles  Barton  ;  and  two 
patches  with  the  same  depth  lie  one  and  two  miles  eastward  of 
Atlas  reef. 

DIRECTIONS.— Rounding  Cape  Agulhas  and  Strays 
point. — Vessels  from  the  westward  {see  page  71),  after  rounding 
cape  Agulhas,  should  keep  the  light  in  sight ;  it  is  advisable  not 
to  bring  it  to  the  westward  of  W.  by  N.,  on  which  bearing  a  vessel 
will  pass  the  dangers  extending  from  Struys  point  at  a  distance  of 
3  miles.  From  the  eastward,  Agulhas  light  must  not  be  depended 
upon  for  passing  Struys  point,  as  in  hazy  weather,  or  from  other 
circumstances  combined  with  the  distance  of  Struys  point  (14  miles), 
the  light  may  be  faint  or  altogether  obscured,  and  the  vessel  may  get 
within  the  line  of  danger.  Under  such  circumstances,  the  point 
should  not  be  approached  at  night  to  a  less  depth  than  30  fathoms. 

The  like  precautions  are  required  in  the  day  time,  particularly  in 
foggy  weather  ;  for  the  high  land  of  Agulhas  may  be  invisible, 
while  the  sand-hills  of  Struys  bay  and  the  breakers  off  North- 
umberland point  are  distinctly  seen.  At  such  times  it  may  be 
somewhat  difficult  to  determine  whether  the  vessel  is  eastward  or 
westward  of  Struys  point,  because  the  shore  features  of  Struys  bay 
are  very  similar  to  the  bay  eastward  of  Struys  point,  but  in  the 
former  there  is  a  white  house,  beacon,  and  flagstaff  near  North- 
umberland point ;  these,  with  the  beacon  on  Struys  point,  should  be 
sufficient  to  identify  the  coast. 

Whilst  to  the  eastward  of  cape  Agulhas,  sailing  vessels  should  not 
approach  the  shore  nearer  than  7  or  8  miles,  at  which  distance  the 
cape  should  be  rounded,  for  if  it  falls  calm,  the  heavy  swell  which 
constantly  rolls  towards  the  shore  will  carry  her  with  it,  and  the 
resource  of  anchoring  would,  probably,  be  of  no  avail,  owing  to  the 
swell  and  the  rocky  nature  of  the  bottom. 

Vessels  beating  round  cape  Agulhas  in  strong  north-westerly  winds 
would  find  it  safe  and  profitable  to  anchor  in  St.  Sebastian,  Marcus, 
or  Struys  bays,  being  prepared  to  weigh  on  a  shift  of  wind. 

Caution. — In  rounding  cape  Agulhas  either  way,  be  careful  not 
to  mistake  the  lights  of  camp  fires  for  Agulhas  light. 

COAST. — From  Martha  point  the  coast  trends  northward,  and 
3  miles  4>eyond  it  is  a  large  mass  of  bare  iand  hills,  a  broader  sand 
beach,  and  fewer  of  the  flat  jagged  rocks  fringing  it ;  this  continues 
for  about  7  miles  ;  then  the  coast  becomes  again  rocky,  the  bare  sand 


78  CAPE  AGULHAS  TO  MOSSBL  BAY.  [Chap.  III. 

hills  disappear,  and  the  Drief  ontein  range  becomes  inclined  to  the 
coast.  At  13  or  14  miles  from  Martha  point  this  range  forms  the 
coast  line,  intersected  by  deep  watercourses,  eastward  of  which  the 
Potteberg  range,  1,980  feet  high,  slopes  gradually  to  cape  Infanta. 

Hoop  lake. — ^At  1^  miles  from  the  beach  and  4j^  miles  eastward 
of  Martha  point  is  the  south  end  of  Hoop  lake,  which  extends  thence 
N.  by  W.  nearly  4  miles,  where  the  Zout  river  supplying  it,  flows 
from  between  the  Driefontein  range.  Its  west  bank  is  low  and  flat» 
being  the  boundary  of  the  plain  extending  far  to  the  westward  ;  its 
east  bank  is  cliffy,  and  near  it  is  a  farm.  This  lake  is  shallow 
throughout,  has  no  apparent  outlet,  and  varies  in  depth,  according  to 
the  season  ;  the  water  is  brackish. 

ST.  SEBASTIAN  BAY.— Cape  Infknta,  the  western 
extreme  of  St.  Sebastian  bay,  is  a  bold  cliffy  rocky  point  situated 
24  miles  eastward  of  Martha  point ;  a  double  point  with  remarkable 
masses  of  rock  lies  about  one  mile  westward  of  it. 

Rock. — ^A  sunken  rock,  called  the  Blinder,  a  name  commonly 
given  to  sunken  rocks  on  this  coast,  lies  about  one  mile  southward 
of  cape  Infanta  ;  its  correct  position  has  not  been  ascertained,  and  it 
only  breaks  after  heavy  gales. 

Landing*. — From  cape  Infanta  the  coast  trends  suddenly  north- 
ward, and  at  the  distance  of  one  mile  is  Still  bay,  the  mouth  of  a 
deep  ravine,  with  a  beach  of  large  rounded  stones  ;  here  fishermen 
can  usually  launch. and  beach  their  boats  ;  this  is  the  only  landing 
place  for  many  miles  along  the  coast,  and  it  can  often  be  used  when 
it  is  unsafe  to  cross  the  bar  of  Breede  river. 

St.  Sebastian  Bluff. — ^At  the  distance  of  2  miles  north-eastward 
of  cape  Infanta  is  St.  Sebastian  bluff,  a  bold  perpendicular  headland, 
220  feet  high  ;  a  ledge  fronts  the  bluff  to  the  distance  of  one  cable, 
with  a  depth  of  5  fathoms  at  the  same  distance  beyond. 

Beyond  the  bluff  the  cliffs  cease  and  the  land  around  the  bight 
of  this  bay  becomes  lower,  but  deeply  intersected  for  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  from  St.  Sebastian  bluff,  when  it  slopes  gradually  to  the 
shore  and  has  a  frontage  of  sparsely  covered  sand  hills  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Breede  river,  about  2  miles  northward  of  St.  Sebastian  bluff. 

The  coast  from  the  entrance  of  Breede  river  trends  south-eastward, 
to  cape  Barracouta,  the  east  extreme  of  St.  Sebastian  bay,  a  distance 
of  22  miles.  It  is  composed  of  cliff-faced  hills,  ranging  from  60  to 
200  feet  high ;  about  7^  miles  eastward  of  the  Breede  is  the  little 
river  Duivanlioks  ;  a  conspicuous  sand  patch  on  the  west  marks  its 
entrance,  and  4  miles  inland  is  a  hill  named  Wolfskloof,  744  feet 


Chap.  Ill  J  ST.   SEBASTIAN  BAY— PORT  BEAUFORT.  79 

high.  At  2  and  5  miles  north-west  of  cape  Barracouta  there  are 
conspicuous  sand  patches.  Tromps  Kop  hill,  959  feet  high,  lies 
6  miles  northward  of  the  cape.  The  coast  from  the  cape  eastward  of 
Kaffir  Kuyl  bay  is  irregular,  with  several  projecting  points. 

Anchor  age. — There  is  good  anchorage  in  St.  Sebastian  bay,  and 
the  western  part  affords  shelter  from  all  winds  except  those  between 
East  and  South.  The  best  position  is  with  St.  Sebastian  bluff,  bearing 
from  S.S.W.  to  S.  by  W.,  and  the  high  flagstaff  on  the  south  bank  of 
the  Breede  river  about  N.N.W.  ^  W.,  in  8  fathoms,  sand  ;  the  water 
shoals  gradually  to  4  fathoms  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore. 

Breede  river  falls  into  the  sea  in  St.  Sebastian  bay,  through  a 
mouth  narrowed  by  sand  banks  to  160  yards  at  low  water.  It  is 
the  most  important  navigable  river  in  this  colony,  a  steam  vessel 
drawing  8  feet  has  often  ascended  it  to  Malagas,  which  is  20  miles 
by  water  from  the  mouth. 

The  southern  side  of  the  mouth  of  Breede  river,  is  formed  by  low 
scant  covered  sand  hills,  on  the  top  of  two  of  them  are  flagstaffs, 
intended  as  leading  marks  over  the  bar,  which  has  a  depth  of  about 
11  feet  at  high  water  springs  ;  the  beach  is  fringed  with  rocks.  The 
northern  side  of  the  mouth  is  formed  by  a  long  low  sandy  spit 
projecting  southward  from  the  foot  of  a  conspicuous  mass  of  bare 
sand  hills,  with  shallow  water  extending  nearly  half  a  mile  outside 
it.  Within  the  mouth,  for  3  or  4  miles,  its  navigable  channel  is 
intricate  and  varying ;  above  that  it  contracts  and  flows  evenly 
between  steep  banks. 

For  48  miles  from  the  mouth  the  general  direction  of  Breede  river 
is  north-westerly,  but  tortuous  ;  at  that  distance  Buffeljagts  river,  a 
stream  from  the  mountains  9  or  10  miles  distant,  flows  into  it ; 
beyond  this  confluence  the  Breede  flows  from  the  west,  passing  close 
to  the  town  of  Swellendam,  near  which  the  main  postal  road  crosses 
the  river,  which  point  is  61  miles  by  the  river  from  its  mouth ;  at 
8  miles  farther  on  it  is  joined  by  the  river  Zondereinde.* 

Port  Beaufort  is  a  small  trading  settlement  on  the  left  bank  of 
Breede  river ;  loaded  vessels  cross  the  bar  drawing  11  feet  and  lie 
alongside  a  jetty.     The  value  of  the  exports  is  inconsiderable. 

Supplies  are  readily  obtained  except  water,  which  has  usually  to  be 
brought  down  the  river  in  boats  from  a  distance  of  20  miles  or  less 
according  to  the  season,  though  sometimes  it  is  fresh  at  port  Beaufort. 

There  is  a  postal  communication  with  Cape  town  twice  a  week. 

*  See  plan  of  entrance  to  Breede  river,  and  port  Beaufort,  on  Admiralty  chart 
No.  2,083. 


80  CAPS  AGULHAS  TO  MOSSBL  BAT.  [Chap.  III. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  the  jetty  at  port 
Beaufort  at  3h.  8m.,  springs  rise  6  feet. 

Directions. — ^Vessels  wishing  to  enter  the  Breede  river,  should 
get  under  way  from  the  anchorage  in  St.  Sebastian  bay  at  the  last 
quarter  of  the  flood,  and  having  brought  the  flagstaffs  on  the  south 
bank  of  the  river  in  line,  N.W.  |  W.,  steer  for  them,  which  will  lead 
over  the  bar  in  about  12  feet  at  high  water  springs  ;  after  deepening 
the  water,  open  the  inner  flagstaff  a  little  to  the  northward  of  the 
outer  one,  and  keep  close  to  the  rocks  on  the  south  shore,  this  will 
lead  to  abreast  the  flagstaffs,  close  to  which  and  on  the  beach  will  be 
seen  a  house.  Still  keeping  on  the  same  shore  and  a  little  farther  in 
the  narrowest  part  of  the  channel  will  be  reached  abreast  the  spit  end, 
when  it  turns  suddenly  to  the  northward  :  the  breadth  is  here  160 
yards  at  low  water,  and  a  vessel  may  anchor  in  safety.  As  the 
channel  thence  to  the  jetty  at  port  Beaufort  is  varying,  no  reliable 
directions  can  be  given.  A  pilot  is  always  ready  and  should  be  taken 
on  board  in  St.  Sebastian  bay. 

KAFFIR  KUYL  BAT,  about  6  miles  eastward  of  cape  Barra. 
couta,  with  Leven  point  midway  between,  is  open  to  winds  from 
E.S.E.  to  S.  by  W.,  and  is  therefore  unsafe  during  the  season  of 
south-easterly  winds  ;  but  in  winter,  when  westerly  winds  prevail, 
cargoes  may  be  safely  landed  or  shipped.* 

The  anchorage  is  sheltered  from  the  south-westerly  swell  by  a  reef 
which  projects  about  half  a  mile  to  the  southward  from  Morris  point. 
It  appears  to  be  clear,  with  regularly  decreasing  depths  of  from 
10  to  4  fathoms,  with  a  bottom  of  sand  and  broken  shells.  The  best 
anchorage  is  in  6^  fathoms,  about  one-third  of  a  mile  from  shore, 
with  Morris  point  bearing  about  S.W.  by  W. 

Kaffir  Kuyl  river  is  insignificant,  and  has  a  bar  which  is  nearly 
dry  at  low  water.  There  is  a  good  landing-place  in  fine  weather  in 
the  rocky  cove  on  the  south  side  of  the  mouth  of  the  river. 

COAST. — The  shore  eastward  of  Kaffir  Kuyl  river  is  a  sandy  beach 
for  about  2  miles,  whence  it  rises,  and  trends  in  a  south-east  direction 
for  12  miles  to  Izervark  point ;  it  is  skirted  with  reefs,  on  which  the 
sea  breaks.  Izervark  point  is  bold  and  rocky,  with  Buffels  Kop  hill, 
740  feet  high,  about  one  mile  northward  of  it ;  Aasvogel  berg,  a  long 
elevated  mountain,  1,620  feet  high,  lies  11  miles  northward  from  the 
point,  and  may  serve  to  identify  it.t 

*  See  plan  of  Kaflfir  Kuyl  bay  on  chart  No.  2,083. 

f  The  description  of  the  coast  from  Izervark  x)oint  to  the  Great  Brak  river  in 
Mossel  bay,  is  from  the  survey  made  by  Francis  Skead,  Master,  R.N.,  in  1862-63. 


Chap.  III.]  KAFFIR   KUYL  BAY — FISH   BAY.  81 

Between  Izervark  point  and  cape  Vacca,  10  miles  farther  eastward, 
the  coast  consists  of  jagged  rocks,  on  which  a  heavy  sea  is  constantly 
beating.  The  land  immediately  at  the  back  slopes  to  the  height  of 
500  to  7G0  feet,  and  is  covered  with  vegetation.  Bull  po  nt,  about 
3  miles  eastward  of  Izervark  point,  is  not  easily  distinguished,  being 
only  a  slight  projection ;  at  half  a  mile  westward  of  it  is  a  sand 
patch  of  a  reddish  colour ;  and  South  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from 
the  patch  and  one-third  of  a  mile  oflE  shore,  are  patches  of  detached 
reef  which  break  and  uncover  at  low  water.  At  1^  miles  from  this 
rocky  coast  the  depths  range  from  30  fathoms  off  Izervark  point, 
to  20  fathoms  south  of  cape  Vacca 

QoUPitZ  river  enters  the  sea  at  about  one  mile  westward  of  cape 
Vacca.  There  is  a  sandy  beach  on  the  western  side  of  entrance,  but 
the  breakers  are  generally  too  high  to  make  it  available  as  a  landing 
place.  The  sea  breaks  across  the  mouth  of  the  river,  which  at  the 
outer  part  is  half  a  mile  wide,  but  at  half  a  mile  within  it  is  only 
10  to  15  yards  wide. 

Cape  Vacca,  lying  15  miles  west  from  the  lighthouse  on  cape 
St.  Blaize,  is  the  extreme  of  a  low  flat  of  rock  and  shingle  jutting 
out  from  a  round  hill  which  rises  over  the  eastern  side  of  entrance 
to  the  Gouritz  river,  1^  miles  westward  of  the  cape.  In  rough 
weather  the  sea  breaks  half  a  mile  outside  the  cape,  at  which  distance 
the  depth  is  9  fathoms.  From  the  discolouration  of  the  water,  and 
the  uneasy  ground  swell  in  the  vicinity,  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  shoal  rocky  ground  exists  there. 

Care  must  be  taken  in  rounding  this  low  cape  at  night,  as  it  is  only 
just  within  the  range  of  the  light  on  cape  St.  Blaize.  The  light  is 
not  seen  within  the  bearing  E.  J  N.,  which  is  a  little  more  than  half 
a  mile  outside  the  cape.  If  the  light  is  not  seen,  the  lead  will  be  the 
best  guide  either  at  night  or  in  thick  weather. 

Flesll  bay  lies  between  cape  Vacca  and  Flesh  point,  a  distance  of 
2f  miles.  The  shore  of  the  bay  is  sandy,  save  at  the  extremes,  which 
are  rocky.  About  the  middle  of  the  bay  there  is  a  bare  sand  hill, 
271  feet  high. 

Flesh  bay  affords  no  shelter,  save  as  a  temporary  one  in  north-west 
gales,  and  it  can  only  be  used  as  a  landing  place  in  tolerably  fine 
weather.  Flesh  point  may  be  known  by  a  flesh-coloured  patch  of 
sand.  The  point  is  bold-to  on  the  eastern  side,  and  may  be  approached 
to  the  distance  of  one  cable. 

Fisll  bay  is  formed  between  Flesh  and  Pinnacle  points,  separated 
by  a  distance  of  9  miles ;  the  latter  is  the  well-defined  commence- 
S.O.  10626.  F 


&Z  CAPS  AGULHAS  TO  MOSSBL  BAY.  [Chap.  III. 

ment  of  the  rocky  cliffs,  about  250  feet  high,  extending  4  miles  west- 
ward from  cape  St.  Blaize.  The  whole  of  the  shore  of  the  bay  is 
sandy,  with  small  patches  of  rock  showing  about  low  water  and 
through  the  breakers  which  are  generally  high.  The  land  at  the 
back,  at  the  distance  of  one  mile,  rises  400  to  500  feet  in  height,  and 
is  covered  with  bush  and  vegetation. 

Fish  bay  may  be  used  by  vessels  seeking  shelter  from  north-west 
gales.  The  best  anchorage  is  in  the  west  comer  of  the  bay,  in  7  to  8 
fathoms,  with  Flesh  point  bearing  about  S.  i^  W.,  distant  1^  miles, 
and  the  same  distance  off  shore.  It  is  advisable  for  vessels  to  put  to 
sea  as  soon  as  the  gale  subsides,  for  then  a  heavy  south-west  swell 
sets  in  and  causes  a  dangerous  breaking  sea.  The  best  landing  is 
near  Flesh  point,  in  a  small  sandy  cove  between  rocks ;  but  in  fine 
weather  boats  may  land  in  the  bight  under  a  farmhouse. 

CAPE  ST.  BLAIZE  is  a  bluff  about  250  feet  high,  upon  which, 
at  500  yards  from  the  sea,  is  a  square  white  light  tower,  with 
buildings  at  its  base  for  the  light  keepers  ;  just  beneath  the  bluff  is 
the  Logan  stone,  a  remarkable  whitewashed  rock^  A  windmill  stands 
on  the  high  land  near  the  bluff,  but  it  is  only  visible  to  vessels 
approaching  from  the  southward  or  eastward.* 

The  extreme  of  the  cape  is  a  tongue  of  low  land,  fronted  by 
reef  to  the  distance  of  IJ  cables.  The  Blinder  or  Windvogel,  a 
rock  with  15  feet  water,  and  5  to  7  fathoms  around,  lies  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  off  the  cape  ;  the  sea  breaks  on  the  rock  at  low  water  and  in 
rough  weather. 

Vessels  proceeding  westward  from  cape  St.  Blaize  should  be 
careful  not  to  shut  in  the  light,  nor  should  they  stand  into  less  than 
25  fathoms  water. 

LIGHT. — From  the  square  white  light  tower,  45  feet  high,  on 
cape  St.  Blaize  is  exhibited  at  an  elevation  of  240  feet  above  the  sea, 
a  fixed  red  light,  visible  in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  15  miles. 
To  the  westward,  the  light  is  not  visible  when  bearing  eastward  of 
E.  I  N.,  or  within  half  a  mile  of  cape  Vacca. 

MOSSEL  BAY,  between  cape  St.  Blaize  and  little  Brak  river,  is 
about  6  miles  wide  ;  the  whole  of  the  western  shore  is  a  sandy  beach. 
Between  the  Hartenbosch  river  and  the  little  Brak  are  conspicuous 
sand  hills,  which  are  useful  in  identifying  iiie  bay  when  coming 
from  the  eastward.    The  mouth  of  the  little  Brak  river  is  a  dangerous 

*  See  Admiralty  charts  :  Nos.  2083  and  2084  ;  also  plan  of  Mossel  bay,  No.  689  ; 
soale,  m=:2'2  inohei . 


Chap.  III.]  OAPB  ST.  BLAIZB— MOSSBL  BAY.  83 

quicksand.  At  one-third  of  a  mile  from  the  head  of  the  bay,  ia  Seal 
island,  about  15  feet  high,  with  deep  water  around,  and  3  to  5 
&thoms  between  it  and  the  shore.* 

Mossel  bay  affords  excellent  shelter  to  vessels  during  the  winter 
months,  April  to  September,  when  heavy  north-west  gales  are  of 
frequent  occurrence,  and  it  is  far  preferable  to  use  it  as  a  place  of 
shelter  than  to  buffet  the  sea  about  cape  Agulhas.  During  the 
strength  of  these  gales  the  water  in  the  bay  is  smooth,  and  vessels 
ride  easily  ;  but  it  sometimes  happens  that  a  heavy  south-west  swell 
sets  into  the  bay  if  the  wind  veers  to  West  and  W.S.W.,  rendering 
the  bay  unsafe,  and  landing  difficult  and  at  times  almost  im- 
practicable. 

In  winter  south-easterly  winds  are  unfrequent,  moderate,  and  of 
short  duration.  The  heaviest  gales  during  the  year  are  from  W.N.W, 
Winter  gales  commence  from  N.N.W.  with  heavy  gusts,  unsteady 
both  in  direction  and  force,  then  veering  to  W.N.W.  or  West.  They 
blow  very  hard  in  continuous  gales,  with  a  low  barometer  (29*6 
inches),  finally  shifting  rather  suddenly  to  S.W.,  when  they  subside 
with  steady  breezes  and  occasional  showers. 

During  the  sunmier  season,  September  to  April,  when  south-east 
gales  occur,  the  bay  is  exposed  to  the  full  effect  of  the  open  sea,  but 
these  gales  seldom  last  longer  than  36  hours,  and  do  not  blow  home. 
A  heavy  breaking  &ea  then  rolls  in,  and  vessels  trading  to  the  port 
usually  ride  with  a  long  scope  of  cable,  with  a  coir  or  hempen  spring 
to  ease  the  strain  ;  with  this  precaution  vessels  ride  safely,  and  the 
holding  ground  is  good.  As  in  Algoa  bay,  there  appears  to  be  a 
strong  easterly  current  or  undertow,  which  assists  to  ease  the  strain 
on  the  cables.  Should  a  sailing  vessel,  however,  not  wish  to  risk 
riding  out  a  south-easter,  by  putting  to  sea  early  she  will  be  well  able 
to  clear  cape  St.  Blaize  by  first  making  a  long  board  to  the  eastward, 
in  which  she  will  be  assisted  by  the  undertow.  It  has  been  found 
that  a  rise  of  the  barometer  usually  precedes  a  south-easter,  and  that 
the  increase  of  the  wind  is  gradual  at  the  commencement.  Moderate 
south-west  winds  even  at  this  season  of  the  year  are  very  common. 

Landingr* — ^The  south  shore  of  the  bay,  for  3  miles  north-westward 
of  cape  St.  Blaize,  is  rocky,  with  the  exception  of  three  sandy 
coves,  the  outer  two  of  which  are  named  Yaarkens  and  Mauro.  In 
Vaarkens  cove  is  a  substantially  built  jetty,  protected  by  a  small 
shelter  pier  from  the  east  side  of  the  cove  ;  here  landing  may 
generally  be  effected.    The  depth  alongside  the  jetty  is  11  feet. 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  of  Mossel  bay,  No.  689 ;  soale,  m=i2-2  inches. 
S.O.  10626.  F  2 


84  MOSSEL  BAY.  [Chap.  III. 

Town  of  Aliwal. — On  the  rising  ground  over  Vaarkens  cove  is 
the  town  of  Aliwal,  which  consists  of  numerous  houses,  the  greater 
number  substantially  built,  an  episcopal  chapel  and  a  Dutch  church ; 
various  other  buildings  are  in  course  of  erection.  The  resources  of 
trade  and  produce  in  the  interior  have  been  opened  to  this  port  by 
the  formation  of  roads  via  Ruyterbosch  and  Meirings  Poort,  through 
a  gorge  of  the  Zwaartberg  range  of  mountains,  and  a  thriving 
commerce  is  the  result.  There  is  also  a  bridge  over  the  Little  Brak 
river.  The  population  of  the  town  is  about  1,360.  The  civil 
establishment  is  composed  of  a  resident  magistrate,  a  collector  of 
customs,  a  district  surgeon,  and  a  small  police  force. 

There  is  also  a  harbour  master  and  an  accredited  agent  for  Lloyd's. 
No  port  charges  exist. 

Trade. — In  1886,  189  vessels  amounting  to  360,000  tons  entered 
the  port.  In  the  same  year  the  value  of  the  imports  was  155,000Z., 
and  that  of  the  exports  102,000?. 

The  principal  exports  are  wool,  skins,  aloes,  ostrich  feathers, 
tobacco,  cereals,  and  brandy  ;  and  the  imports,  general  merchandise. 

LIGHTS. — ^A  fixed  red  light  is  exhibited  from  the  extremity  of  the 
jetty  in  Vaarkens  cove,  and  a  fixed  green  light  from  a  mast  or  beacon 
on  the  land,  S.W.  by  S.  of  it,  as  leading  lights  to  the  anchorage. 

In  bad  weather,  a  red  light  is  exhibited  on  the  rising  ground  at 
Erme  bay,  for  the  purpose  of  guiding  vessels,  which  may  part  from 
their  anchors  and  are  not  able  to  beat  oflE,  to  the  best  spot  for 
beaching. 

Supplies. — Fresh  water  is  supplied,  at  the  rate  of  about  30  tons 
a  day,  from  a  pipe  at  the  jetty  end  in  Vaarkens  bay.  Fresh  pro- 
visions and  vegetables  are  to  be  had  in  any  quantity,  but  coal  only 
in  small  quantities. 

Oommiinlcation. — ^Aliwal  is  in  telegraphic  and  postal  communi- 
cation with  the  Cape  Colony,  and  the  Union,  Donald  Currie  and 
other  lines  of  steamers  call  here.  The  railway  is  two  days'  journey 
distant.    See  also  p.  8. 

Directions.— Anchoragre.— Approaching  Mossel  bay  from  the 
westward,  the  lighthouse  bluff  of  cape  St.  Blaize  will  be  conspicuous, 
the  land  at  the  back  being  quoin-shaped  and  somewhat  resembling 
the  Bill  of  Portland.  In  rounding  the  cape,  keep  Pinnacle  point 
open  southward  of  the  rock  under  the  cliffs  just  westward  of  the 
lighthouse  bluff,  until  the  large  patch  of  sand  at  Hartenbosch  river 
bears  N.  ^  E.,  when  the  anchorage  may  be  steered  for,  taking  suflBlcient 
room  for  rounding-to,  if  necessary. 


Chap.  III.]  ALIWAL— ANCHORAGE.  85 

Coming  from  the  eastward,  cape  St.  Blaize  may  be  identified  by 
the  lighthouse,  which  being  white  shows  conspicuously  against  the 
dark  background,  by  the  windmill  on  the  bluff,  and  by  the 
remarkable  sand  patch  at  the  mouth  of  the  Hartenbosch  river. 

The  anchorage  in  Mossel  bay  is  abreast  the  town  of  Aliwal, 
between  a  line  drawn  from  cape  St.  Blaize  lighthouse  through 
a  conspicuous  building  with  a  double  gable  point,  and  the  only 
house  near  the  cape,  bearing  S.S.W.  ^  W. ;  and  a  line  drawn  from 
the  windmill  through  Barry's  store  (a  large  two-storied  stone 
building  standing  on  the  mound  close  to  the  sea  at  the  west  side  of 
Vaarkens  cove)  bearing  S.  by  W.  ^  W.  Small  vessels  may  anchor  in 
this  space  in  3^  to  4  fathoms. 

Vessels  seeking  shelter  only,  should  not  go  inside  a  depth  of  6^  or 
7  fathoms,  in  either  season  of  the  year ;  the  windmill  in  line  with 
the  jetty  bearing  S.W.,  is  a  good  line  to  approach  and  to  anchor  on. 
Vessels  intended  to  load  or  discharge  may  take  a  berth  more  to  the 
westward,  not  going,  however,  within  the  western  limit  already 
mentioned. 

At  night,  lights  are  shown  from  the  jetty  and  from  the  mast 
beacon  southward  of  it.  These  in  line  bearing  S.W.  by  S.,  and  with 
St.  Blaize  light  S.  ^  W.,  point  out  a  good  position  for  anchoring^ 
in  about  5  fathoms  water  ;  depths  of  6  to  8  fathoms  will  be  found 
farther  off  on  the  line  of  the  leading  lights. 

Should  a  vessel  part  her  cable,  with  no  hope  of  getting  to  sea,  she 
should  run  for  the  red  light  in  Erme  bay,  bearing  W.  by  S. 

Weather  Signals.* — The  following  signals  are  made  from  the 
shore  when  bad  weather  is  expected,  and  must  be  answered  and 
obeyed  without  delay  : — 

Union  Jack  over  flag  S.     -    Prepare  for  bad  weather. 

Union  Jack  over  flag  J.     -    Drop  second  anchor,  have  buoy  ropes 

and  springs  on  cables,  and  be  pre- 
pared to  slip  and  put  to  sea. 

Red  flag  above  flag  S.        -    Slip  and  put  to  sea  at  once  ;  see  that 

buoys  and  buoy-ropes  are  good. 

Union  Jack  over  flag  H.     -    Shorten  in  cable  to  length  veered  on 

first  anchoring. 

Tides. — There  is  no  regular  stream  of  tide  in  Mossel  bay.  It  is 
high  water,  full  and  change,  at  3h.  30m.,  and  the  rise  6  to  7  feet. 

COAST. — Great  Brak  river  lies  in  the  north-east  portion  of 
Mossel  bay,  about  8^  miles  from  cape  St.  Blaize.     It  runs  into  the 

*8ee  the  Lights,  for  bad  weather  light,  page  84. 


86  MOSSBL  BAY  TO  KNYSNA.  [Chap.  III. 

sea  between  eandy  hillockB,  80  to  150  feet  high,  and  which  are 
mostly  covered  with  scant  bush.  The  beach  is  sandy,  and  fringed 
with  rocks  at  low  water.  About  3  miles  to  the  eastward,  the  sand 
hillocks  dissappear,  and  the  coast  becomes  shelving  and  cliffy  to  the 
mouth  of  Mai  Gat  river.* 

Mai  Qat  river  is  a  stream .  running  into  the  sea  between  high 
cliffs  ;  its  mouth  is  frequently  closed  with  sand.  The  water  is  good, 
but  of  a  dark-red  colour.  A  little  westward  of  the  mouth,  and  one 
mile  from  the  shore,  there  is  a  10-fathoms  patch,  the  depths  around 
and  inside  of  it  being  18  to  20  fathoms.  At  IJ  miles  eastward  of 
the  mouth  is  a  conspicuous  cluster  of  rocks,  all  within  1^  cables  of 
the  shore  ;  there  is  a  small  sandy  beach  close  eastward  of  these  rocks. 
The  land  at  the  back  slopes  gradually  from  a  height  of  720  feet  to 
the  sea,  where  it  presents  a  rocky  unapproachable  shore. 

Qayang  river  lies  4  miles  eastward  of  the  Mai  Gat ;  its  mouth 
is  often  closed.  The  water  is  good,  and  of  the  same  dark  colour  as 
the  Mai  Gat.  Great  Brak,  Mai  Gat,  and  Gayang  rivers  take  their 
rise  in  the  Outeniqua  range  of  mountains,  4,000  to  5,000  feet  hijh, 
upwards  of  10  miles  from  the  coast ;  they  have  formed  deep  channels 
for  themselves  across  the  elevated  plateau,  extending  to  the  sea 
coast. 

Button  cove,  lying  close  westward  of  Gayang  river,  is  a  slight 
indentation  in  the  coast,  in  which  lies  a  rocky  islet ;  it  affords  no 
shelter. 

From  Gayang  river  the  coast  takes  an  easterly  trend  for  4  miles  to 
Schaapkop  river,  next  to  which  is  Mill  river  and  Christina  bay.  The 
coast  thus  far  continues  rocky  and  unapproachable,  the  background 
being  high  grazing  land  with  patches  of  bush. 

Ohrlstina  bay  is  another  spot  in  which  an  attempt  has  been 
made  to  make  it  available  as  a  landing-place,  from  its  nearness  to 
George  town ;  but  it  is  quite  impracticable.  A  fishing  establishment 
was  tried  here,  but  without  success  ;  it  is  simply  the  embouchure  of 
Mill  river,  which  flows  between  steep,  close,  wood-covered  hills. 
The  beach  is  covered  with  large  smooth  stones. 

Victoria  bay  lies  half  a  mile  beyond  Christina  bay.  It  is  a 
broader  indentation  than  the  other,  but  is  shallow,  with  a  sandy 
beach,  where  landing  may  at  times  be  effected  ;  but  no  craft  should 
attempt  to  enter  it. 

*  See  Admiralty  Chart. — Cape  Agulhas  to  Mossel  bay,  No.  2083  ;  scale  m  =  0*8  of 
an  incli ;  also  Mossel  bay  to  cape  St.  Francis,  No.  2084,  scale  m  =  0*3  of  an  inch. 
The  information  relating  to  the  coast  from  Mossel  bay  to  Groote  river  is  by  Nav.- 
Lient  F.  W.  Skead,  B.N.,  1865-75. 


Chap.  III.]  MALGAT  RIVBR — GBRIOKB  BAY.  87 

Qeorge  Town  is  situated  on  a  plain  behind  the  coast  hills,  at 
about  5  miles  from  the  Gayang  river,  and  the  same  distance  from 
Victoria  bay.  It  apparently  is  not  visible  from  seawards  and  is  of 
no  importance  to  navigation. 

Cajman  river  enters  the  sea  at  one  mile  north-eastward  of 
Victoria  bay.  This  river,  like  the  others,  is  of  no  navigable  impor- 
tance ;  within  a  mile  from  the  mouth  the  waters  of  Zwarte  river 
join  it ;  here  the  river  is  fordable.  From  the  height  of  the  adjacent 
woodlands,  and  the  depth  and  windings  of  the  stream  in  its 
rocky  course,  this  spot  forms  a  picturesque  and  romantic  piece  of 
scenery. 

TOUW  river. — ^A  little  beyond  Cayman  river  the  clifiOy  coast 
ceases,  the  high  land  recedes,  leaving  an  interval  occupied  by  a  chain 
of  lakes  (into  which  the  various  streams  of  the  locality  flow),  fronted 
by  the  sandy  hillocks  of  about  200  feet  in  height,  which  here 
recommence.  The  beach  is  sandy,  but  rugged  low  rocks  cover  and 
uncover  at  frequent  intervals  along  it. 

The  mouth  of  Touw  river  lies  a  little  more  than  one  mile  to  the 
eastward  of  Cayman  river,  and  is  often  closed  by  sand.  It  takes  its 
rise  in  the  Outeniqua  mountains. 

COAST. — From  the  mouth  of  Touw  river  the  coast  trends  south- 
eastward about  21  miles  to  Walker  point,  the  west  horn  of  Buffalo 
bay,  and  which  is  4  miles  westward  of  Knysna  harbour.  For  nearly 
2  miles  from  the  Tuow  the  beach  is  sandy,  with  scattered  flat  rocks 
appearing  at  low  water,  backed  by  a  ridge  of  irregular  sand-hills,  about 
250  feet  high.  At  that  distance  is  a  point  of  jagged  rocks  and  the 
hillocks  change  from  sand  to  stone,  but  the  sandy  beach  continues  to 
the  south-eastward,  with  fewer  rocks  above  low  water,  for  4^  miles» 
when  it  becomes  permanently  rocky,  and  the  stony  hills  increase  in 
height  to  300  feet.  Thence  the  rocky  beach  extends  to  Gericke 
point,  about  2  miles  farther  on,  the  sandy  and  stony  hills  are  followed 
by  continuous  cliffs  of  a  reddish  colour,  averaging  500  feet  in 
height,  the  land  at  one  mile  behind  rising  to  a  height  of  646  feet ;  it 
is  not  wooded. 

Gtericke  bay,  9i  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  Touw,  is  un- 
important in  size,  and  with  an  apparently  foul  bottom ;  a  rocky  islet 
lies  off  Gericke  point,  and  small  rocks  outside  the  islet,  but  all  that 
uncover  lie  within  half  a  mile.  The  rocky  coast  continues  round 
this  point  for  three-quarters  of  a  mile,  when  the  sandy  beach  again 
appears  for  a  short  space,  across  which  Zwarte  Vlei  empties  itself 
into  the  sea  at  certain  seasons. 


88  MOSSBL  BAY  TO  KNYSNA.  [Chap.  III. 

Lakes. — From  the  mouth  of  Touw  river  to  the  old  mouth  of 
Zwarte  Vlei  is  upwards  of  11  miles.  Behind  this  extent  of  coast  at 
varying  distances  to  3  miles,  are  the  three  lakes,  Lange  Vlei,  Rond  Vlei, 
and  Zwarte  Vlei.  The  first  is  composed  of  two  parts,  with  channels 
connecting  them,  and  extending  6  miles  in  all.  The  water  is  brackish, 
and  has  a  maximum  depth  of  22  feet.  The  Wol ve  and  the  Touw  rivers 
are  the  principal,  but  not  the  only  feeders  of  this  lake. 

Ronde  Vlei,  so  named  from  its  shape,  is  almost  circular,  with  an 
average  diameter  of  half  a  mile  ;  it  communicates  with,  and  is  in 
reality  a  continuation  of,  Lange  Vlei ;  its  maximum  depth  is  22  feet, 
water  brackish  and  unfit  for  use,  but  near  the  edge  of  the  lake 
tolerably  good  water  is  found  by  digging  a  hole.  Wild  fowl  abounds 
on  them  all. 

Zwarte  Vlei  is  the  largest  in  this  chain  of  lakes,  and  most  irregular 
in  shape ;  it  extends  upwards  of  3  miles  in  one  direction,  and  is 
connected  with  Ruigte  Vlei,  another  and  smaller  lake.  They  are  fed 
by  the  Diep,  Wolve,  Zwarte,  and  Caratera  streams.  The  water  is 
brackish,  and  48  feet  deep  in  some  places.  Its  south-east  extreme  is 
only  about  2  cables  distant  from  the  sea,  with  which  it  appears  to 
have  been  at  one  time  connected  by  a  passage  known  as  Zwkrte  river, 
now  closed  up.  The  land  at  the  back  of  the  lakes  rises  to  700 
and  800  feet,  and  is  fertile.  Though  not  wooded,  there  are  many 
conspicuous  small  clumps  scattered  about,  and  it  is  deeply  inter- 
sected by  the  streams,  rendering  the  roads  steep  and  bad.  On  the 
patch  of  land  between  the  lakes  and  the  sea  the  various  wild  ducks 
of  the  Colony  are  found.  Oysters  and  fish  may  be  obtained  at  the 
rocks  on  the  beach. 

Groens  Vlei,  irregularly  oval-shaped,  upwards  of  2  miles  long,  and 
half  a  mile  at  its  greatest  breadth,  contains  fresh  water.  There  are 
no  streams  flowing  into  it,  and  it  has  no  visible  outlet ;  its  greatest 
depth  is  20  feet. 

COAST. — From  the  mouth  of  Zwarte  Vlei,  conspicuous  bare 
white  sand  extends  south-eastwards  for  one  mile,  when  the  beach 
becomes  rocky,  and  continues  so  for  5  miles,  interspersed  with 
patches  of  sand.  The  beach  is  backed  by  irregular  hillocks  from 
200  to  300  feet  high. 

The  land  behind  Groene  Vlei  rises  abruptly,  so  that  at  3  miles  from 
the  sea  it  is  1,110  feet  high.  It  presents  a  smooth  green  appearance, 
with  scattered  clumps  oi  trees.  The  valleys  are  more  or  less 
cultivated. 

In  bad  weather,  this  coast  is  fronted  with  heavy  detached  breakers 
to  the  distance  of  one  mile  or  more. 


Chap.  III.]  ZWARTK  VLSI— BUFFALO  BAY.  89 

Gtoukamma  river  enters  the  sea  at  the  east  extreme  of  a  sandy 
beach  2  miles  in  extent,  and  at  about  the  same  distaoice  north-west  of 
Walker  point.  The  river  is  remarkable  for  its  sudden  rising  after 
rains,  and  the  depth  of  water  then  attained.  At  a  distance  of  4  miles 
by  its  course  from  the  sea  it  is  crossed  by  a  causeway  on  the  high 
road  between  George  town  and  the  Knysna  ;  this  causeway  is  some- 
times dry,  and  at  others  covered  to  the  depth  of  12  to  20  feet,  with  a 
rushing  torrent.  The  river  has  an  average  breadth  of  100  yards 
along  these  4  miles  of  its  course  ;  its  mouth  is  closed  by  sand  for 
long  intervals  during  the  dry  season. 

Walker  point. — To  the  eastward  of  the  Goukamma  are  two 
dangerous  rocky  points,  including  a  small  rocky  and  sandy  bay  one 
mile  across.  OflE  the  western  point  at  a  quarter  and  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  distant,  are  rocky  patches  on  which  the  sea  constantly 
breaks ;  but  the  whole  neighbourhood  is  foul.  Walker  point,  the 
easternmost  of  the  two,  is  also  rocky  and  dangerous,  and  forms  the 
western  horn  of  BuflEalo  bay.  A  chain  of  rocks  extend  about  one- 
third  of  a  mile  from  the  point,  with  a  sunken  rock  at  about  4  cables 
distant,  but  the  sea  breaks  much  further  out. 

The  land  adjacent,  is  sparsely  covered  hillocks  backed  by  undu- 
lating ridges,  but  at  a  distance  of  2  miles  inland,  the  higher  green- 
coloured  land  is  reached,  without  trees,  and  rising  to  upwards  of 
900  feet. 

BUFFALO  BAY  is  included  between  Walker  point  and  the 
rocky  cliffs  westward  of  the  head,  at  the  entrance  to  Knysna  river, 
the  distance  is  about  3  miles  across.  It  affords  shelter  to  small 
vessels  during.  N.W.  winds,  but  it  should  be  remembered  that  the 
bay  has  not  been  sounded,  and  that  rocks  extend  about  half  a  mile 
southward  from  Walker  point. 

Anclioragre. — Coasters,  however,  find  shelter  about  midway 
between  Walker  point  and  the  bight  of  the  bay,  half  a  mile  off  shore, 
in  from  5  to  8  fathoms,  clear  bottom  with  blue  clay  ;  nearer  to  the 
point  the  ground  is  rocky.  With  the  wind  anything  to  the  southward 
of  West  it  is  not  advisable  to  remain  here,  as  a  heavy  breaking  sea 
then  sets  in. 

KNYSNA  RIVER  and  HARBOUR  (pronounced  Nysna),  is 
situated  close  to  the  eastward  of  Buffalo  bay  ;  the  entrance,  about 
250  yards  in  width,  being  formed  by  two  steep  and  rocky  headlands, 
on  the  eastern  of  which  there  is  a  flagstaff  and  a  pilot  signal  station.* 

Northward    of    the    Knysna  there    is   a  mountain    named    the 

\Sefi  Admiralty  plan : — Knysna  harbour  with  view,  No,  1,224 ;  eoale,  f«»  4  inches. 


90  MOSSBL  BAY  TO  KNYSNA.  [Chap.  III. 

Spitzkop,  3,048  feet  high,  eastward  of  which  are  five  Paps,  and  at 
10  miles  eastward  of  the  entrance  is  the  Krantz  Hoek,  914  feet  high, 
fronted  by  a  bluff  554  feet  high,  from  which  the  coast  slopes  away 
to  cape  Seal,  the  Western  point  of  Plettenberg  bay  ;^  these  serve 
to  identify  the  Knysna  from  a  distance. 

Town. — The  township  of  -Knysna  is  situated  about  3  miles  within 
the  entrance  cf  the  river,  and  on  the  eastern  bank.  It  is  built  on  the 
slope  of  the  hill  and  on  its  outskirts  are  several  villa  residences.  It 
boasts  of  several  saw-mills,  and  there  are  several  English  residents, 
most  of  whom  are  connected  with  the  timber  trade. 

Between  the  town  and  the  river  is  a  strip  of  land  belonging  to  the 
Admiralty,  which  was  originally  presented  to  them  by  the  principal 
land  owner  of  the  district ;  the  remains  of  an  old  ship  are  still  to  be 
seen,  where  one  small  vessel  was  built. 

Piers. — There  is  a  pier  or  jetty  near  the  south-west  angle  of  the 
town,  with  a  depth  of  10  feet  alongside,  and  a  new  jetty,  with  tram- 
way, from  Paarden  island,  with  a  depth  of  23  feet  alongside  at  low 
water,  the  island  is  connected  to  the  town  by  a  bridge. 

Supplies. — The  country  around  the  Knysna  abounds  in  various 
kinds  of  game,  and  the  only  wild  elephants  remaining  in  the  Colony 
are  found  in  the  surrounding  forests  ;  permission  to  shoot  them  must 
be  obtained  from  the  Governor  of  the  Colony.  The  river  produces 
quantities  of  fish,  and  other  provisions  are  abundant ;  water  is  to  be 
obtained  by  application  to  the  Port  Captain.  Good  timber  from  the 
neighbouring  forests  is  abundant,  but  coal  is  not  obtainable.  There 
are  several  firms  of  carpenters  and  engineers  capable  of  effecting 
repairs  to  coasting  craft,  and  vessels  can  be  hove  down.  The  climate 
is  extremely  healthy,  and  especially  adapted  to  Europeans. 

Communication. — There  is  weekly  communication  with  Cape 
Town  by  steamer,  and  good  roads  to  the  interior.    See  page  8. 

Trade. — During  1886,  89  vessels,  chiefly  steamers,  entered  the 
port;  aggregate  tonnage,  40,000.  The  chief  export  is  wool  and 
government  railway  sleepers,  total  value,  £22,000.  Imports,  £32,000. 
Population  of  Knysna  and  suburbs,  1,000. 

The  harbour  is  by  no  means  easy  of  access,  even  to  small  steam 
vessels,  in  consequence  of  the  heavy  surf  which  breaks  across  the 
entrance ;  for  sailing  vessels  it  is  only  practicable  with  a  leading 
wind.  There  is  a  depth  of  18  feet  in  the  fairway  over  the  bar  at  low 
water  springs,  and  the  services  of  a  pilot  are  not  necessary  unless  pro- 
ceeding beyond  Best  cove.  Vessels  of  14  feet  draught  can  proceed 
to  Knysna,  about  1\  miles  beyond  the  cove.  Boats  can  ascend  the 
river  to  Westerf ord  farm  about  9  miles  up. 


Chap.  III.]  KNYSNA  RIVER  AND  HARBOUR.  91 

Bar. — Knysna  river  has  two  bars,  the  outer  one  with  18  feet 
least  water,  stretches  across  the  channel  from  Needles  point,  on  the 
west  side  of  entrance.  The  inner  bar  extends  across  the  mouth  just 
within  Emu  rock,  on  the  east  side  of  entrance,  and  has  from  16  to 
18  feet  at  low  water  springs,  the  greater  depth  being  nearer  to  the 
Emu,  shoaling  gradually  towards  both  shores.  Both  bars  are 
stationary,  and  are  of  rock,  covered  with  sand  and  mud,  which  is 
stirred  to  the  surface  in  rough  weather.  No  difference  in  the  depth 
of  the  water  on  the  bars  has  been  observed  for  many  years.* 

Beacons. — There  are  two  beacons  to  guide  vessels  over  the  bar — 
one  on  Fountain  point,  just  within  the  entrance  on  the  east  side, 
consisting  of  a  white  stone  beacon  built  upon  a  large  rock,  and 
standing  30  feet  above  high-water  mark ;  the  other  on  Steenbok 
island,  is  a  wooden  one  composed  of  a  long  spar  with  two  triangles 
and  painted  red  ;. these  lie  N.E.  |  N.  and  S.W.  |  S.,  758  yards  apart. 

Emii  rock,  with  i  feet  water,  is  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
channel,  nearly  one  cable  S.W.  of  Inner  Obelisk  point,  above  which 
is  the  signal  station.    The  sea  does  not  always  break  on  the  rock. 

Black  rocks,  situated  one  cable  southward  from  the  south- 
western point  of  entrance,  may  be  passed  at  one  cable  distance  ;  the 
sea  always  breaks  on  them.  South-East  rocks  are  another  cluster, 
distant  4^  cables  S.S.E.  of  the  Mewstone. 

Tides. — ^The  tides  run  from  4  to  5  knots  through  the  Narrows 
during  springs.  The  flood  sets  strongly  from  the  eastward  towards 
Needles  point,  and  from  thence  directly  through  the  Narrows.  The 
ebb  from  abreaot  Green  point  sets  directly  towards  Fountain  point,  and 
onto  the  rocks  between  that  point  and  Inner  Obelisk  point,  and  thence 
it  follows  the  channel  to  the  eastward,  except  there  be  a  strong 
westerly  current  outside,  in  which  case  it  runs  directly  to  seaward. 

With  a  heavy  sea  on  the  bar,  at  near  high  and  low'  water,  the  force 
of  the  break  drives  towards  Emu  rock  large  masses  of  water,  which 
set  strongly  out  again  close  to  the  western  shore,  outside  the  inner 
bar.  It  is  therefore  advisable,  before  taking  the  bar  with  a  breaking 
sea,  that  the  flood  should  have  made  at  least  two  hours,  at  which  time 
the  stream  inwards  and  the  break  act  together,  and  the  drawback  is 
not  felt.t 


*  Information  from  H.M.S.  Wrangler,  1882. 

t  H.M.S.  Peterel,  in  September,  1867,  drawing  abont  14  feet,  in  leaving  the 
harbour  arrived  at  the  outer  bar  as  three  heavy  roUers  came  in,  one  of  which  caused 
her  heel  to  touch  the  ground. 


92  KNYSNA  RIVBJR  AND  HARBOUR.  [Chap.  III. 

It  is  high  water,  at  full  and  change,  at  3h.  30m.  ;  and  the  spring 
rise  is  from  6  to  7  feet. 

Pilots. — On  the  hill  over  Inner  Obelisk  point  there  is  a  flagstaff, 
with  which  communication  can  be  held  by  signals,  and  directions 
given  for  entering  the  harbour.  There  is  also  a  pilot  boat  for  giving 
assistance  to  and  directing  vessels  entering  or  leaving  the  port.  It 
frequently  happens  that,  although  the  weather  and  bar  may  be 
favourable  for  vessels  to  enter,  it  may  not  be  safe  or  possible  for  the 
pilot  boat  to  go  out. 

The  pilot  signals  used  are  as  follows  : — 

White  and  blue  diagonal. — The  pilot  boat  is  coming  out. 

Red. — ^Vessel  is  recommended  not  to  attempt  to  come  in. 

White  and  red  horizontal. — ^Vessel  may  come  in  now.  If  waiting 
for  the  tide,  a  red  pendant  will  be  shown  over  the  flag  at  a  proper 
time  for  entering. 

Yellow. — Pilot  boat  cannot  go  out,  but  is  ready  to  receive  the 
vessel  within  the  bar. 

DIRECTIONS.— Anchorages.— In  case  a  vessel  has  to  wait  for 
wind  or  tide  to  enter  Knysna  river,  she  may,  in  moderate  weather, 
anchor  with  the  flagstaff  bearing  N.N.E.,  in  12  to  15  fathoms  blue  clay, 
one  mile  off  shore ;  she  will  then  be  in  a  favourable  position  to  enter 
with  any  wind  that  will  suit  for  crossing  the  bar.  It  is  not  advisable  to 
anchor  when  the  weather  is  unsettled,  as  the  sea  frequently  sets  in 
heavily  from  south-west  with  little  or  no  wind.  Attention  must  be 
paid  to  any  signals  made  from  the  pilot  station. 

The  best  time  to  enter  Knysna  harbour  is  a  little  before  high 
water.  It  is  not  advisable  to  go  either  in  or  out  during  the 
strength  of  the  ebb  at  spring  tides,  more  especially  if  there  is 
any  break  on  the  bar.  Steam  vessels  should  approach  the  entrance 
with  the  beacons  in  line,  bearing  N.E.  J  N.,  and  keeping  them 
so  until  nearly  abreast  Inner  Obelisk  point,  thence  steer  to  pass 
about  50  yards  outside  Fountain  point,  from  abreast  which,  steer  for 
Green  point  (the  south  point  of  Best  cove)  keeping  close  to  it  to 
avoid  the  tongue  of  sand  which  projects  from  the  northern  end  of 
Steenbock  island.*  The  distance  of  the  point  of  the  Spit  (11  feet 
water)  from  Green  point  is  100  yards  only.  Having  passed 
Green  point,  anchor  in  Best  cove,  known  locally  as  Feather  Bed  bay 
in  4  fathoms.    There  is  a   depth  of  about  14  feet  water  close  to  the 

*  A  buoy  formerly  marked  the  point  of  this  spit,  in  11  feet. 


Chap.  HI.]  KNYSNA  HARBOUR— DIRKCTIONS.  93 

shore.  There  is  no  danger  in  grounding  in  any  part  of  the  river,  as 
the  bottom  is  soft. 

Vessels  proceeding  to  the  anchorage  off  Knysna  should  employ  a 
pilot.  From  Best  cove,  the  Western  shore  should  be  kept  aboard 
until  abreast  the  stakes  marking  the  edge  of  the  spit  extending 
southward  from  Paarden  islands  ;  thence  steer  close  along  to  the 
westward  of  the  stakes  and  of  the  new  jetty.  When  past  the  jetty 
the  anchor  should  be  let  go,  in  about  15  or  16  feet,  and  when  swung 
to  the  flood  secure  the  stern  to  one  of  the  mooring  buoys,  two  of 
which  are  placed  here  for  the  purpose ;  vessels  can  also  lie  afloat 
alongside  Paarden  jetty. 

Before  crossing  the  bar,  under  sail,  it  is  necessary  to  have  a  boat 
in  readiness  with  a  kedge  and  hawser,  as  the  wind  sometimes  dies 
away  between  the  heads.  In  proceeding  in,  the  wind  should  be  at 
least  two  points  southward  of  West,  and  not  eastward  of  S.E.  With 
the  wind  from  the  S.W.  steer  for  Black  rocks,  keeping  them  a  point 
on  the  port  bow,  until  the  beacons  are  in  line,  when  proceed  as  before 
directed. 

In  entering  the  harbour  with  a  S.E.  wind,  keep  Steenbock  island 
beacon  a  little  open  to  the  eastward  of  Fountain  point  beacon,  to 
counteract  the  effect  of  the  flood  tide,  which  always  sets  strongly 
over  towards  Needles  point,  and  when  past  that  point,  steer  as  before 
directed. 

In  leaving  the  harbour,  under  sail,  the  wind  should  not  be  to 
the  westward  of  North  nor  to  the  eastward  of  E.N.E.  The  best  time 
to  get  under  way  is  with  the  last  quarter  of  the  flood,  reversing  the 
directions  for  entering.  With  a  commanding  breeze  a  vessel  may  go 
out  with  the  last  quarter  ebb,  but  in  getting  under  way  care  should 
be  taken  not  to  get  too  close  to  the  eastern  shore,  as  the  ebb  sets 
towards  the  rocks  between  Fountain  and  Inner  Obelisk  points. 

It  frequently  happens  that  there  is  no  wind  in  Best  cove  when 
there  is  a  fine  breeze  blowing  out  through  the  entrance.  During  the 
summer  months,  when  the  winds  prevail  from  S.E.,  almost  the  only 
opportunity  of  going  out  is  early  in  the  morning,  when  there  is 
generally  a  breeze  from  the  land,  which  dies  away  about  9  or  10  a.m. 
and  is  succeeded  by  the  sea  breeze. 

The  COAST  from  the  entrance  of  the  Knysna  trends  eastward 
for  3J  miles  to  the  mouth  of  Nutze  river.  It  is  composed  of 
irregular  red  cliffs,  200  to  300  feet  high,  with  patches  of  shingly 
beach,  some  above  water,  and  points  fringed  with  off -lying  rocks,  to 
the  distance  of  half-a-mile  in  places.    The  back  land  rises  steeply 


94  KNYSNA  TO  OAPK  RBGIFB.  [Chap.  III. 

from  the  cliffs  to  a  height  of  700  feet,  clusters  of  trees  become  more 
frequent  and  larger  towards  the  Niitze.  It  is  throughout  intersected 
with  deeply  worn  watercourses.* 

Between  the  Nutze  and  cape  Seal  are  many  peaked  masses  of  rock, 
sometimes  bare,  at  others  clothed  with  vegetation,  which  occasionally 
rise  as  high  as  the  cliffs,  giving  a  characteristic  appearance  to  this 
part  of  the  coast. 

The  coast  maintains  the  same  precipitous  cliffy  character  for  3 
miles  eastward  of  the  Niitze,  and  rising  steeply  behind  to  a  height 
of  900  feet.  This  portion,  and  for  3  miles  inland,  is  inaccessible, 
being  completely  covered  to  the  cliff  heads  with  dense  forest,  which 
extends  northward  to  Plettenberg  bay  road.  At  4  miles  eastward  of 
the  Nutze  a  deep  gorge  is  reached,  beyond  which  the  country  facing 
the  sea  assumes  the  usual  smooth  green  appearance,  with  scattered 
clusters  of  trees. 

No  Landing. — There  appears  to  be  no  spot  on  this  coast  where 
landing  could  be  effected. 

The  Niitze  is  a  stream  flowing  across  a  small  patch  of  sandy 
beach  into  the  sea,  from  between  high  wooded  hills ;  its  mouth 
is  often  altogether  closed.  At  a  distance  of  3  miles  from  its  mouth 
it  is  called  the  Witte  Els. 

CAPE  SEAL  is  the  easternmost  point  of  a. conspicuous  tongue 
of  land  with  rugged  sides  and  overhanging  cliffs,  clothed  with 
scrubby  bush  ;  it  is  rather  more  than  1^  miles  in  length,  rising  about 
its  centre  to  the  height  of  485  feet,  and  being  joined  to  the  mainland 
by  a  narrow  neck,  has  from  many  points  of  view  the  appearance  of  a 
large  high  island. 

Off  its  south  side  is  a  rocky  mass,  123  feet  high,  about  half  a  mile 
in  length,  joined  to  it  by  a  narrow  sandy  isthmus ;  the  sand  continues 
up  the  sides  of  the  hill  over  the  top,  a  little  westward  of  the  highest 
part,  and  from  seaward  appears  as  a  white  stripe,  and  serves  with  the 
low  gap  on  its  left,  as  landmarks  for  the  coast. 

Whale  rock,  having  a  depth  of  4  feet,  lies  S.E.  from  the  pitch 
of  the  cape,  and  3|  cables  from  low-water  mark.  A  patch  of  3^^ 
fathoms  lies  nearly  one  cable  north-west  of  the  rock,  but  on  the 
seaward  sides  it  is  steep-to.  The  sea  does  not  always  break  on  Whale 
rock. 

PLETTENBERG  BAY,  maybe  considered  to  lie  between  cape 
Seal  and  Salt  river,  distant  from  each  other  about  9  miles.   Plettenberg 

*  See  Admiralty  chart  :-*Mo68el  hti^  to  oape  St.  Frands,  Na  2084. 


Chap.  III.]  CAPE  SEAL— PLBTTBNBBRG  BAY.  95 

bay,  from  its  suitable  depths  at  easy  distances  from  the  shore,  its 
good  anchoring  ground,  and  the  shelter  afforded,  renders  it  equal,  if 
not  superior,  to  any  other  bay  on  the  south  coast.  Vessels  seek 
shelter  here  when  the  sea  is  too  high  to  get  into  Knysna  and 
Mossel  bay.* 

But  like  the  other  bays  on  this  coast,  it  is  exposed  to  the  full  force  of 
the  south-east  gales  that  blow  so  violently  from  September  to  March  ; 
but  from  the  greater  depth  of  water  in  this  bay  the  sea  does  not 
break  with  such  violence  as  in  the  others,  and  if  the  usual  precautions 
be  taken  of  consulting  the  barometer  and  other  indications  of  the 
weather  for  a  coming  south-east  gale,  a  vessel  may  easily  get  to  sea  by 
making  a  long  board  to  the  eastward,  and  so  weather  cape  Seal  on  the 
opposite  tack  before  it  sets  in  with  violence. 

Settlement. — ^Landing. — Pisang  river,  situated  at  the  head  of 
the  bay,  is  small,  and  frequently  has  its  mouth  closed,  but  affords  a 
supply  of  fresh  water  ;  at  its  mouth  is  a  rocky  islet,  40  feet  high, 
sparcely  covered  with  bush,  on  the  top  of  which  a  post  is  erected. 

Position.— This  post  is  in  latitude  34°  3^'  S.,  longitude  23°  22|'  E., 
and  being  close  to  the  landing  place  masters  of  vessels  can  readily 
test  their  chronometers. 

A  rocky  ledge,  covered  at  high  spring  tides,  lies  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  eastward  of  the  islet,  affording  some  shelter  to  the  beach 
close  northward  of  it,  the  only  landing  place,  though  it  is  not  always 
practicable.  There  is  a  depth  of  about  8  fathoms  at  one  cable  outside 
the  ledge,  and  a  narrow  chennel,  with  3  fathoms  water  between  it 
and  the  islet.  The  old  residency,  the  Government  store  houses,  a 
little  church  and  parsonage,  with  stores  and  such  moderate  supplies 
as  the  place  yields,  are  close  at  hand. 

Numerous  farms  are  scattered  over  the  country  and  in  the  valley 
of  Pisang  river,  whence  supplies  of  meat  and  vegetables  can  always 
be  obtained.  Water  has  generally  to  be  rafted  through  the  surf  in  casks. 
There  is  little  or  no  trade,  and  there  are  but  few  people  in  the 
immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  port.  The- nearest  town  is  Knysna, 
which  is  some  20  miles  distant ;  communication  with  the  interior  is 
by  ox  waggons.    There  is  no  telegraph. 

Directions. — There  are  no  dangers  in  entering  or  leaving  the 
bay,  except  Whale  rock,  which  should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  one 
mile.  The  channel  between  it  and  cape  Seal  should  not  be  attempted, 
as  there  is  generally  much  swell,  and  when  it  blows  strong  the  wind 
is  unsettled  and  baffling  near  the  cape.    The  south  end  of  the  long 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  :— Plettenberg  bay,  Ko.  885  ;  scale  m  =  2*4  inohee. 


96  KNYSNA  TO  CAPE  RKCIFB.  [Chap.  III. 

sandy  beach  in  Plettenberg  bay,  in  sight,  leads  north-eastward  of 
the  rock. 

Anclioragre. — Vessels  visiting  Plettenberg  bay  to  ship  timber 
usually  anchor  under  shelter  of  the  ledge  of  rocks  off  Pisang  river. 
Vessels  seeking  shelter  from  westerly  gales  should  anchor  more  in 
the  southern  portion  of  the  bay,  with  the  Gap  in  the  peninsula  bearing 
S.W.,  and  the  extreme  of  the  cape  from  South  to  S.  by  E.  ^  E.,  in 
depths  of  15  to  8  fathoms,  sand.  There  is  generally  a  heavy  surf  on 
the  beach  which  prevents  landing. 

A  vessel,  in  case  of  necessity,  seeking  anchorage  in  a  south-east 
gale,  may  go  nearer  to  the  Gap  and  find  good  anchorage  in  about  7 
fathoms  ;  but  it  is  not  recommended  ever  to  ride  out  a  south-east  gale 
when  it  is  practicable  to  get  to  sea. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  at  Plettenberg  bay,  full  and  change,  at 
3h.  10m.,  and  the  rise  is  6  feet.  There  is  no  regular  stream  of  tide 
in  the  bay. 

Kourboom  river  is  the  most  considerable  on  this  part  of  the 
coast.  It  rises  in  the  Lange  Kloof  range,  which  reaches  5,294  feet 
in  height.  It  bursts  from  between  high  lands  3^  miles  from  its 
mouth,  and  flows  across  a  plain  in  a  tortuous  channel,  in  many  places 
f ordable  at  low  water,  and  obstructed  by  sand  banks ;  for  the  last 
2i  miles  its  course  is  parallel  with  the  coast,  and  separated  from  the  sea 
by  a  narrow  sand  strip.  At  high  water  it  appears  a  large  river,  as  much 
ground  covers  and  uncovers  with  the  tide.  It  is  navigable  for  Hoats 
for  about  8  miles,  but  the  bar  is  only  passable  under  favourable 
circumstances. 

Bitan  river  is  a  small  stream,  moving  sluggishly  and  winding  along 
a  broad  plain.  It  joins  the  Kourboom  about  2  miles  from  the  mouth 
of  the  latter,  and  is  f ordable  just  above  the  junction. 

Tlie  Coast. — From  the  mouth  of  Kourboom  river,  the  coast  for 
5  miles  is  a  sandy  beach,  backed  by  sand  hills  more  or  less  covered  with 
scant  bush,  which  are  at  first  bare'  and  low,  but  thence  rising  to  a 
height  of  140  feet.  Along  this  beach  no  landing  should  be  attempted, 
as  the  sea  always  breaks  heavily.  At  the  east  end  of  this  beach  is 
the  Droog  river,  whence  the  coast  becomes  rocky,  with  intermediate 
sandy  beaches,  but  the  whole  fronted  by  outlying  rocks.  This 
stream,  as  its  name  implies,  is  mostly  without  water. 

Matjies  river  is  one  mile  eastward  of  the  Droog,  and  its  mouth  is 
often  closed.  It  enters  the  sea  from  between  high  hills,  and  is 
bounded  between  high  precipitous  and  wooded  hills  for  some  distance 
from  its  mouth. 


Chap.  III.]     KOUBBOOM  RIVBR— APFBARANOB  OF  OOAST.  97 

^omkromma  or  Salt  river  lies  3^  miles  eastward  of  Matjies 
river ;  the  coast  between  consisting  of  rocks  and  sandy  beaches. 
About  H  miles  eastward  of  the  Matjies  is  the  most  ofiE-lying  cluster 
of  rocks,  which  are,  however,  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the 
shore ;  close  to  the  eastward  of  Matjies  river  are  two  remarkable 
islets,  50  feet  high ;  the  shore  here  is  dangerous  to  approach, 
though,  at  times,  it  is  possible  to  land  on  the  rocks.  Abreast  the 
rocks,  the  country  is  park-like,  with  wooded  patches  and  gorges,  and 
farther  inland,  forest. 

The  entrance  of  Salt  river  is  said  not  to  be  difficult  for  boats,  but 
the  sea  frequently  breaks  heavily  off  and  about  its  mouth ;  directly 
inside  it  expands  into  a  small  lake.  It  is  navigable  for  boats  about  a 
mile  from  the  mouth,  and  appears  to  be  a  convenient  place  for 
wooding  and  watering. 

OOAST,  General  appearance. — Over  the  eastern  point  of  the 
mouth  of  Groote  river,  which  is  about  11  miles  eastward  of  cape  Seal, 
is  a  double  peak.  The  coast  thence  south-eastward  to  Aasvogel 
point,  a  distance  of  37  miles,  is  formed  of  perpendicular  cliffs,  and 
rocky  hills,  300  to  600  leet  high.  It  is  intersected  by  streams 
and  gorges,  with  several  outlying  dangers  at  a  short  distance; 
it  should  not  be  approached  nearer  than  one  mile.  In  this  extent  of 
coast  the  nuiiierous  streams  which  empty  themselves  into  the  sea, 
take  their  rise  in  the  Outeniqua  mountains,  but  none  of  them  are 
navigable  for  vessels.* 

The  Outeniqua  mountains  which  in  this  locality  back  the  coast  at 
a  distance  of  4  to  8  miles  continues  eastward  to  about  7  miles  north- 
east of  Zitzikamma  point.  This  mountain  chain  has  several  well- 
defined  peaks,  which  from  their  appearance  are  very  conspicuous  and 
useful  landmarks  to  seamen.  Formosa  peak  and  Thumb  peak  (so 
called  from  its  appearance)  each  about  5,500  feet  in  height,  are  the 
highest  and  most  remarkable. 

Nearer  the  coast,  and  only  4  miles  from  it,  the  Grenadiers  Cap, 
80  named  from  its  shape,  is  also  conspicuous  and  3,224  feet  in  height. 
Eastward  20  miles  on  the  same  range  is  Witte  Els  berg,  a  pyramidal 
peak,  4,098  feet  in  height;  when  seen  from  the  eastward,  and 
westward  it  shows  a  flat  top. 

Karedow  peak,  when  nearly  abreast,  shows  a  saddle-shaped  hill, 
but  on  other  bearings  a  flat  top,  3,009  feet  in  height.    The  end  of 

*  See  Admiralty  oliart :— Mossel  bay  to  cape  St.  Fianois,  No.  2,084.  Tbe  inf  oima- 
tion  from  Groote  river  to  Bashee  riyer  is  chiefly  by  Nav.  Lieata.  D.  J.  May  and  W.  E. 
Azohdeaoon,  RJ7.,  1866-68. 

aO.  10625.  a 


98  KNYSNA  TO  CAPE  BEOIFB.  [Chap.  III. 

Outeniqaa  range,  north-eastward  of  Zitzikamnxa  point  is  very  con- 
spicuous, terminating  in  a  sharp  conical  hill  1,634  feet  in  height, 
which  drops  suddenly  to  the  plain,  extending  to  the  shores  of  St. 
Francis  bay. 

The  Eland  river  range  and  Van  Staden  range  of  mountains  north- 
eastward of  capo  St.  Francis  are  also  conspicuous,  and  in  clear  weather 
mount  Cockscomb  is  a  splendid  object.  The  Van  Staden  range, 
which  terminates  suddenly,  has  a  remarkable  jagged  top  peak  at  its 
south-east  extremity  named  Brak  River  hill,  nearly  2,000  feet  in 
height.  * 

QPOOte  river. — The  entrance  to  this  river,  2  miles  eastward  of 
Salt  river,  appears  to  be  wider  than  the  latter,  and  inside  expands 
into  a  lagoon.  A  conspicuous  hillock  marks  its  eastern  bank,  from 
whence  the  land  recedes  curving  eastward  fpr  2  miles,  with  high 
wooded  cliffs,  as  far  as  Blue  Rock  river,  which  may  be  known  by  the 
cliffs  on  the  eastern  side  being  bare  and  perpendicular.  There  are 
deep  ravines  in  the  land,  and  several  other  streams  along  the  wooded 
coast  as  far  as  Storm  river. 

Storm  river. — ^Wall  point,  12^  miles  eastward  of  Groote  river,  is 
so  named  from  its  perpendicular  appearance.  Storm  river,  situated 
about  4  miles  eastward  of  Wall  point,  is  about  50  yards  in  breadth,  and 
flows  through  a  gap  between  perpendicular  cliffs  about  600  feet 
high.  Some  low  shelving  rocks  on  the  western  side  partly  shelter 
the  entrance,  and  under  favourable  circumstances,  landing  may  be 
effected  in  boats,  a  little  inside  the  eastern  point  where  there  is  a 
footpath  leading  to  the  forest  ranger's  house,  2  miles  to  the  eastward. 
The  point  forming  the  eastern  entrance  is  grassy,  skirted  by  several 
rocks  awash  lying  close  to  the  shore. 

There  is  no  road  between  it  and  Plettenberg  bay.  Eastward  of 
Storm  river  the  forest  loses  its  denseness.  A  sunken  rock  lies  about 
2i  cables  off  shore  at  3  miles  eastward  of  Storm  river. 

Paure  river,  a  small  stream,  lies  5  miles  eastward  of  the  Storm. 
A  long  patch  of  sunken  rocks,  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  bad  weather 
lies  off  the  entrance  ;  its  extremes  bear  S.W.  ^  W.  eight-tenths  of  a 
mile,  and  S.  by  E.  l-^^y  miles  from  the  west  point  of  the  river.  At 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  eastward  of  the  Faure  is  a  white  rock  about 
40  feet  high. 

Eland  river,  lying  about  9  miles  eastward  of  Storm  river,  is  the 
broadest  stream  in  this  locality,  and  may  be  known  by  some  white 
rocks  a  little  inside  a  point  on  its  eastern  side  of  entrance  ;  a  mile 
beyond  this  there  is  a  conspicuous  clump  of  trees  on  the  apex  of  a 


Cliap.  III.]  GBOOTB  RIVKR— ZITZIKAMMA  BIVBB.  99 

cliff  near,  a  gorge.  There  are  many  branches  to  the  river,  and  its 
banks  a  little  inland  are  covered  with  dense  bush.  Eastward  of 
Eland  river  the  cliffs  are  not  so  woody. 

Robhoek  or  Seal  Comer  point  lies  2^  miles  eastward  of 
Elands  river,  and  may  be  known  by  the  land  receding  on  each  side, 
with  a  grassy  face,  sloping  gradually  to  a  rocky  peak  hear  the  sea. 
One  mile  eastward  of  Robhoek  point,  the  cliffs  are  nearly  perpen- 
dicular with  bare  rocks  cropping  out  of  the  bush,  to  a  sandy  cove, 
off  which  there  are  several  rocks  awash,  at  the  distance  of  one  cable. 
At  2|  miles  farther  on  is  the  mouth  of  the  little  river  White  Els  ; 
thence  sand  skirted  by  rocks,  extends  along  shore  1^  miles  to  a  high 
conspicuous  white  rock,  with  a  ledge  extending  nearly  one  mile  in  a 
north-westerly  direction  ;  the  ledge  covers  at  half  tide.  Continuing 
eastward  to  Aasvogel  point  there  are  several  dangers  awash  lying  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore  There  are  several  farm  houses 
about  one  mile  inland. 

Aasvogel  or  Vulture  point  may  be  known  by  the  cliffs 
forming  a  hill,  660  feet  high,  with  a  strip  of  sand  half  a  mile  at  the 
back  of  it ;  a  rock  awash,'  lies  one  cable  distant  from  the  point. 

Clarkson  village. — ^At  2^  miles  westward  of  Karedow  peak  is 
a  road  through  the  mountain  range,  and  at  the  same  distance,  to  the 
south-eastward,  is  the  village  of  Clarkson  with  a  population  of  500, 
and  the  Moravian  mission. 

From  Aasvogel  point  the  land  forms  a  bight  to  a  small  stream 
4  miles  farther  on ;  the  coast  between  is  composed  of  cliffs,  and 
appears  clear  of  outlying  dangers.  At  this  stream  the  land  is  more 
elevated,  rocks  lie  about  half  a  mile  from  the  shore,  and  there  are 
sandy  beaches  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  Zitzikamma  river.  From  a 
position  2  miles  eastward  of  Aasvogel  point  to  Klippen  point,  the 
shore  should  not  be  approached  within  2  miles.  , 

ZITZIKAMMA  RIVER,  the  entrance  of  which  is  closed,  is 
easily  identified  by  some  sand  cliffs  nearly  one  mile  in  extent  on  its 
western  side,  the  left  end  of  which  from  the  westward  has  the 
appearance  of  the  letter  Y.  At  the  back  of  the  sand  cliffs  the  land 
rises  to  an  elevation  of  729  feet.  The  eastern  side  of  the  river  is 
much  lower  than  the  western  side,  and  there  is  a  conspicuous  round 
hill,  379  feet  high,  half  a  mile  up  the  river,  facing  the  entrance. 

Close  to  the  mouth  of  Zitzikamma  river  on  the  eastern  side  is  a 
rock  about  50  feet  high  with  a  cavern  in  it,  locally  known  as  the 
House  rock  ;  thence  to  Zitzikamma  point,  the  coast  is  formed  by 

8.0.  10625.  G  2 


'Sli3783 


100  iBUSTYSNA  TO  OAPB  BBOIFB.  [Chap.  III. 

Beveral  grassy  ridges,  fringed  with  rocks.    There  are  many  streams 
of  fresh  water  in  this  locality. 

Zitzikamma  point  is  low  and  shelving,  with  rocks  and  breakers, 
extending  nearly  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  shore.  Eastward 
of  the  point  the  coast  is  composed  of  a  succession  of  bushy  hillocks 
50  to  120  feet  high,  from  the  base  of  which,  shelving  rocks  and 
breakers  extend  oil  about  half  a  mile.  The  highest  of  the  hills  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  point  is  596  feet. 

A  reef,  awash  at  low  water,  lies  upwards  of  half  a  mile  from  the 
westernmost  of  two  conspicuous  triangular  bushy  hillocks,  with  sand 
between  them.  At  the  base  of  the  western,  there  are  several  high 
rocks,  from  whence  the  coast  curves  for  two-thirds  of  a  mile  to 
Wreck  point ;  two  rocks  awash  lie  close  to  this  point. 

Landing. — Just  within  Wreck  point,  there  is  a  sand  patch  visible 
from  seaward,  and  a  conspicuous  peak  560  feet  high,  on  the  ridge  one 
mile  inland.  About  half  a  mile  eastward  of  the  point  there  is  a  long 
ledge  of  rocks,  the  eastern  part  awash  at  low  water,  and  forming  a  cove 
where  at  times  landing  can  be  effected.  On  the  coast  facing  the 
extreme  of  this  ledge,  the  top  of  one  of  the  grassy  hillocks  is  covered 
with  sand.  Within  the  cove  long  shelving  rocks  and  big  boulders 
appear  at  low  water,  and  on  the  western  part  there  is  a  little  sandy 
beach. 

Reef,  OP  Klippen  point,  is  a  long,  low,  rocky  point,  with  a 
cluster  of  rocks  projecting  two-thirds  of  a  mile,  in  a  S.S.E.  direction  ; 
the  outer  rock  is  nearly  awash  at  low  water,  and  the  inner  one  13  feet 
above  high  water.  Klippen  point  is  30  feet  high,  and  has  a  grassy 
hill  68  feet  high,  a  little  to  the  northward  of  it.  The  point  should 
not  be  approached  within  1^  miles.  Eastward  of  the  point  is  Slang 
bay. 

SLANQ  BAY  h^  on  its  western  side  low  sand  cliffs,  30  to  50 
feet  high,  with  patches  of  bush,  and  the  shore  is  foul  for  half  a  mile 
north-eastward  of  Klippen  point ;  in  other  parts  the  bay  appears 
free  from  rocks,  but  a  heavy  surf  rolls  into  it.  Bare  sand  hills  from 
200  to  300  feet  high,  fringe  the  bay  for  3  miles,  whence  it  is  blown 
bv  the  strong  westerly  winds  experienced  along  this  coast,  between 
two  ridges  to  a  distance  of  6  miles  inland.  At  the  base  of  these  hills 
there  are  several  pools  of  fresh  water  formed  between  clumps  of 
rocks  cropping  through  the  sand. 

Slang  river  lies  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  but  its  mouth  is  closed. 
Another  small  stream  discharges  itself  into  Slang  bay  thre^-qukrters 
of  a  mile  to  the  eastward  of  Slang  river,  and  at  the  back  of  this,  the 


Ohap.  III.]  SLANG  BAT-H9BAL  POINT.  iOX 

land  gradually  riBoa  to  a  grassy  ridge  596  feet  high ;  at  3  miles  inland 
some  white  farmhouses^  2^  miles  east  of  the  ridge,  are  conspicuous 
from  the  westward. 

The  coast  eastward  of  the  second  river  consists  of  wooded  hills, 
200  to  250  feet  hifi^h,  based  by  rocky  cliffs,  10  to  20  feet  high.  White 
point,  30  feet  high,  so  named  from  the  whitish  colour  of  the  rocks, 
forms  the  western  point  of  a  sandy  cove,  which  may  be  recognised 
by  a  stream  of  water  and  a  conspicuous  sand  patch. 

There  is  another  cove  three-quarters  of  a  mile  eastward  of  White 
point,  formed  by  a  rocky  ledge  a  third  of  a  mile  in  length,  parallel 
to  the  coast ;  it  is  encumbered  with  boulders,  which  cover  at  high 
water,  when,  under  favourable  circumstances,  a  boat  may  land  and 
fresh  water  be  obtained. 

Thys  bay.— Thy s  point  forms  the  western  point  of  Thys  bay. 
It  is  50  feet  high,  with  low,  shelving,  and  sunken  rocks,  extending 
one-third  of  a  mile  in  a  south-easterly  direction.  Thys  bay  is  a 
sandy  bight  about  one  mile  in  breadth  and  apparently  free  from 
rocks  ;  low  sand  hillocks  fringe  the  bay,  and  at  the  eastern  end  there 
is  a  sand  hill  partially  topped  with  bush,  366  feet  high ;  here  the 
sand  is  blown  inland  to  a  distance  of  2  miles,  forming  a  conspicuous 
stripe  when  seen  from  seaward.  At  the  back  of  this  sand  hill  is  a 
pool  of  fresh  water. 

The  shore  from  Thys  bay  trends  in  a  south-east  direction,  and  is 
rocky  and  rugged,  with  grassy  cliffs  from  50  to  110  feet  high.  From 
Slang  bay  to  cape  St.  Francis  there  are  numerous  ridges  of  wooded 
hills  extending  in  an  east  and  west  direction  across  to  Krom  bay, 
with  grassy  vales  between  ;  the  highest  hill  is  419  feet  high. 

Scholtz  Kraal  is  a  cliffy  cove,  2  miles  eastward  of  Thys  bay  ;  in  it 
there  are  several  rocks,  and  at  the  head  a  small  waterfall.  Near  the 
summit  of  the  ridge,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  coast,  a  farmhouse  is 
visible.  In  the  vicinity  of  Scholtz  Kraal,  rocks  awash,  extend  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  off-shore,  and  in  a  rocky  bight,  1^  miles  south-east 
of  the  Kraal,  H.M.S.  Osprey  was  wrecked  in  1867.  At  this  bight 
the  grassy  cliffs  and  hills  decrease  in  elevation,  the  shore  is  straight, 
and  fronted  with  rugged  rocks,  10  to  30  feet  high. 

SEAL  POINT  is  a  rocky  projection,  lying  2  miles  westward  of 
cape  St.  Francis ;  off  the  point  there  are  three  rocks  nearly  awash,  and 
at  half  a  mile  S.E.  by  E.  from  it  there  is  a  reef  half  a  mile  in  extent, 
on  which  the  sea  breaks  heavily  in  bad  weather. 

Between  Seal  point  and  cape  St.  Francis,  the  coast  forms  a  bay 
about  half  a  mile  deep ;  its  shores  are  rocky,  with  large  boulders,  but 


102  KNYSNA  TO  CAPE  RBOIFB.  [Chap.  Ill 

at  its  head  there  is  a  low  sand  beach,  in  front  of  a  ridge  of  bushy 
sand  hillocks  varying  from  30  to  70  feet  in  height.* 

OAPE  ST.  FRANOIS  LIGHT —At  about  250  yards  within 
the  extreme  of  Seal  point  is  a  stone  light  tower,  102  feet  high,  and 
painted  white,  with  keeper's  dwelling  attached.  From  the  tower  is 
exhibited  at  an  elevation  of  118  feet  above  high  water,  a  flashing 
white  light  at  intervals  of  twenty  seconds,  and  should  be  visible  in 
clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  about  16  miles.  The  light  shows 
red  between  the  bearings  of  S.  30°  W.  and  S.  83°  W.,  over  Krom 
bay,  excepting  where  the  hill  tops  intervene.  In  consequence  of  the 
want  of  sharpness  in  the  change  from  red  to  white,  it  may  appear 
red  near  the  bearing  of  West ;  but  this  red  light  will  not  be  seen  from 
a  vessel  passing  a  safe  distance  along  the  coast,  and  if  seen  warns 
the  mariner  of  his  dangerous  approach  to  the  shore. 

Telegrapll. — There  is  a  flagstaff  and  signal  station  near  the  light-> 
house,  which  is  in  telegraphic  communication  with  the  ports  of  the 
colony. 

Oape  St.  FranolS  is  the  most  prominont  point  along  this  coast, 
and  its  position  may  be  known  by  mount  Cockscomb,  which  bears 
about  N.N.E.  from  it,  and  by  the  extensive  plain  inshore,  on  which 
at  a  distance  of  10  miles  from  the  cape,  may  be  seen  the  village  of 
Humansdorp.  See  description  of  mountains,  p.  97,  98.  At  the  back 
of  this  village  are  two  remarkable  mountains,  the  nearest  one, 
ICruisf ontein,  2,574  feet  high,  has  a  double  peak ;  the  other  has  a 
single  peak  and  named  from  its  appearance  Sharp  peak ;  from  the 
eastward  and  westward  cape  St.  Francis  appears  as  two  bushy 
hummocks  with  a  bare  sand  ridge  between  ;  the  northern  hummock 
is  140  feet  high,  and  the  southern  110  feet  high. 

Immediately  off  the  cape  are  two  rocks  11  feet  and  9  feet  above 
high  water,  with  low  water  rocks  between,  terminating  in  a  reef 
extending  about  2  cables  in  a  S.S.E.  direction. 

Vessels  from  the  westward,  rounding  cape  St.  Francis,  should  give 
Seal  point  a  berth  of  2  miles,  and  not  bring  it  to  bear  westward  of 
N.W.  by  W,  \  W.  until  the  high  sand  hill  in  Krom  bay,  or  the  western 
end  of  beach,  is  well  open  eastward  of  the  cape, 

KROil  BAY  is  formed  between  cape  St.  Francis  and  Zeekoe  point 
(Sea  cow),  a  distance  of  7  miles.  It  affords  good  anchorage  in 
10  fathoms  over  a  sandy  bottom,  with  cape  St.  Francis  bearing 
S.W.  ^  W.  distant  about  2  miles,  and  about  the  same  distance  off  the 

*  See  also  Admiralty  oliart :— Cape  St.  Franoifl  to  Waterloo  bay,  No.  2,086  ;  scale 
mssO'S  inohes. 


Chap,  III.]    CAPE  ST.  FRANCIS— KROM  BAY  AND  RIVER.  103 

mouth  of  Krom  river.  Krom  bay  aflEords  good  shelter  in  westerly 
gales,  hut  it  cannot  be  considered  safe  with  easterly  winds,  though  it  is 
said  to  be  as  safe  as  Algoa  bay.*  South-west  winds  are  the  worst  for 
swell.  There  is  generally  a  heavy  surf  along  the  beach,  but  with 
westerly  winds  landing  may  be  effected  at  the  western  end  of  the 
beach,  or  on  the  rocks  forming  that  extreme  of  the  bay.  There  are 
several  farmhouses  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Krom  bay,  whence 
supplies  may  be  had. 

From  cape  St.  Francis  the  coast  for  1^  miles  is  rocky,  irregular,  and 

backed  by  grassy  hills  partially  covered  with  bush.    There  are  two 

rocks,  4  feet  above  high  water,  about  100  yards  from  the  shore,  with 

•  a  small  ledge  extending  from  them  ;  with  these  exceptions  the  coast 

is  clear  of  outlying  dangers. 

Landingr* — ^^.t  the  above  distance,  the  sand  hills,  200  feet  in  height, 
commence,  the  base  of  which  is  fringed  with  rocks  and  boulders  for 
about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  to  the  beginning  of  the  sandy  beach  ; 
at  this  point  a  long  ledge  of  boulders  uncover  at  low  water,  under 
which  is  one  of  the  best  places  for  landing. 

The  coast  between  these  boulders  and  Zeekoe  poini,  in  extent 
about  7  miles,  is  formed  by  bushy  sand  hillocks,  and  fronted  with  a 
sandy  beach,  which  to  the  westward  of  Krom  river,  is  flat  and  free 
from  rocks.  The  highest  hillock  between  Zeekoe  point  and  Krom 
river  is  67  feet,  and  just  behind  it  there  are  the  ruins  of  a  Ashing 
establishment,  and  a  spring  of  fresh  water. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Krom  bay  at  3h.  34m. ; 
springs  rise  about  5  feet.  South-east  winds  reduce  the  height,  and 
north-west  winds  cause  a  corresponding  rise.  The  barometer  falls 
before  north-west  winds,  and  rises  on  the  approach  of  south-east 
winds. 

Krom  or  Orooked  river  is  not  navigable.  At  low  water  there 
is  one  foot  on  the  bar,  and  the  mouth  is  contracted  to  a  breadth  of 
about  33  yards,  but  at  high  water,  the  sand  being  very  flat,  the  river 
presents  an  entrance,  about  2  cables  in  width  ;  within  the  entrance 
the  water  is  deeper.  There  is  a  ford  about  2  miles  from  the 
mouth,  and  near  it  are  several  farm  houses  where  supplies  may  be 
obtained.  ^ 

Humansdorp. — The  village  of  Humansdorp  stands  north,  7J 
miles  in  a  direct  line  from  the  mouth  of  Krom  river,  on  the  main 
road  between  Cape  town  and  port  Elizabeth,  and  contains  a  population 

*  Skead. 


104  KNTSNA  TO  OAPB  RBOIFB.  [Chap.  III. 

of  about  2,000  ;  it  gives  its  name  to  the  district,  has  postal  coxnmnni- 
cation  with  all  parts  of  the  colony,  and  is  56  miles  from  port  Elizabeth, 
with  which  and  Cape  town  it  is  connected  by  electric  telegraph. 
Ostrich  farming  is  carried  on  with  ^narked  success.  The  village  is 
conspicuous  from  seaward. 

Zeekoe  (Sea  Oow)  river,  lying  4^  miles  eastward  of  Erom 
river,  is  broad  but  generally  closed.  At  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from 
its  mouth  the  river  divides  into  two  branches,  the  western  taking  its 
rise  near  Humansdorp.  The  water  is  fresh  at  about  2  miles  from 
the  sea.  The  hillocks  fringing  the  intervening  coast  are  about  100 
feet  high,  and  there  are  numerous  rocky  ledges  projecting  from  the 
sandy  beach,  all  of  which  nearly  cover  at  high  water. 

Zeekoe  point,  102  feet  in  height,  lies  half  a  mile  eastward  from 
Zeekoe  river,  and  is  formed  by  the  bushy  sand  cliffs  receding,  which 
give  it  a  conspicuous  appearance.  At  1^  miles  northward  of  the 
point  in  a  sandy  bight  between  two  projecting  ledges,  there  is  a 
fishing  establishment,  named  Jeffrys  bight,  after  the  person  who 
first  settled  there.  Here  is  a  large  two-storied  white  building  and 
some  cottages. 

Landing. — Jeffrys  bight  is  considered  one  of  the  best  landing 
places  in  fine  weather. 

Noors  Kloof  point  lies  1^  miles  north-eastward  of  Jeffrys  bight, 
and  is  formed  by  a  wooded  hillock  near  the  termination  of  a  back 
ridge  of  hills.    The  beach  northward  is  comparatively  free  from  rocks. 

Kabeljou  river,  a  small  stream  closed  at  its  mouth,  lies  about 
2  miles  northward  of  Noors  Kloofs  point;  immediately  to  the 
westward  of  it  the  sand  hillocks  are  low  and  nearly  bare.  The 
frontier  road  crosses  the  river  about  one  mile  from  its  mouth,  and 
at  this  place  fresh  water  may  be  obtained.  At  2  miles  eastward  of 
Kabeljou  river,  the  bare  sand  in  many  places  overtops  the  coast 
hillocks,  which  range  from  50  to  80  feet  in  height.  The  back  land 
for  3  miles  forms  a  flat,  and  nearly  midway  to  Gamtoos  river  there 
are  some  conspicuous  farm  buildings  at  one  mile  from  the  beach. 

Gamtoos  river  lies  at  the  head  of  St.  Francis  bay.  The  bar  is 
nearly  dry  at  low  water  springs,  but  there  is  deep  water  inside,  with 
an  ebb  and  flow  8  miles  from  the  sea  ;  a  ferry  from  the  main  road 
crosses  it  3  miles  from  its  entrance.  The  right  point  of  the  river  is 
formed  by  low  sand  hills,  but  on  the  opposite  side  the  hills  form 
bluffs,  which  are  conspicuous  from  seaward. 


Ohap.  III.]  ZBBKOB  RIVHR— GLASSBN  POINT.  105 

Eastward  of  Gamtoos  river  the  bare  sand  hills  increase  considerably 
in  elevation,  forming  ridges  nearly  perpendicxdar  to  the  coast ;  at  the 
back  the  land  is  high  and  rugged,  attaining  an  elevation  of  900  feet 
at  a  distance  of  3  miles. 

A  bare  sand  hill,  with  a  square  top  320  feet  high,  and  7  miles 
eastward  of  Qamtoos  river,  is  remarkable,  and  readily  identified  by 
some  bush  about  halfway  down  its  slope. 

Van  Stadens  river,  also  closed  at  its  mouth,  is  9  miles  east- 
ward of  Gamtoos  river,  and  may  be  known  by  the  high  sand  hills 
which  form  a  saddle  sand  peak  on  its  western  side. 

The  coast  between  Van  Stadens  river,  and  Maitland  river  is  formed 
by  bushy  sand  hills  and  beach  overtopped  by  a  grassy  ridge,  with 
patches  of  cultivation  700  feet  above  the  sea.  The  abrupt  termination 
of  the  Van  Staden  range  of  hills,  and  a  double  peak  nearly  2,000 
feet  high  5  miles  inland  of  these  two  rivers,  are  also  good  marks  for 
identifying  this  locality. 

Maitland  river  may  be  identified  by  the  sand  extending  some 
distance  inland  at  its  western  side,  forming  a  conspicuous  round  hill 
and  by  another  high  sand  patch,  about  1^  miles  eastward  of  it ;  like 
all  the  other  rivers  it  is  dry  at  its  mouth.  There  are  several  &rms, 
along  the  banks,  and  lead  has  been  found  in  a  mine  about  2  miles 
from  its  mouth. 

The  coast  from  one  mile  eastward  of  the  Maitland  is-  backed  by  a 
ridge  of  grassy  hills,  studded  with  trees,  and  fronted  with  shelving 
rocks,  and  occasional  patches  of  sand,  to  a  point  lying  4  miles  distant, 
off  which  there  is  a  peaked  rock  and  several  hidden  dangers  extend- 
ing about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore.  In  the  bight  to  the 
eastward  are  several  streams  of  fresh  water  and  a  conspicuous 
wooded  peak  220  feet  in  height. 

About  one  mile  eastward  of  the  bight  is  a  conical  wooded  peak 
172  feet  high,  and  farther  on  is  Olassen  point. 

Qlassen  point  is  fronted  by  a  rocky  ledge  to  the  distance  of 
half  a  mile,  on  which  the  sea  breaks  with  violence  during  heavy 
gales.  The  cliffs  are  formed  by  the  termination  of  bushy  hills  about 
150  feet  in  height.  One  and  a  half  miles  inland  there  are  two  hills  ; 
the  western  one  is  wooded,  but  the  top  of  the  eastern  one,  named 
Lovemore  hill,  690  feet  above  the  sea,  is  bare,  with  a  conspicuous 
clump  of  trees  near  its  western  slope. 

Ooast« — ^At  4  miles  eastward  of  Lovemore  hill,  near  the  eastern 
extremity  of  a  wooded  ridge^  is  Buffels  FQntein  or  Botha  Kop 


106  KNTSNA  TO  OAPB  RECIFE.  [Chap.  III. 

eleTated  915  feet  above  the  sea ;  it  has  a  blnff  termination,  and 
near  it  are  several  buildings. 

At  one  mile  E.S.E.  of  Glassen  point,  the  cliffs  form  another  wooded 
peak  172  feet  above  the  sea ;  the  beach  is  sand,  and  a  rocky  ledge 
extends  from  it  in  a  southerly  direction  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 
The  coast  eastward  forms  a  sandy  bay  2  miles  in  length,  backed  by 
wooded  hillocks.  In  the  western  part  of  this  bay  there  are  several 
ledges  of  rocks,  but  in  the  bight,  where  there  is  a  conspicuous 
triangular  patch  of  sand,  about  60  feet  in  height  on  the  cliff  face,  it 
is  clear.  One  mile  farther  eastward,  a  belt  of  sand,  about  2  miles 
wide,  extends  in  an  easterly  direction  for  6  miles  to  near  cape 
Recife,  which  is  very  conspicuous.  The  shore  in  places  is  skirted 
by  a  rocky  ledge  to  the  distance  of  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 

Obelsea  point  lies  about  4  miles  westward  of  cape  Recife ;  the 
point  is  shelving  with  several  conspicuous  grassy  hillocks,  the  highest 
being  103  feet  above  the  sea  ;  at  the  back  are  some  high  sand  hills. 
Off  the  point  there  are  two  rocks  above  high  water  and  a  number  of 
hidden  dangers  ;  from  the  outer  extreme  of  these  dangers,  the  highest 
hillock,  half  a  mile  eastward  of  the  point,  bears  North,  distant  two- 
thirds  of  a  mile.  Between  Chelsea  point  and  cape  Recife  the  land 
forms  a  bay  nearly  one  mile  deep,  fringed  with  rocks  and  hidden 
dangers.  Bare  sand  hills  extend  all  along  the  coast  with  occasional 
clumps  of  bush. 

GENERAL  DIRECTIONS,  —  From  cape  Seal  (p.  94)  to 
Zitzikamma  point  the  shore  should  not  be  approached  within  a 
distance  of  2  miles,  or  at  night  and  in  thick  weather  a  vessel  should 
not  stand  into  less  than  45  fathoms.  Thence  to  cape  St.  Francis  the 
same  distance  should  be  preserved  in  daytime,  but  at  night  and  in 
thick  weather,  owing  to  the  irregularity  of  the  depths  and  the 
probability  of  the  current  setting  directly  on  to  the  shore,  it  should 
not  be  approached  in  less  depths  than  70  fathoms.  Being  well  east- 
ward of  cape  St.  Francis  and  thence  to  cape  Recife  the  same  distance 
must  be  observed  in  daytime,  and  at  night  until  the  vicinity  of 
Glassen  point  is  approached,  the  vessel  may  go  into  45  fathoms,  but 
in  thick  weather  and  at  night  no  nearer  to  cape  Recife  ^than  into 
60  fathoms. 

CURRENTS,— Oautlon,— A  current  at  times  sets  directly  on 
to  all  this  part  of  the  coast  or  in  a  north-east  direction  ;  seamen  should 
therefore  avoid  hugging  the  land  at  night  or  in  bad  weather,  when 
bound  either  east  or  west ;  more  especially  as  dense  fogs  occasionally 
prevail.    From  cape  Agulhas  eastward  to  Buffalo  river  the  current 


Chap.  III.]  GBNBBAL  DIRHOTIONS— OUBBBKTS.  107 

has  been  known  not  only  to  set  to  the  westward  along,  but  towards 
the  coast,  more  particularly  opposite  the  bays.* 

A  weak  current  runs  to  the  eastward  near  the  shore  all  along  the 
coast  between  cape  Seal  and  cape  Recife,  but  in  the  ofi&ng,  as  a  ruje, 
the  Agulhas  currents  sets  to  the  westward  at  a  rate  of  from  one  to 
2  miles  an  hour  ;  and  off  the  edge  of  the  bank  of  soundings  as  much 
as  3^  or  4  miles.  In  westerly  gales  there  is  much  less  sea  on  the 
Agulhas  bank  th^n  there  is  southward  of  it. 

*  See  currents  on  pagfes  21-23. 


108 


CHAPTER  IV. 

CAPE  RECIFE  TO  CAPE  MORGAN. 
(Long.  25°  42'  E.  to  long.  28°  22'  E.) 


VARIATION  IN  1889. 

Cape  Recife 29°  40' W. 

Buffalo  River 29°   O'W. 


ALQOA  BAY  is  formed  between  cape  Recife  and  Woody  cape 
which  are  33  miles  apart  in  an  east  and  west  direction.  In  the 
south-west  comer  of  the  bay  is  port  Elizabeth,  off  which  there  is 
usually  safe  and  convenient  anchorage  at  all  times  of  the  year,  but 
like  other  bays  on  this  coast,  it  is  subject  to  the  full  force  of  the 
south-east  gales  that  blow  so  violently  at  times  during  the  months  of 
October  to  April. 

Oape  Recife,  the  western  extreme  of  Algoa  bay,  projects  to  the 
south-eastward  and  terminates  in  a  low  point.  On  the  cape  is  a 
stone  lighthouse,  and  to  the  north-west  of  it  is  the  hillock  of  Recife, 
which  is  the  higher  of  the  two,  and  is  often  seen  some  time  before 
the  lighthouse  is  made  out.* 

In  approaching  the  land  from  the  southward  during  daylight,  cape 
St.  Francis  has  been  mistaken  for  cape  Recife,  but  they  may  be 
distinguished  by  the  hillock  above  mentioned,  which  appears  at  a 
distance  as  the  termination  of  the  coast  line,  and  by  a  remarkable 
strip  of  bare  white  sand  of  considerable  extent,  immediately  to  the 
westward  of  the  hillock,  extending  horizontally,  and  appearing  like  a 

*  See  Admiralt  J  charts  :-r-Hondeklip  ba  j  to  port  Natal,  No.  2,095 ;  cape  St.  Fxanois 
to  Waterloo  bay,  No.  2,085  ;  Algoa  bay,  inclnding  Bird  islands  and  view,  No,  642  ; 
scale,  m  =  1*0  inoheB ;  and  plan  of  port  Elizabeth,  No.  641 ;  scales  m  =  4  inohes  and 
9*6  [ooheB. 


Chap.  lY.]  AIiOOA  BAT— PORT  BLIZABBTH.  109 

beach  :  also  from  the  fact  that  cape  St.  Francis  lighthouse  is  colonred 
white,  while  that  of  cape  Recife  is  painted  in  red  and  white  horizontal 
bands. 

Thunderbolt  reef,  on  which  H.M.S.  Thunderbolt  was  wrecked 
in  1847,  lies  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  pitch  of 
cape  Recife,  with  the  lighthouse  bearing  about  N.E.  ^  E.,  and 
the  sea  generally  breaks  heavily  upon  its  jagged  rocks,  which  are 
often  plainly  seen ;  but  at  high  water  and  in  fine  weather  this  may 
not  occur.  There  is  a  decided  indraught  towards  this  reef  and  the 
extreme  of  the  cape,  and  no  sailing  vessel  should  attempt  to  approach 
either,  except  with  a  commanding  breeze,  within  the  distance  of 
2  miles. 

Oaution. — ^As  the  depths  about  the  cape  and  reef  decrease  very 
suddenly  from  10  fathoms,  vessels  should  not  go  into  less  than 
12  fethoms,  by  night  or  day. 

LIGHTS.— Cape  Recife.— Prom  a  lighthouse  80  feet  high, 
painted  in  red  and  white  horizontal  bands,  on  cape  Recife,  is 
exhibited  at  an  elevation  of  93  feet  above  the  sea,  a  white  light, 
revolving  every  minutey  and  visible  from  seaward  in  clear  weather 
from  a  distance  of  about  15  miles,  between  the  bearings  of  East, 
through  north  and  west  to  S.W.  ^  S. ;  between  the  bearings  of 
S.W.  J  S.  and  S.  by  W.,  it  shows  red,  to  warn  vessels  of  too  near  an 
approach  to  Dispatch  rocks. 

At  port  Elizabeth,  on  a  hill  at  the  back  of  the  town,  S.  J  E. 
distant  25  yards  from  Donkin  monument,  is  a  stone  colour 
lighthouse  55  feet  in  height,  from  which  is  exhibited  at  225  feet 
above  the  sea,  a  fixed  white  light,  visible  between  the  bearing  of 
N.W.  by  W.  to  S.W.  by  W.  from  a  distance  of  12  miles  in  clear 
weather.  Between  the  bearing  of  N.W.  and  N.W.  by  W. ;  also 
between  S.W.  and  S.W.  by  W.  the  light  shows  red.  In  consequence 
of  the  greater  elevation  of  port  Elizabeth  light,  in  certain  conditions 
of  the  atmosphere,  it  may  be  seen  by  vessels  coming  from  the 
eastward,  before  the  light  on  cape  Recife. 

At  the  extremity  of  the  North  jetty  is  a  light  which  shows  green 
seaward  through  an  arc  of  150%  or  between  the  bearings  of  N.W.  and 
S.  by  E.  i  E.,  and  white  inshore  of  these  bearings. 

To  the  south-eastward,  the  junction  of  the  green  and  white  sectors 
leads  seaward  of  the  foul  rocky  ground  known  as  Strutt  reef  and  of 
the  remains  of  the  old  breakwater ;  to  the  northward  the  junction  of 
the  sectors  warns  of  a  too  near  approach  to  the  sea  wall— so  that, 
alteration  in  the  colour  of  the  light  from  green  to  white  on  either 
side  of  the  jetty,  indicates  that  the  line  of  'safety  has  been  passed. 


110  ALOOA  BAY— PORT  BliIZABBTH.  [Chap.  lY. 

A  white  light  is  shown  at  the  end  of  the  South  jetty,  and  is  obscured 
inshore  of  a  South  bearing ;  boats  must  not  lose  sight  of  this  light 
until  the  outer  end  of  the  jetty  is  neared,  to  avoid  the  shoal  ground 
off  the  old  breakwater  above  mentioned. 

A  light  is  shown  during  S.E.  gales,  near  the  beach  northward  of 
the  town.    See  port  instructions  page  114. 

TelegrrapblO  communication  exists  between  cape  Recife  and  cape 
Francis  lighthouses,  and  port  Elizabeth,  and  thence  to  other  places  in 
the  Cape  colony.  Vessels  can  be  reported  on  the  signal  being  made. 
In  cases  of  distress  a  steam  tug  can  be  requested  from  port  Elizabeth. 

Beacons. — ^A  stone  beacon,  25  feet  high,  painted  red,  is  situated 
about  500  yards  N.N.E.  of  Recife  lighthouse.  Two  other  stone 
beacons  are  situated  about  2^  miles  northward  of  cape  Recife,  near 
Beacon  point,  E.  ^  N.  and  W.  ^  S.,  1,200  yards  from  each  other,  to 
mark  Dispatch  rock.  They  are  each  25  feet  high,  surmounted  by  a 
ball,  and  painted  in  alternate  bands  of  red  and  white.* 

Shoals,— Dlspatcll  or  Ron^an  rock  lies  nearly  one  mile  off 
shore,  and  3  miles  northward  of  cape  Recife  ;  with  a  least  depth  of 
8  feet.  It  is  steep  on  its  eastern  side,  and  should  not  be  approached 
within  a  distance  of  2  cables.  Prom  the  shoalest  part,  cape  Recife 
red  beacon  is  in  line  with  the  lighthouse,  and  the  two  beacons  on 
Beacon  point  are  in  line  bearing  "W.  ^  S. 

Riy  bank  is  about  one  mile  in  extent,  composed  of  uneven  rocky 
ground,  with  depths  of  from  6  to  14  fathoms,  and  the  sea  breaks 
heavily  over  it  after  S.W.  gales.  The  shoal  spot  of  6  fathoms  lies 
E.  by  S.  i  S.,  distant  8^  miles  from  cape  Recife  lighthouse. 

Strutt  reef,  with  15  feet  at  low  water  spring  tides,  is  about 
50  square  yards  in  extent,  and  lies  to  the  southward  of  the  anchorage 
and  3  cables  off-shore,  with  the  magazine  bearing  W.  by  S.  ^  S.,  and 
the  lighthouse  on  South  jetty  N.W.  by  W.  Port  Elizabeth  lighthouse 
in  line  with  the  tower  of  the  town  hall,  bearing  N.W.  ^  W.,  leads 
one  cable  northward  of  Strutt  reef,  in  about  3^  fathoms.f 

PORT  ELIZABETH.— Town.— The  town  of  port  Elizabeth  is 
named  after  Lady  Elizabeth  Donkin,  to  whose  memory  an  obelisk, 
210  feet  high,  is  erected  on  a  hill  overlooking  the  town  and  sea  ;  her 
husband,  Sir  Rufane  Shaw  Donkin,  arrived  here  in  April  1820,  for 
the  purpose  of  locating  the  British  settlers.  Then  there  were  but  a 
few  huts ;  now  the  town  contains  a  population  of  about  13,000,  and  is 


The  information  abont  Algoa  bay  is  by  Dayman,  Simpson^  and  Skead,  R.N. 
t  See  Admiralty  plan  of  port  Elizabeth,  Ko.  641 ;  scale  vi  =  i  inches. 


Ohap.  IV J  TOWN— TRADB— SUPPLIES.  Ill 

fast  increasing  in  size  and  importance.  It  is  the  principal  seaport  of 
the  eastern  portion  of  the  Cape  colony,  and  its  geographical 
position  with  reference  to  the  other  States,  and  as  a  port  of  call  or 
refuge  for  vessels  from  the  East,  renders  it  a  place  of  much 
importance.* 

The  principal  buildings  are  the  town  hall,  library,  provincial 
hospital,  the  Grey  Institute,  London  and  South  African  and  Standard 
banks,  St.  Patrick's,  Oddfellows',  and  Good  Templars'  halls.  Masonic 
temple,  the  wool  and  produce  market,  gasworks,  custom  house,  and 
other  handsome  buildings,  together  with  numerous  churches  and 
other  places  of  worship  within  the  town  and  environs.  There  are 
also  two  parks,  one  named  St.  George,  the  other  Prince  Alfred. 

Exports,  &C. — The  exports  consist  of  wool,  hides,  ivory,  beeswax, 
sheep  and  goat  skins,  ostrich  feathers,  tallow,  angola  hair,  &c. 

In  the  year  1885,  494  vessels,  amounting  to  767,000  tons,  entered, 
foreign  and  coastwise.  In  the  same  year  the  value  of  the  imports 
was  £1,681,293,  and  that  of  the  exports  £1,48^852. 

Landing:  jetties.— The  north  jetty  at  port  Elizabeth  is  about  300 
yards  in  length,  with  a  depth  of  14  to  22  feet  alongside  at  low  water  ; 
it  is  situated  about  2^  cables  northward  of  the  entrance  to  Baakens 
river.  The  south  jetty  is  about  250  yards  in  length,  with  about  14 
to  18  feet  alongside,  and  lies  about  4  cables  south-eastward  of  the 
north  jetty.  The  lights  exhibited  from  these  jetties  are  described  on 
page      . 

Landing  can  generally  be  effected,  but  not  in  very  heavy  weather. 
A  red  ball  is  hoisted  at  the  north  jetty  when  landing  is  dangerous. 

In  the  space  between  the  jetties  are  the  remains  of  the  old  break- 
water, with  about  5  feet  water  over  it.  Boats  must  not  pass  over  this 
dangerous  ground. 

Lights.— See  page  109. 

Supplies. — Supplies  of  all  kinds  are  plentiful,  and  moderate  in 
price.  Pish  may  be  caught  in  abundance,  and  oysters  are  to  be 
obtained  at  low  water  springs. 

Repairs  to  machinery  may  be  effected,  there  being  two  engineering 
firms  here.  Shafts  of  6  to  8  inches  diameter  can  be  turned,  castings 
of  IJ  tons  made,  and  cylinders  of  36  inches  cast  and  bored.  Tugs  are 
available,  and  steam  launches  attend  on  the  shipping.  No  facilities 
for  docking. 

Goal  can  be  obtained  at  about  405.  per  ton ;  3,000  to  4,000  tons 
usually  kept  in  stock.     It  is  shipped  by  means  of  lighters  of  30  to  90 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  of  port  Elizabeth,  No.  641 ;  scale  m  =  4  inohea 


118  ALGOA  BAY ;  POBT  BIiIZABKTH.  [Ohap.  IT. 

tons  burthen.    The  jetties  are  fitted  with  steam  cranes,  lifting  from 
2  to  10  tons,  and  are  connected  by  rails  with  the  coaling  stores. 

Water  is  obtained  from  pipes  at  the  end  of  the  pier,  and  is  put 
alongside  vessels  in  the  bay  at  7^.  6d.  per  250  gallons. 

Oommunioation.— fite  page  8. 

Time  Slgrnal.— A  black  ball  is  dropped  at  port  Elizabeth  lighthouse 
on  the  hill,  at  1  p.m.,  mean  time  at  the  cape  of  Good  Hope,  corre- 
sponding to  llh.  46m.  5'38.  mean  time  at  Greenwich,  every  day, 
Sundays  and  public  holidays  excepted.  If  anything  occurs  to 
prevent  the  ball  dropping  at  the  proper  time,  a  chequered  red  and 
blue  flag  will  be  shown  from  the  upper  window  of  the  lighthouse, 
and  the  ball  will  be  dropped  at  Ih.  5m.  cape  of  Good  Hope  time. 
The  position  of  Lady  Donkin's  monument  (close  to  the  lighthouse)  is 
lat.  33°  57'  43'  S.,  long.  25°  37'  24*  E. 

Anolioraffe.— An  inner  anchorage  oflE  the  town  of  port  Elizabeth 
in  about  6  fathoms  wdler,  grey  sand  over  clay,  may  be  taken  with 
fort  Frederick  bearing  West,  and  Bird  rock  at  Beacon  point  S.  |  E. 
An  outer  anchorage  equally  good  for  large  vessels  is  in  8  fathoms, 
similar  bottom,  with  the  fort  on  same  bearing,  and  Bird  rock  S.  by  W. 

At  night  anchor  with  port  Elizabeth  light  bearing  about  W.  ^  N., 
in  8  fathoms. 

The  port  captain  determines  the  berths  for  merchant  vessels,  and 
ships  of  war  should  take  the  precaution  in  the  summer  season, 
when  East  or  S.E.  gales  may  be  expected,  to  anchor  with  plenty  of 
room  to  veer.  The  holding  ground  is  good,  and  with  the  ordinary 
ground  tackle  of  vessels  of  war,  there  is  not  much  danger  in  riding 
out  these  gales. 

It  is  the  practice  of  merchant  vessels  regularly  trading  for  wool 
cargoes  to  moor  on  arrival,  and  to  strike  their  top-gallant  masts,  and 
unbend  sails.  They  are  found  with  ground  tackle  superior  to 
ordinary  merchant  vessels,  and  usually  ride  out  in  safety  the 
summer  gales  from  the  S.E.  Nevertheless,  in  S.E.  gales  of  unusual 
severity,  vessels  at  times  break  from  their  anchors  and  are  stranded, 
with  loss  of  life.  In  a  S.E.  gale  occuring  on  3lBJb  August,  1888, 
9  vessels  out  of  11,  anchored  in  the  road,  were  driven  ashore.  See 
remarks  on  the  weather,  page  113,  and  par.  5  and  10  of  the  Port 
Instructions  pp.  115,  116. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  port  Elizabeth  at 
3h.  10m.,  and  the  rise  is  6  feet ;  the  tides  are  often  irregular,  being 
acted  upon  by  the  wind.  The  surface  stream  is  uncertain  in  direc- 
tion and  inappreciable. 


Chap,  IV.]  ANCHORAGE — DIRECTIONS— WINDS.  113 

DIRECTIONS.— Coming  from  the  westward  and  having  rounded 
cape  Recife  (page  106)  at  the  distance  of  about  2  miles,  steer  N.  by  E., 
taking  care  to  keep  the  red  beacon  on  cape  Recife  well  open  westward 
of  the  lighthouse,  until  northward  of  the  line  of  the  two  beacons  near 
Beacon  point,  or  Beacon  point  bears  W.  by  N.,  to  avoid  Dispatch  or 
Roman  rock,  when  a  vessel  may  steer  for  the  anchorage. 

There  is  seldom  any  advantage  in  passing  between  Dispatch  rock 
and  the  mainland,  and  no  large  vessel  should  attempt  it. 

A  strong  indraught  will  often  be  felt  after  passing  cape  Recife  and 
Thunderbolt  reef,  and  allowance  must  be  made  for  it  in  passing 
Dispatch  rock. 

At  Night. — ^As  the  light  on  cape  Recife  is  not  visible  to  vessels 
coming  from  the  westward,  when  bearing  southward  of  East,  it  is 
necessary  in  making  the  light,  before  arriving  within  the  distance  of 
5  miles  of  it,  that  it  should  be  brought  to  bear  northward  of  East. 
Round  the  cape  at  a  distance  of  2  to  3  miles,  and  in  not  less  than 
15  fathoms  water,  bearing  in  mind  the  strong  set  towards  the  cape 
and  Thunderbolt  reef,  and  when  the  light  bears  N.W.  steer  N.  by  E., 
taking  care  not  to  enter  the  ray  of  red  light  shown  from  cape  Recife 
lighthouse  ;  when  port  Elizabeth  light  is  seen,  which  will  first  appear 
red,  and  bear  N.W.,  a  vessel  will  be  clear  of  Dispatch  rock,  but 
should  continue  on  across  the  red  into  the  white  light,  which  will 
be  first  seen  bearing  N.W.  by  W.,  and  thence  to  the  road,  steering 
about  N.W.  i  N.,  and  anchoring  in  about  8  fathoms,  with  the  port 
light  bearing  about  W.  J  N. 

In  working  in,  or  coming  from  the  eastward,  a  vessel  should  keep 
in  the  white  light  of  port  Elizabeth.    See  lights,  page  109. 

Leaving. — ^Vessels  leaving  Algoa  bay  and  proceeding  eastward, 
are  recommended  to  take  Bird  island  passages  in  fine  weather,  see 
120. 


WINDS  and  WEATHER.— Easterly  and  S.E.  gales,  which 
alone  are  to  be  apprehended  in  Algoa  bay,  occur  in  the  summer 
months  from  October  to  April ;  the  worst  weather  usually  happening 
during  these  two  months,  that  is  at  the  commencement  and 
close  of  the  season.  In  the  winter  months  the  wind  seldom  blows 
from  these  quarters,  except  in  rare  instances,  when  what  is  called  a 
black  south-easter  comes  on,  with  lain  and  thick  weather,  of  which 
the  appearance  of  the  sky  and  sea  gives  sufficient  warning.  The 
black  south-easters  are  more  frequent  in  spring  (October. and 
November)  ;  they  do  not  last  long  but  at  times  are  violent. 

S.O.  10625.  H 


lU  ALGOA  BAY ;    PORT  BLIZABBTH.  [Chap.  IV. 

The  approach  of  the  Bnmmer  gales  is  to  a  certain  extent  foretold 
by  the  irregular  oscillations  of  the  barometer,  which,  although 
constantly  high,  in  comparison  to  what  it  would  be  under  similar 
circumstances  in  westerly  winds,  falls  before  the  increase  of  wind. 
A  damp  cold  air  prevails,  and  there  is  a  constant  hazy  appearance 
about  the  horizon,  the  upper  parts  of  the  sky  remaining  clear. 
When  signals  to  prepare  for  foul  weather  are  made  from  the 
port  office,  sailing  vessels  with  doubtful  ground  tackle  should  get 
under  way,  making  their  first  tack  towards  St.  Croix  island. 

With  the  gale  at  its  height  a  heavy  and  dangerous  breaking  sea 
rolls  in  ;  but  it  has  been  observed  that  vessels  with  plenty  of  cable 
ride  easily  ;  and,  from  the  strong  easterly  current  which  prevails  near 
the  shore  during  these  gales,  it  is  probable  that  a  powerful  undertow 
assists  to  relieve  the  strain.  It  is  also  stated  that,  should  the  reading 
of  the  barometer  be  30*5,  and  cirrus  clouds  appear,  a  south-easter  will 
set  in  before  24  hours  hare  elapsed  ;  or  if  the  hills  to  the  northward 
of  port  Elizabeth  be  obscured  by  haze  a  gale  from  south-east  may  be 
expected. 

Port  Instructions. — 1.  In  the  case  of  vessels  about  to  discharge 
or  receive  on  board  any  considerable  quantity  of  cargo,  a  convenient 
berth  will  be  pointed  out  by  the  harbour  master,  as  close  to  the 
landing  place  as  the  safety  of  the  vessel  and  other  circumstances  will 
admit.  The  vessel  must  then  be  moored  with  two  bower  anchors, 
with  an  open  hawse  to  the  south-east,  and  special  care  taken  not  to 
overlay  the  anchors  of  other  vessels,  or  in  any  way  to  give  them  a 
foul  berth.  But  all  vessels  not  provided  with  anchors  and  cables 
according  to  Lloyd's  scale  of  tonnage  are  to  be  anchored  to  the 
northward  of  the  other  vessels  until  so  provided. 

2.  In  the  case  of  vessels  touching  for  water  and  refreshments,  they 
may  ride  at  single  anchor,  but  they  must  then  anchor  well  to  the 
northward,  so  as  to  prevent  danger  (in  case  ot  drifting)  to  the  vessels 
moored  ;  and  it  is  particularly  recommended,  when  riding  at  single 
anchor,  to  veer  out  70  or  80  fathoms  of  chain  ;  the  other  bower  cables 
should  be  ranged,  and  the  anchor  kept  in  perfect  readiness  to  let  go. 

3.  Strict  attention  must  be  paid  to  keep  a  clear  hawse  (when 
moored),  the  more  so  when  it  is  probable  the  wind  may  blow  from 
the  south-east ;  and  whether  at  single  anchor  or  moored,  the  sheet 
anchor  should  be  ready  for  immediate  use.  The  situation  of  the 
vessel  must  be  taken  by  landmarks  and  the  depth  of  water ;  and 
should  any  accident  occur  by  which  she  may  drift  from  such 
situation  or  lose  her  anchors,  the  same  must  be  notified  in  writing 
to  the  harbour  master. 


Chap.  IV.]  PORT  INSTRUCTIONS.  115 

4.  It  is  recommended  that  vessels  be  kept  as  snug  as  possible, 
especially  such  as  have  to  remain  some  time  in  the  anchorage,  for 
the  periodical  winds  blow  occasionally  with  much  violence.  Top- 
gallant masts  and  yards  should  be  sent  on  deck,  but  topsails,  courses, 
&c.,  should  be  kept  bent  and  reefed,  until  the  vessel  has  become  so 
much  lightened  as  to  leave  her  no  chance  of  working  out  in  case  of 
parting,  when  they  should  be  uiibent  and  repaired,  if  necessary,  and 
bent  again  as  soon  as  there  is  sufficient  cargo  on  board  to  render  the 
vessel  manageable  under  sail. 

5.  To  prevent  the  north  jetty  being  injured  by  vessels  driving* 
foul  of  it  in  south-east  gales,  it  is  ordered  that  no  sailing  ship  shall 
anchor  to  the  southward  of  a  line  drawn  from  the  harbour  light- 
house through  the  north  jetty  end.  If  from  any  cause  a  vessel 
should  anchor  southward  of  these  lines  she  must  shift  her  berth  in 
accordance  with  these  instructions  as  soon  afterwards  as  circum- 
stances will  permit.  A  green  and  white  light  is  shown  at  the  end 
of  this  north  jetty,  as  a  guide  to  boats  landing  at  night. 

Masters  of  vessels  are  especially  warned  of  the  danger  of  housing 
top-gallant  masts,  instead  of  sending  them  on  deck,  a  practice  which 
disastrous  wrecks  have  shown  to  be  very  likely  to  endanger  vessels, 
by  precluding  the  possibility  of  the  topsails  being  hoisted  to  enable 
them  to  beat  out. 

6.  All  vessels  lying  in  this  port  shall  show  a  light  at  night,  as 
prescribed  in  the  Board  of  Trade  Regulations  for  preventing 
collisions  at  sea. 

7  When  it  becomes  necessary  for  vessels  to  veer  cables  in  a  strong 
breeze,  they  must  always  heave  in  again  to  their  original  scope, 
immediately  on  the  return  of  moderate  weather. 

8.  All  signals  made  from  the  port  office  must  be  answered  from 
the  shipping,  and  strictly  obeyed,  and  any  vessel  disregarding  them 
will  be  reported  to  Lloyd's,  as  also  to  the  owners. 

9.  In  a  case  of-  a  vessel  parting  from  her  anchors,  and  being  unable 
to  work  out,  it  is  recommended  to  run  her  for  the  sandy  beach  to  the 
northward  of  the  town,  directly  in  front  of  the  gashouse,  at  the 
north  end  of  the  sea  wall,  on  the  chimney  of  which,  at  45  feet  above 
the  sea,  a  powerful  gaslight  is  shown  during  S.E.  gales,  as  a  guide  to 
vessels  that  part  from  their  anchors  during  the  night,  keeping  the 
headsails  set  even  after  striking,  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  in 
grounding  the  vessel  firmly.  No  person  should  attempt  to  quit  the 
vessel  after  she  has  taken  the  beach,  until  the  lifeboat  arrives  alongside, 
or  a  communication  is  established  with  the  shore  by  means  of  the 
life  saving  apparatus  or  otherwise. 

S.0,  10626.  H  S 


116  ALGOA  BAY  ;  PORT  BLIZABBTH.      [Chap.  IV. 

10.  On  all  occasions  where  it  may  be  considered  unsafe  to  land,  a 
ball  will  be  hoisted  at  the  yard-arm  of  the  port-office  flagstaff,  and  it  is 
recommended  that  ships'  boats  should  never  attempt  it.  A  red  ball 
is  shown  at  the  north  jetty  when  it  is  dangerous  for  ships'  boats 
to  land. 

Vessels  can  make  their  wishes  known  to  their  agents  in  bad 
weather,  through  the  port  office  by  the  International  Code.  Vessels 
not  having  the  code,  can  make  the  following  signals  with  their 
ensigns  : — 

1.  Ensign  in  the  fore-top  mast  rigging    -  I  am  in  want  of  a  cable. 

2.  Ensign  in  the  main-top  mast  rigging  -  I  am  in  want  of  an  anchor. 

3.  Ensign  in  the  fore  rigging        -        -  I  have  parted  a  bower  cable. 

4.  Ensign  in  the  main  rigging      -        -  I  am  in  want  of  an  anchor 

and  cable. 

5.  Wheft  where  best  seen     -        -        -  Send  off  a  boat. 

The  following  signals  will  be  made  to  vessels  that  maybe  stranded, 
from  the  most  convenient  point : — 

At  night. — By  means  of  transparent  figures. 

By  day, — By  means  of  white  figures  on  a  black  board. 

No.  1.  You  are  earnestly  requested  to  remain  on  board  until 
assistance  is  sent ;  there  is  no  danger  to  life. 

No.  2.  Send  a  line  on  shore,  by  cask,  and  look  out  for  a  line  by 
rocket  or  mortar. 

No.  3.  Secure  the  line,  bend  a  warp  or  hawser  to  it,  for  us  to  haul 
on  shore,  taking  care  to  secure  the  warp  well  on  board. 

No.  4.  Prepare  to  haul  on  board  the  end  of  the  warp,  which  we 
will  send  you  by  means  of  the  line,  and  secure  it  well. 

No.  5.  Lifeboat  will  communicate  at  low  water,  or  as  soon  as 
practicable  ;  have  good  long  lines  ready  for  her,  and  prepare  to  leave 
the  vessel ;  no  baggage  will  be  allowed  in  the  lifeboat. 

No.  6.  Secure  the  warp  to  the  lower  masthead,  bowsprit  end,  or 
some  other  convenient  place,  and  send  a  hauling  line  to  us,  that  we 
may  get  you  on  shore  by  means  of  a  traveller. 

Answers  to  the  above. 

By  day. — ^A  man  will  stand  on  the  most  conspicuous  part  of  the 
vessel,  and  wave  his  hat  three  times  over  his  head. 

By  night. — ^A  light  will  be  shown  over  the  side  of  the  vessel, 
where  best  seen. 


No.  14.  Union  Jack  over  No.  3,  white 
and  red  (vertical) 


Chap.  IV.]  PORT  SIGNALS.  117 

Qbnbral  Signals  to  bb  madb  from  thb  Port  Officb. 

No.  11.  Union  Jack  over  No.  1.  Marryatt,  j  ^        ^^^^^  ^^^^^^ 

white,  pierced  blue.  ) 

No.  12.  Union  Jack  over  No.  2,  blue,  ) 

white,  blue  (horizontal)  ) 

No.  13.  Union  Jack  over  black,  black  )  _      ^         ,    ,       , , 

ball  with  No.  2  below  ) 

Send  top-gallant  masts  on 
deck,  point  yards  to  the 
wind,  and  see  all  clear 
for  working  ship. 
No.  15.  Union  Jack  over  No.  4,  blue  )  Strike  lower  yards  and  top- 
triangular  with  white  cross       )      masts. 
No.  16.  Union  Jack  over    No.  5,    red  \  Hoist  a  light  during  the 

burgee.  )      night. 

No.  17.  Union  Jack  over  No.  6,  trian-  ]  Heave  in  cables  to  the  same 
gular  blue,  yellow,  red  (hori-  I  scope  as  when  first 
zontal)  J      moored. 

No.  18.  Union  Jack  over  black  ball  -        -  Clear  hawse. 

The  above  signals  may  be  also  made  at  night,  by  showing  the 
numbers  prefixed  to  them  in  transparent  figures.  The  answer  will 
be  a  light  at  the  peak. 

Zwartkop  river,  about  5^  miles  north-eastward  of  port  Elizabeth, 
has  6  feet  on  the  bar  at  low  water,  but  the  surf  is  frequently  heavy. 
The  river  is  navigable  for  small  vessels  8  or  9  miles  up.  Vessels  may 
anchor  off  the  Zwartkop,  but  will  feel  the  swell  a  good  deal. 

ST.  OROIX  ISLAND  was  so  named  by  Bartholomew  Diaz,  the 
first  European  who  landed  here.  It  is  about  4  cables  in  length,  north 
and  south,  by  2  cables  in  breadth,  and  the  western  peak  is  195  feet 
high.  Its  surface  is  of  nearly  bare  rock,  steep-to  on  the  north-east 
side,  but  less  so  on  the  opposite  side,  where  there  is  stunted 
vegetation.  Numerous  penguins  and  gulls  resort  here,  and  it  is 
occasionally  used  for  a  temporary  stopping  place  by  sealers  when  in 
search  of  seals,  which  frequent  the  adjacent  rocks,  principally  the 
one  named  Jahleel  island.* 

There  is  fair  anchorage  at  about  3  cables  north  of  St.  Croix  island, 
in  10  fathoms,  sandy  bottom,  with  its  west  peak  bearing  S.  by  E. 
In  this  position  the  heavy  tumbling  sea  caused  by  East  and  S.E. 

•  See  Admiralty  chart :— Algoa  bay,  No.  642. 


118  CAPB  RBOIVB  TO  PORT  ALFRED.  [Chap.  IV. 

gales  is  considerably  broken,  but  the  extent  of  sheltered  anchorage 
is  confined  to  a  small  space  by  the  shape  of  the  island.  It  is  often 
found  that  the  surf  abreast  the  island  and  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Zwartkop  river  is  high  and  dangerous  after  the  prevalence  of  S  W. 
winds,  and  continues  so  for  a  longer  period  than  on  port  Elizabeth 
beach.* 

Brenton  rock,  a  little  more  than  one  mile  south-west  of 
St.  Croix,  is  50  feet  high,  and  does  not  much  exceed  one  cable  in 
length.  It  is  boldest  on  its  southern  side,  where  it  may  be  approached 
within  half  a  cable. 

JaUeel  Island  is  3  miles  westward  of  St.  Croix,  and  about 
half  a  mile  from  shore,  abreast  of  the  Coega  river ;  it  is  about 
1^  cables  in  length,  47  feet  high,  and  may  be  approached  within  one 
cable.    There  is  6  fathoms  water  between  it  and  the  shore. 

Ooega  PlveP  (pronounced  Coohha),  a  little  more  than  5  miles 
from  the  Zwartkop,  is  barred  at  the  mouth,  and  the  water,  which  is 
salt,  flows  into  a  small  lake. 

Sunday  river,  about  9J  miles  eastward  of  the  Coega,  falls  into 
the  sea  close  to  a  remarkable  rock  named  Read*s  monument.!  The 
bed  of  this  river  is  deep  on  the  northern  side,  but  the  surf  beats 
violently  over  the  bar,  which  boats  can  rarely  pass. 

The  Coast  from  Sunday  river  eastward  to  cape  Padrone  is 
formed  by  an  unbroken  and  monotonous  chain  of  sand  hills,  which 
extend  inland*  one  to  1^  miles.  Many  of  these  hills  rise  to  the 
height  of  350  or  450  feet  above  the  sea,  and  are  quite  bare.  At  the 
back  of  the  sand  hills  the  country  rises  into  lofty  elevations  of  1,000 
to  1,200  feet,  covered  with  grass  and  dense  forest  jungle  intermixed, 
but  there  are  no  remarkable  objects  to  distinguish  this  part  of  the 
coast. 

BIRD  ISLANDS.— About  30  miles  eastward  of  cape  Recife, 
and  nearly  5  miles  southward  of  Woody  cape,  are  the  Bird  islands,  a 
cluster  of  low  rocky  islets,  which  would  be  dangerous  to  navigation 
were  it  not  for  the  lighthouse,  which  stands  on  the  largest  of  the 
group  called  Bird  island,  a  name  given  by  the  survivors  of  the 
Doddingtoriy  East  Indiaman,  which  was  wrecked  upon  it  in  1755. 
This  island  is  the  resort  of  numerous  sea  fowl,  and  is  covered  by  an 
inferior  kind  of  guano.     It  is  33  feet  above  the  sea,  about  800  yards 


*  The  inf  ormation  abont  St.  Croix  and  Bird  islands  is  mainly  by  Skead. 
t  So  named  by  Captain  Moresby,  in  1820,  in  remembrance  of  a  midshipman  of 
that  name,  who  perished  with  three  seamen  whilst  surveying  this  ooast. 


Chap.  IV.]  BIRD  ISLANDS— ANCHOBAaX.  119 

long,  and  630  yards  wide.  No  water  is  found  on  it,  save  what  little 
is  left  in  the  hollows  of  the  rocks  after  rain.  Eggs  are  abundant 
at  seasons,  and  a  very  palatable  vegetable,  not  unlike  spinach  to 
the  taste,  grows  on  it.    Fish  are  plentiful.* 

LIGHT.— From  a  light  tower  on  Bird  island,  72  feet  high,  of 
stone  colour,  square  and  turreted,  is  exhibited  at  an  elevation  of 
80  feet  above  the  sea,  a  fixed  red  light,  visible  in  clear  weather  from 
a  distance  of  14  miles. 

Stag  and  Seal  islets.— At  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  to  the 
northward  of  Bird  island  are  Stag  and  Seal  islets  lying  in  an  east 
and  west  direction,  and  connected  at  low  water.  North-eastward  of 
these  islets  are  rocky  patches  extending  east  and  west  over  a  space 
of  three-quarters  of  a  mile,  having  2^  and  3  fathoms  water  ;  the 
middle  rocks  rise  above  water,  and  are  named  North  patch.  These 
dangers  lie  N.E.  by  N.  about  one  mile  from  the  lighthouse. 

At  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  westward  of  Seal  islet  are  five 
black  rocky  islets,  with  a  narrow  passage  between,  having  a  depth  of 
2  fathoms.  It  is  during  very  fine  weather  only  that  these  islets  are 
not  surrounded  with  heavy  breakers. 

Rooks. — South-westward  of  Bird  island  there  are  three  dangerous 
rocks,  named  West  rock,  Doddington  rock,  and  East  reef.  The  two 
former  are  awash,  and  the  latter  has  2^  fathoms  water,  but  the  sea  is 
seldom  so  smooth  as  not  to  break  upon  it.  West  rock  lies  with  Bird 
island  lighthouse  E.  ^  S.  distant  1^  miles  nearly.  From  the  Dodding- 
ton, the  lighthouse  bears  N.E.  f  E.  1^  miles ;  and  from  the  centre 
of  East  reef  N.N.E.  |  E.  IJ  miles.  Close  around  West  and  Dodding- 
ton rockp  the  depths  are  10  to  14  fathoms,  but  East  reef ,  covering 
a  space  of  2  cables  east  and  west,  is  more  dangerous,  and  has  2^  to  3 
fathoms  water  upon  it. 

Oautlon. — Between  and  around  these  rocks  and  islands  the  depths 
are  irregular,  and  during  heavy  weather  a  tremendous  sea  rolls  over  the 
whole  of  this  space,  producing  a  surf  truly  terrific,  the  sea  breaking 
in  8  to  10  fathoms  water  to  seaward  of  the  group.  Altogether,  this 
is  one  of  the  most  dangerous  parts  of  the  coast,  especially  to  a 
stranger,  and  when  doubtful  of  the  vessel's  position,  if  eastward  of 
cape  Recife,  do  not  go  into  less  than  60  fathoms  at  night. 

Anohorage. — ^The  Bird  island  group  affords  indifferent  anchorage 
on  the  northern  side,  the  holding  ground  is  not  good,  and  the  bottom 

*  See  Plan  of  Bird  islands  and  view  on  sheet  of  Algoa  bay,  No.  642. 


120  CAPE  BBCIFB  TO  PORT  ALFRED.  [Chap.  IV. 

is  uneven.    The  best  anchorage  is  with  the  lighthouse  in  line  with 
North  patch,  in  8  to  10  fathoms  water. 

With  S.E.  winds,  the  lighthouse  seen  between  Stag  and  Seal 
islands,  in  10  or  11  fathoms,  is  a  very  good  spot  for  shelter,  but 
should  the  wind  come  strongly  from  the  westward,  it  will  be  found 
necessary  to  shift  berth  to  the  eastward,  anchoring  w4th  the  Black 
rocks  in  line  with  Stag  island,  or  a  little  open  on  either  side  of  it,  in 
from  8  to  10  fathoms.  From  this  latter  position  H.M.S.  Geyser  drove  to 
sea  in  a  heavy  W.S.W.  gale,  which  shows  the  holding  ground  to  be 
bad,  as  she  had  75  fathoms  of  cable  out  at  the  time. 

Landing. — ^Vessels  loading  here  with  guano  usually  anchored  in 
the  last  mentioned  position,  as  it  was  more  convenient  for  their  boats 
to  come  off.  It  frequently  happens  that  there  is  no  landing,  the 
rollers  setting  in  during  calm  weather  as  well  as  in  a  gale.  After 
these  have  subsided,  care  is  necessary  in  landing  as  the  sea  sometimes 
breaks  heavily  and  unexpectedly  right  across  the  entrance  to  the 
space  between  the  islands.  The  boat  must  be  kept  well  to  the  east- 
ward, clear  of  the  shoal  off  the  east  end  of  Stag  island.  The  light- 
house in  line  with  the  first  or  western  rock  that  shows  on  the  white 
guano  patch  at  the  east  end  of  Bird  island  is  the  best  direction  to 
pull  in  upon,  as  it  leads  between  the  breakers  on  the  spit  and  those 
off  the  end  of  Bird  island.    See  sketch  on  chart  No.  642. 

Tides  and  Currents.— In  the  vicinity  of  the  Bird  islands  no 
regular  tidal  stream  was  found,  but  the  rise  is  the  same  as  in  Algoa 
bay.  At  the  anchorage  northward  of  the  group  the  current  sets 
generally  to  the  eastward,  and  at  one  time,  during  a  strong  westerly 
gale,  it  ran  east  at  the  rate  of  1^  knots.  It  was,  however,  upon  two 
other  occasions  of  westerly  gales,  found  setting  to  windward. 

BIRD  ISLAND  PASSAGE.— Directions.— If  bound  from 
Algoa  bay  to  the  eastward,  with  favourable  weather,  the  Bird  island 
passage  is  recommended.  The  channel  is  3  miles  wide  and  clear 
of  danger ;  a  x»essel  will  carry  from  10  to  15  fathoms  through,  and 
may  run  along  the  land  at  a  distance  of  2  miles  the  whole  way  to  the 
Buffalo  river.  By  passing  inside  Bird  islands  the  strong  current  to 
the  south-west  is  avoided. 

Vessels  passing  inside  the  islands  during  the  night,  particularly 
steam  vessels,  are  recommended  to  keep  nearer  to  the  mainland  than 
the  group,  as  the  land  is  higher  and  more  readily  discerned,  and  the 
constant  roar  of  the  surf  more  distinctly  heard  than  the  breakers  on 
the  rocky  reefs  of  the  group.  The  lead  with  care  will  indicate  a  too 
near  approach  to  the  main  shore,  and  12  to  15  fathoms  is  a  safe  depth 


Chap.  IV.]    BIRD  ISLAND  PASSAGB— ASPBCT  OP  COAST.  121 

in  passing.  A  wide  berth  should  be  given  to  cape  Padrone,  oflE  which 
foul  ground  extends  half  a  mile  nearly  from  high  water  mark.  See 
directions  continued,  page  123. 

In  passing  outside  the  group,  no  vessel  should  approach  within 
3  miles  of  the  lighthouse,  as  no  advantage  is  gained  by  it,  and  the 
currents,  though  not  generally  strong,  are  uncertain  and  irregular, 
both  in  strength  and  direction  in  the  vicinity  of  the  group. 

If  proceeding  from  Algoa  bay  to  port  Natal,  steam  vessels  generally 
skirt  the  coast,  but  sailing  vessels  should  keep  about  100  miles  from 
land,  in  order  to  avoid  the  strength  of  the  Agulhas  current. 

THE  COAST.— General  appeapance.— Woody  oape.— The 

first  break  in  the  sandy  feature  of  the  sea  coast  occurs  at  Woody 
cape,  22  miles  eastward  of  Sunday  river,  and  abreast  Bird  islaads. 
At  this  spot  the  sand-hills  are  covered  with  dark  bushes;  they 
present  to  seaward  a  series  of  decayed  sandstone  cliffs,  fronted  by  a 
beach  of  rugged  rock,  which  extends  along  shore  for  2  miles,  when 
the  sand-hills  are  again  met  with,  though  not  so  high  nor  so  bare  as 
those  to  the  westward.    These  reach  as  far  as  cape  Padrone. 

Fresh,  water  is  found  at  Woody  cape,  and  about  cape  Padrone 
(page  123),  welling  out  from  the  base  of  the  sand-hills.  By  digging 
into  the  sand  above  high  water  mark,  fresh  water  may  be  had  nearly 
all  the  way  along  this  portion  of  the  coast. 

From  cape  Padrone  to  Keiskamma  point,  a  distance  of  nearly 
60  miles,  the  coast  is  mostly  backed  with  an  irregular  ridge  of  hills, 
faced  with  sand  to  a  height  of  100  to  250  feet,  with  the  exception  of 
the  first  20  miles,  in  which  space  the  sand  is  much  lower.  The  coast 
is  intersected  with  numerous  streams,  and  the  land  near  the  shore 
presents  a  fine  tract  of  pasture  country  with  large  patches  of 
cultivation. 

Seen  from  the  of&ng  off  cape  Padrone,  the  most  remarkable  features 
are  Nanquas  peak  (985  feet  above  the  sea),  the  high  sand  hills  to  the 
westward  towards  Woody  cape,  and  the  lown'ess  of  the  sand  to  the 
eastward  of  the  point ;  the  peak,  when  seen  from  the  southward, 
appears  flat-topped,  but  proceeding  eastward,  the  peak  gradually 
assumes  a  conical  form,  and  is  the  most  conspicuous  object  on  this  part 
of  the  coast  and  one  that  will  always  be  readily  identified,  being  the 
-only  conical-shaped  hill  of  any  great  height  near  the  coast  for  upwards 
of  100  miles. 

Bokness  hill,  about  3J  miles  eastward  of  Nanquas  peak,  is  a  long 
flat-topped  bushy  hill,  and  is  remarkable,  as  from  this  hill  to 
Qlendower  peak,  about  13  miles  further  on,  the  land  is  much  lower, 


122  CA^  RBOIFB  TO  POBT  AIiFRBD.  [<%ap.  lY. 

very  uneven,  and  intersected  with  numerous  ravines.  When  toler- 
ably near  in,  False  islet  and  Bushmen  river  east  head  become  con- 
spicuous ;  the  former  resembling  as  its  name  implies,  an  islet.  Karega 
and  Kasuga  rivers  are  also  remarkable  ;  and  from  off  the  latter  several 
houses  are  visible  near  its  mouth. 

Thence  to  Kowie  point  the  only  remarkable  sand  is  that  seaward 
of  Glendower  beacon  peak,  and  a  patch  inland  on  the  high  bank  of  a 
stream  westward  of  the  peak ;  the  latter  is  conspicuous  from  a 
position  well  off  shore  to  the  southward  and  westward. 

The  castle-looking  house  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Kowie,  Kowie 
river  itself,  and  the  village  on  the  cultivated  slope  on  the  east  bank, 
as  also  the  extent  of  high  sand-hills  immediately  east  of  the  river, 
the  high  head  over  Riet  point,  Qroefontein  head,  together  with 
Nanquas  and  Glendower  peaks  to  the  westward,  serve  to  identify  this 
coast. 

The  high  hills  at  Bathurst,  and  the  range  of  mountains  in  the 
vicinity  of  Grahams  town,  are  also  conspicuous  from  seaward.  From 
Riet  point  to  Kleinemond  river  the  sand-faced  hills  become  again 
low,  as  also  the  land  behind  ;  about  midway  are  the  Black  rocks  or 
Three  Sisters,  conspicuous  when  within  7  or  8  miles  of  the  coast. 

Proceeding  eastward  to  Great  Fish  point  sand-faced  hills  become 
high,  and  when  within  about  1^  miles  of  the  point  there  is  a  remark- 
able bare-topped  sand-hill  which  may  be  easily  recognised  10  or  12 
miles  off  shore.    Great  Fish  point  is  not  prominent. 

Thence  to  Fish  river  the  coast  is  comparatively  low  as  well  as  the 
land  behind,  which  is  an  extensive  grassy  plain  intersected  with 
numerous  ravines,  and  studded  with  patches  of  mimosa  bush.  The 
head  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  is  peak-shaped,  covered  with 
dark  bush,  and  is  remarkable  from  seaward. 

Farther  on  to  Stalwart  point  the  sand-faced  hills  are  tolerably  high, 
and  about  midway  2  or  3  miles  inland  are  two  remarkable  peaked  grassy 
hills,  near  the  village  of  Maitland,  and  are  visible  from  all  directions. 
This,  with  the  dark  head  over  Stalwart  point,  Fish  river  head,  the 
bare-topped  sand-hill  west  of  Fish  point.  Black  rocks,  and  Groen- 
fontein  head,  renders  this  part  easy  to  be  distinguished.  Proceeding 
eastward,  the  Umtata  river  sand  hills,  the  Bequa  river  sand,  with  the 
high  bare-topped  sand  hill  westward  of  it,  westward  of  which  again 
is  a  dark  patch  of  bush  running  smne  distance  down  the  face  of  the  hill, 


*  See  Admiralty  chart :— Cape  St.  Francis  to  Waterloo  bay,  No.  2,085.  The 
information  from  cape  Padrone  to  Baahee  river  is  chiefly  by  Nav.-Lieut  W.  E. 
Archdeacon,  B.N.,  1868. 


Chap.  IV.]       ASPHOT  OP  COAST— GBNBRAL  DIBBCTIONS.  123 

together  with  a  round  topped  grassy  hill  527  feet  high  (N.W.  about 
4  miles  from  Bequa  river)  named  Schietkop,  are  remarkable  features 
to  identify  the  coast. 

Patos  Kop,  a  square  flat-topped  grassy  hill,  900  feet  in  height  (on 
the  west  end  of  which  is  a  remarkable  single  bushy-topped  tree)  rises 
north-westward  from  Kieskamma  point,  and  nearly  9  miles  from 
the  nearest  coast.  This  hill,  with  the  round-topped  hill  N.N.W.  of 
Kieskamma  point,  the  head  close  over  the  point  with  the  house  on  its 
summit,  the  bushy  sand  hillock  near  the  extreme  of  the  point,  and 
the  conspicuous  bare  sand  westward  of  the  point,  as  well  as  the  Bequa 
and  Umtata  sand  hills,  serve  to  identify  this  locality. 

GENERAL  DIRECTIONS. — From  cape  Padrone  (directions 
p.  121)  to  Bokness  river  the  shore  should  not  be  approached  nearer 
than  2  miles,  beyond  this  to  Kieskamma  point  not  nearer  than  one 
mile,  bearing  in  mind  to  give  the  rocks  off  Karega  river.  Fountain 
rocks  off  Kowie  river,  Riet  point.  Great  Fish  point.  Stalwart  point, 
Madagascar  reef  off  Bequa  river,  and  the  rock  S.W.  of  Kieskamma 
point  a  wide  berth. 

At  night  or  in  thick  weather  do  not  stand  into  less  than  40  fathoms, 

The  100-fathoms  line  of  soundings  is  about  22  miles  off  cape 
Padrone  but  to  the  eastward  gradually  lessens  its  distance  from  the 
coast ;  abreast  of  Kieskamma  point  it  is  about  13  miles  distant.  The 
edge  of  the  bank  is  steep,  dropping  from  100  to  200  and  300  fathoms, 
in  less  than  a  mile.  The  soundings  on  the  bank,  which  is  flat,  are 
tolerably  regular,  the  bottom  being  generally  composed  of  sand  and 
shells,  though  to  the  westward  it  is  frequently  found  with  black  specks. 

During  westerly  gales  the  sea  is  much  smoother  on  than  off  the 
bank,  the  edge  of  which  is  thus  generally  well  defined. 

Ourrents. — The  Agulhas  current  off  this  part  of  the  coast  from 
the  Bashee  river  westward  generally  sets  W.  by  S.,  or  West,  and 
varies  in  strength  from  one  knot  near  the  shore  to  3^  or  4  knots  an 
hour  near  the  edge  of  the  bank. 

A  weak  current  sets  to  the  eastward  near  the  coast  at  uncertain 
times.  Close  to  the  shore  an  eddy  current  often  sets  to  the  eastward, 
but  its  rate  seldom  exceeds  half  a  knot  an  hour,  see  page  23. 

In  calm  weather,  and  off  the  edge  of  the  bank  southward  and  east- 
-ward  of  cape  Padrone,  the  current  in  places  has  been  observed 
running  like  a  race  or  overfall. 

CAPE  PADRONE,  situated  8  miles  eastward  of  Woody  cape,  is 
formed  of  sand  cliffs,  exceeding  100  feet  in  height.  The  sand  hills 
extend  nearly  a  mile  back  from  the  cape  and  rise  to  a  ridge  of  bushy 


124  CAPE  RBOIFB  TO  PORT  ALFRBD.  [Chap.  IV. 

hills  340  f  det  in  height,  at  the  back  of  which  again  the  land  rises, 
and  on  which  may  be  seen  two  or  three  houses. 

The  beach  is  fringed  with  rocks,  extending  half  a  mile  on  each 
side  of  the  point ;  off  the  point  are  several  outlying  rocks,  some  of 
which  show  at  low  water.  The  outer  sunken  rock  lies  S.E.  ^  S. 
nearly  one  mile  from  the  high  part  of  the  sand  cliff  on  the  point, 
and  4  cables  from  the  shore.  The  sea  at  times  breaks  with  great 
force  on  these  rocks. 

At  one  mile  east  of  cape  Padrone,  is  a  sunken  rock,  which  generally 
breaks  ;  and  off  the  sandy  point  eastward  of  it  breakers  extend  about 
half  a  mile.  At  one  mile  further  east  is  a  rocky  point,  with  a  sunken 
rock  at  a  short  distance  off ;  outside  the  rock  are  several  patches 
of  shoal  ground,  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  heavy  weather.  The 
outer  patch  lies  South  1^  miles  from  the  point,  with  cape  Padrone 
bearing  N.W.  |  W.  3|  miles. 

The  shore  continues  fringed  with  rocks,  and  at  a  distance  of  2;^ 
miles  eastward  of  the  sandy  point  is.  another  long  ridge  extending 
nearly  3  cables  from  the  beach.  The  breakers  extend  in  bad  weather 
off  this  part  about  one  mile  from  the  shore,  and  continue  at  about 
that  distance  for  2  miles  to  the  eastward  ;  the  shoalest  spot  appears 
to  be  W.  by  S.  J  S.  2^^  miles  from  False  islet.  From  abreast  these 
breakers,  the  shore  trends  eastward  to  Bokness  river,  the  mouth  of 
which  is  closed.  The  coast  ridge  here  attains  a  height  of  100  feet, 
is  covered  with  bush,  and  sand  extends  some  distance  up  its  sea 
face.    From  Bokness  river  to  False  islet  the  shore  is  sandy. 

FALSE  ISLET  is  a  dark  looking  head,  85  feet  high,  extending 
in  an  east  and  west  direction  half  a  mile  ;  it  is  nearly  perpendicular 
on  its  sea  face,  and  is  connected  with  the  main  land  by  a  series  of 
sand  hillocks,  the  main  ridge  of  beach  hills  being  half  a"  mile  north- 
ward of  it.  When  seen  from  seaward  the  head  shows  out  against  the 
white  sand  inshore,  and  resembles  an  islet. 

There  are  several  rocks  around  False  islet  which  show  at  low 
water,  the  outer  one  bearing  S.E.  J  E.  distant  3  cables  from  the  south- 
west or  highest  part  of  the  islet.  At  one  mile  farther  eastward  is 
another  point,  a  dark  looking  rock,  about  50  or  60  feet  high. 
Between  the  two  points  is  a  small  sandy  bight  with  several  outlying 
rocks,  and  S.S.E.  |  E.  distant  4  cables,  from  the  high  rock  are  some 
rocks  awash  at  low  water. 

Ueef, — J^  reef  upon  which  the  sea  breaks  heavily,  formerly  reported 
by  several  coasters,  was  seen  from  H.M.S.  Flirty  1886  ;  it  lies  from 
one  to  2  miles  S.  by  E.  to  S.S.E.  of  False  islet. 


Chap.  IV.]  CAPB  PADRONE — SHIP  ROOK.  125 

Bushmen  River. — The  mouth  of  Bushmen  river  is  choked 
with  sand  and  rocks  but  at  high  water  the  tide  runs  in.  The  southern 
point  of  the  river  is  remarkable,  being  formed  by  a  high  cliff  head 
extending  3  cables  in  an  east  and  west  direction  with  three  irregular 
lumps  on  it ;  it  is  connected  with  the  main  beach  ridge  by  a  neck  of 
sand,  against  the  back  ground  of  which  the  dark  rock  shows  out 
conspicuously. 

Several  patches  of  rocks  extend  from  Bushmen  river  to  beyond  the 
mouth  of  the  Karega.  The  eastern  one  is  about  one  cable  in  extent, 
awash  at  low  water,  with  the  highest  part  of  the  point  bearing 
W.  by  N.  I  N.  If  miles,  and  Karega  river  mouth  N.N.W.  f  W.  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  ;  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  N.  ^  E.  from  this  patch 
is  another,  also  showing  at  low  water,  and  about  2  cables  long  in  an 
east  and^west  direction ;  the  sea  breaks  for  a  considerable  distance 
outside  these  patches. 

Between  Bushmen  and  Karega  rivers  the  beach  ridge  is  about 
180  feet  in  height,  covered  with  bush  and  partially  faced  with  sand. 

KaregU  river  is  generally  open  at  high  water  ;  off  it  are  the 
patches  of  rock  just  described.  At  half  a  mile  eastward  of  the 
Karega  is  a  point  with  three  black  rocks.  The  beach  ridge  close 
behind  is  190  feet  high,  covered  with  bush,  and  sand  extends  a  short 
way  up  its  sea  face. 

The  shore  eastward  for  2  miles  is  fringed  with  rocks,  the  coast  ridge 
rising  to  a  height  of  225  feet.  At  this  distance  is  a  dark  bushy  head 
150  feet  high,  and  immediately  inland  is  a  dark  bushy  conspicuous 
hill  346  feet  above  the  sea.  Off  this  part  of  the  coast  sunken  rocks 
extend  off  nearly  2  cables. 

Kasugra  river  is  closed  at  its  mouth  ;  there  are  some  houses  on 
the  banks  of  the  river,  visible  from  seaward.  From  the  entrance 
of  Kasuga  river  to  the  next  point  eastward  the  distance  is  IJ  miles  ; 
the  point  projects  from  the  beach  ridge  of  hills,  and  forms  a  dark 
bushy  head,  111  feet  high.  The  beach  is  rocky,  and  off  it  are  several 
sunken  rocks  2  cables  distant. 

SMp  rook.— About  3  miles  eastward  of  Kasuga  river  is  Ship 
rock,  a  black  point  50  feet  high.  The  coast  ridge  of  hills  are  about 
400  feet  high,  and  sand  extends  up  the  face  of  the  hills,  against  which 
Ship  rock  shows  conspicuously. 

From  Ship  rock  to  Kowie  point  is  about  3^  miles  ;  the  beach  at 
low  water  is  fringed  with  rocks.  For  2  miles  from  Ship  rock  the  coast 
ridge  continues  about  the  same  height  and  distance  from  the  beach,  the 
sand  extending  some  wav  up  its  sea  face  in  an  irregular  manner ; 


126  KOWIB  RIVBR— PORT  ALFRBD.  [Ohap.  IV. 

the  ridge  then  closes  to  the  beach  with  a  sand  streak  running  up 
to  behind  the  ridge,  which  from  the  westward  is  remarkable. 

About  two-thirds  of  a  mile  westwaid  of  Kowie  point  and  a  short 
distance  from  the  coast  are  two  sunken  rocks. 

GLENDOWER  PEAK.— Landmark.— At  the  back  of  the 
beach  ridge  is  Glendower  peak,  a  high  grassy  head  622  feet  above 
the  sea ;  it  is  tolerably  steep  on  both  sides,  its  western  dro4)ping  to  a 
small  stream,  which  having  no  outlet  soaks  through  the  beach  ridge. 
There  is  a  conspicuous  sand  patch  on  the  high  part  of  the  west  bank 
of  the  stream,  about  a  mile  from  the  coast. 

A  stone  beacon,  50  feet  high,  pyramidal  in  shape,  upper  part 
black,  loww  white,  has  been  erected  on  Glendower  peak,  in  order  to 
distinguish  this  monotonous  part  of  the  coast 

Kowie  point. — From  Kowie  point,  which  is  low,  the  shore 
trends  eastward  about  1^  miles  to  Salt  Vlei  point,  westward  of  which 
is  Salt  Vlei  bay  ;  to  about  midway  the  sandy  beach  is  fringed  with 
rocks,  at  which  distance  there  are  several  outlying  rocks  2  cables 
from  the  shore.  At  half  a  mile  in-shore  is  a  black  bushy  hill, 
300  feet  high. 

A  rivulet  runs  into  Salt  Ylei  bay ;  the  land  here  is  low  and  grassy, 
gradually  sloping  down  to  the  beach,  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from 
which  is  a  large  farmhouse,  and  on  a  small  rise  to  seaward  of  the 
house  is  a  flagstaff. 

Salt  Vlei  point  is  low  and  rocky,  and  near  its  extremity  is  a 
small  bushy  sand  hillock,  33  feet  high,  connected  with  the  main 
beach  ridge  by  a  neck  of  sand.  From  the  sandy  point  to  the  east- 
ward rocks  extend  to  the  distance  of  one  cable  ;  eastward  of  the 
point  is  a  small  bight  fringed  with  rocks. 

The  beach  ridge  of  hills  extends  f o  Kowie  river,  to  which  they 
drop  abruptly  ;  they  vary  from  60  to  140  feet  in  height,  are  covered 
with  bush,  and  the  highest  part  is  near  the  river. 

KOWIE  RIVER. — This  river  rises  near  Grahams  town,  40  miles 
from  its  mouth,  and  is  navigable  for  small  vessels  for  about  5  miles, 
and  for  boats  for  upwards  of  16  miles,  the  scenery  being  exceedingly 
beautiful  and  picturesque,  the  banks  wooded  to  the  water's  edge, 
varied  in  the  upper  reaches  above  Mansfield  with  grassy  slopes  and 
high  steep  cliffs.  Game  is  abundant,  herds  of  buffalo  still  exist  in 
Kowie  bush,  and  bucks  are  numerous,  particularly  the  bosch  bok  and 
blue  bok.  Fish  of  excellent  quality  is  also  abundant  in  the  river, 
and  off  the  Fountain  rocks  at  the  entrance.    The  Kowie  is  one  of 


Chap.  rV.]  LANDMARK— TOWN— BBACONS.  127 

the  f avotirite  watering  places  on  the  coast,  the  warm  Agulhas  current 
running  down  the  coast  from  the  southern  tropic,  moderating  the 
cold  of  winter — ^frost  being  almost  unknown — ^and  rendering  it  a 
genial  resort  for  invalids.* 

The  river  originally  emptied  itself  into  an  extensive  sandy  basin, 
the  water  thence  forcing  its  way  through  a  narrow  channel  on  the 
eastern  side  into  the  sea.  Its  course,  however,  has  been  diverted  at 
a  point  about  a  mile  from  the  entrance,  and  now  runs  along  close  to 
the  western  shore  between  two  stone  embankments,  of  an  average 
breadth  of  70  yards.  From  abreast  the  signal  staff,  a  stony  bank 
extends  30  yards  into  the  river,  and  its  extreme  is  marked  by  a 
tripod  beacon.  Vessels  of  13  to  14  feet  draught  can  enter  the  river 
at  high  water. 

PORT  ALFRED  is  a  seaport  town  situated  on  both  banks  of 
the  Kowie  river,  and  connected  by  railwayf  to  Grahams  town,  36  miles 
distant ;  it  possesses  many  advantages  as  a  harbour  for  coasting  and 
other  small  vessels.  Here  are  custom  and  bonding  warehouses,  and 
other  buildings,  with  every  facility  for  landing  and  shipping  goods, 
the  railway  extending  along  the  quays  ;  also  lighters  for  loading,  and 
discharging  at  the  outer  anchorage^  Vessels,  up  to  300  tons  burthen, 
can  enter  the  port,  and  those  of  8  to  9  feet  draught  can  lie  alongside 
the  wharves,  over  a  mud  bottom. 

Population,  1885,  about  1,000.  During  that  year,  18  steamers  and 
9  sailing  vessels  entered  the  river,  of  the  aggregate  tonnage  of 
6,000  tons,  but  since  that  period  the  greater  portion  of  the  exports 
from  this  district,  consisting  of  cereals,  hides,  horns,  and  skins,  has 
been  transferred  to  Port  Elizabeth  and  East  London.  Supplies  &c., 
see  p.  130, 

LIQHT. — On  the  western  pier,  and  at  an-  elevation  of  40  feet 

above  high  water,  is  a  fixed  green  harbour  light,  visible  seaward  in 

clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  about  6  miles. 

Beacons, — Eastward  of  mount  Cock  house,  west  bank  of  river: 

is  a  flagstaff  painted  white,  which  forms  the  inner  mark  for  the  bar. 

The  outer  beacon  is  S.S.E.  |  E.,  176  yards  from  the  flagstaff  on  a 

small  bushy  sand  hillock,  and  is  formed  with  two  poles  of  cross  bars 

(resembling  a  ladder),  above  which  is  a  sliding  pole  with  a  ball  on 

the  top,  the  whole  painted  red. 

The  port  office  signal  staff  stands  on  the  west  wall  at  about 

350  yards  from  the  outer  end. 

*  8ee  Admiralty  plan :— Entrance  to  Kowie  river  (port  Alfred),  No.  1,223 ;  aoale 
f»  =  6  inches. 

t  Bailway  traffic  was  suspended  (probably  temporarily  only)  in  1S88. 


128  KOWIK  RIVBB— PORT  ALFRED.  [Chap.  IV. 

The  bap  of  Kowie  river  commences  in  about  3  fathoms,  at  the 
distance  of  one  cable  outside  the  extremity  of  the  west  pier,  and  the 
water  gradually  shoals  to  a  least  depth  of  about  8  feet  at  low  water 
springs.  The  bar  is  sand  over  rock  ;  the  passage  across  the  bar  varies 
considerably  in  direction,  position,  and  depth.  Westerly  and  south- 
westerly gales  send  in  a  heavy  swell,  which  drives  quantities  of  sand 
into  the  river,  a  deposit  which  the  ebb  tide  does  not  immediately 
remove.  In  fine  weather,  however,  vessels  of  13  to  14  feet  draught, 
with  the  assistance  of  a  pilot,  may  cross  the  bar. 

The  ROADSTEAD.— Dangers.— A  shoal  with  2^  fathoms  at 
low  water,  and  3^  fathoms  inside  of  it,  lies  with  Bushy  hillock  on  Salt 
Vlei  point  bearing  W.  by'N.  ^  N.,  distant  8  cables,  and  the  signal 
staff  on  the  west  pier  head  N.  ^  E.  5  cables.  Another  shoal  with 
3|  fathoms,  and  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  bad  weather,  lies  with  the 
extremity  of  the  west  pier  head  bearing  N.W.  by  N.,  distant  a  third 
of  a  mile,  and  is  near  the  line  for  crossing  the  bar.  These  shoals  are 
just  without  the  shallow  ground  which  extends  in  places  nearly  half 
a  mile  from  the  shore,  on  the  west  side  of  entrance  to  the  Eowie 
river. 

Fountain  rooks  cover  a  space  of  nearly  three-quarters  of  a 
mile,  east  and  west,  and  more  than  4  cables  north  and  south.  Some 
of  these  rocks  are  awash  at  high  water,  others  uncover  at  half  tide, 
and  the  sea  always  breaks  on  the  outer  patches. 

The  south-western  of  these  dangers  has  1^  feet  water,  and  the 
sea  always  breaks.  It  lies  with  the  signal  staff  on  the  west  pier 
bearing  N.W.  |  W.,  distant  1^^  miles,  and  Atherstone  point 
N.N.E.  i  E.  7  cables  nearly.  The  south-eastern  patch,  1^  cables 
eastward  of  the  sou^h- western,  has  3  feet  water,  the  sea  always 
breaks,  and  it  lies  with  the  signal  staff  bearing  N.W.  by  W. 
westerly,  distant  IJ  miles.  There  are  depths  of  5^  to  8  fathoms 
close  to  these  patches,  and  from  1^  to  6  fathoms  between  the 
rocks  in  general. 

Jansens  rook  lies  E.S.E.  southerly  3i  cables  from  the  east 
dry  rock  of  the  Fountain  group,  and  is  awash  at  low  water,  with 
5  fathoms  close  eastward  and  9  fathoms  southward  of  it. 

Olearing  marks. — The  quarries  on  the  east  bank  of  Kowie 
river,  bearing  N.N.W.  J  W.,  and  kept  open  west  of  the  ridge 
rising  to  the  old  custom  house  leads  westward  of  Fountain  rocks ; 
and  the  gap  in  the  cliffs  near  the  outlet  of  Rufane  river,  bearing 
N.N.E.  i  E.,  leads  eastward  of  the  rocks. 


jOhap.  lY.J  ANOHQBAOBr-DIBSOTIQNS.  ;129 

^.  There  is  a  channel  of  3^  &thoms  water  between  Fonntian  rock^ 
and  the  Bhallow  water  extending  from  the  shore,  the  leading  mark 
for  which  is  the  Sand  patch  just  open  south  of  Bushy  sand  hillock 
on  Salt  yiei  point,  bearing  West.  The  sand  patch  is  difficult  to 
make  out,  and  therefore  vessels  should  not  use  this  passage.     - 

Directions. — ^Vessels  approaching  Kowie  river  from  the  west- 
ward may*  identify  its  position  by  the  beacon  on  Qlendower  peak, 
and  by  the  conspicuous  sand  hill  under  it,  at  3^  miles  westward 
of  the  river ;  the  adjacent  country  consists  of  smooth  grassy  slopes 
dotted  with  bush  and  fronted  with  a  line  of  sand  hillocks.  From 
the  eastward,  Black  rocks  or  Three  Sisters,  7  miles  eastward  of 
the  river,  will,  with  the  houses  and  flagstaffs  at  port  Alfred,  serve 
to  identify  the  land-fall.  See  page  132.  Having  arrived  off  the 
river,  distant  about  2  miles,  the  anchorage  may  be  steered  for  on 
the  line  of .  leading  beacons  for  crossing  the  baf,  viz. :  Mount  Cocks 
flagstaff  in  line  with  red  beacon,  bearing  N.N.W.  |  W.,  and  anchoring 
in  about  15  fathoms  as  hereafter  recommended,  observing  the 
clearing  marks  for  keeping  westward  of  Fountain  rocks. 

Vessels  that  can  cross  the  bar,  will,  by  signalling  to  the  port 
office,  obtain  all  information  about  the  state  of  the  bar,  and  as 
soon  as  it  is  possible,  a  pilot  will  be  sent  out,  but  a  stranger  should 
not  attempt  to  cross  the  bar  without  one.    See  signals,  page  130. 

Anolioragre. — The  outer  anchorage  for  large  vessels,  off  Kowie 
river  is  in  from  15  to  17  fathoms,  sandy  bottom,  with  port  office 
signal  staff  from  N.N.W.  to  N.N.W.  ^  W.,  westward  of  this  the 
bottom  is  rocky.  The  inner  anchorage,  in  9  fathoms,  lies  half 
mile  northward  of  it,  but  the  sea  breaks  here  in  bad  weather. 

The  bottom  is  rocky,  interspersed  with  patches  of  sand,  and  the 
holding  ground  is  not  good.  Large  vessels  should  veer  to  80  or  100 
fathoms  of  cable,  then  they  will  ride  easily.  The  cables  should  be 
ready  for  slipping,  and  vessels  prepared  to  put  to  sea,  at  the 
commencement  of  a  gale  (the  indications  of  which  are  pointed 
out  by  signal  at  the  port  office),  and  more  especially  at  the  com- 
mencement of  black  south-easters.  The  gales  seldom  blow  directly 
on  shore. 

In  case  of  putting  to  sea,  masters  of  vessels  should  bear  in  mind 
that  the  Agulhas  current  sets  to  the  westward  frequently  at  the  rate 
of  80  to  90  miles  per  day,  and  that  moderate  shelter  may  be  found 
under  the  Bird  islands  in  Algoa  bay. 

Supplies. — Provisions  are  plentiful,  but  water  is  scarce  and  of 
indifferent  quality.  Ballast  is  obtainable  in  the  river,  free  of  chaige,. 
but  a  fixed  charge  is  made  for  conveying  it  to  the  roadstead.  A 
8.0. 10626.  I 


130  KOWIB  mVKB— PORT  ALFRBD.  [Chap.  lY. 

small  quantity  of  coal  is  kept  for  railway  purposes ;  the  railway 
company  have  also  a  fitting  shop,  where  repairs  to  engines  of  about 
50  horse  power  have  been  made.*  There  is  a  government  slip  capable 
of  taking  a  vessel  of  150  tons  burthen,  or  of  7^  feet  draught,  and 
the  derriek  on  the  wharf  is  capable  of  lifting  7^  tons.  There  is  also 
a  good  lifeboat  here. 

The  Albany  hospital  at  Grahams  town  receives  patients. 

GommiLnioatlon. — Port  Alfred  is  in  telegraphic  and  railway 
communication  with  the  towns  of  the  colony.  The  Union,  Castle, 
and  other  lines  of  steamers  call  here.    See  page  8. 

Pilots  for  the  river  are  always  in  readiness  with  the  tug  ;  there 
is  no  charge  for  pilotage,  but  a  fixed  tarifE  for  the  use  of  the  tug. 

Time  Signal. — ^A  time  ball  is  dropped  from  the  signal  staff,  near 
the  inner  end  of  the  west  pier,  by  electricity  from  the  Cape  Observa- 
tory, at  Ih.  Om.  Os.,  Cape  mean  time,  equivalent  to  23h.  46m.  05'5s. 
Greenwich  mean  time.    Latitude  of  signal  staff,  33**  36'  9'  S. 

Signals. — The  International  code  of  signals  is  used  at  the  port 
ofl&ce,  with  which  communications  can  be  kept  up.  Weather  reports 
are  posted  up  daily. 

Port  of&ce  signals. — ^A  number  (indicated  by  one  flag)  is  given  to 
every  vessel  upon  arrival. 
Black  ball  over  union  jack     -    Veer  to   a  whole  cable,  and  see 

second  anchor  clear. 
Black  ball  under  union  jack  -    Put  to  sea  at  once,  get  an  offing. 
Union  jack  at  masthead  -    Send  down  top-gallant  yards  and 

masts,  point  yards  to  the  wind, 
and  see   all   clear  for  working 
ship. 
Black  ball  over  the  ensign      -    Bar  cannot  be  crossed. 
A  blue  flag  will  be  shown  at  the  west  yard-arm  of  the  flagstaff  on 
the  flood  tide,  and  a  red  flag  on  the  ebb. 
At  night. — A  rocket  fired  across  the  river  -    Bar  cannot  be  crossed. 
Vessels  not  having  the  International  code  of  signals  can  make  the 
following  signals  with  their  ensigns,  namely  : — 

1.  Ensign  in  fore  topmast  rigging     -    In  want  of  a  cable. 

2.  Ensign  in  main  topmast  rigging    -    In  want  of  an  anchor. 

3.  Ensign  in  fore  rigging  -        -    Parted  a  bower  cable. 

4.  Ensign  in  main  rigging         -        -    In  want  of  anchor  and  cable. 

5.  Whef t  where  best  seen  -        -    Want  assistance  or  a  tug. 

*  See  second  foot  note,  page  127. 


Chap,  IV.]  SUPPLIES— SIGNALS— WINDS.  131 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  full  and  change  at  Kowie  river  at 
3h.  50  m. ;  springs  rise  5^  feet,  neaps  rise  3  feet.  The  tides  are 
influenced  by  the  wiijds,  varying  from  6  inches  to  a  foot ;  they  fall 
with,  easterly  winds  and  rise  with  westerly  winds,  and  at  high  water, 
in  southerly  gales,  a  heavy  swell  and  undertow  are  experienced  up  the 
river.    The  influence  of  the  tide  reaches  12  miles  up  the  river. 

Current. — No  regular  ebb  and  flow  of  tide  is  felt  in  the  roadstead, 
but  a  current  often  sets  against  the  wind,  and  assists  vessels  in  riding 
out  strong  gales.  Vessels  cant  a  point  or  two  according  to  the  strength 
of  the  wind,  but  scarcely  ever  lie  broadside  to  the  wind. 

With  westerly  winds  and  fine  weather  the  current,  at  about  2  or 
3  miles  off  shore,  sets  invariably  to  the  eastward  ;  after  a  day  or  two  of 
.strong  easterly  winds  it  runs  to  the  westward,  but  only  for  a  short  time. 
Winds. — The  prevailing  winds  in  the  summer  months  are  from 
East  to  S.E.,  and  in  the  winter  months  from  West  to  S.W. ;  sailing 
vessels  can  enter  the  river  with  the  winds  from  W.S. W.  round  by  south 
to  E.N.E.,  but  the  wind  is  seldom  to  the  northward  of  East  except 
during  the  summer  months  in  the  morning  until  8  or  9  o'clock,  when 
it  comes  in  from  the  S.E.  for  the  day,  and  is  a  smooth- water  wind. 

COAST. — From  Kowie  river  the  sandy  beach  extends  eastward 
rather  more  than  one  mile  to  Atherstone  point,  thence  5  miles  to 
Biet  point.  This  coast  is  low,  sandy,  and  in  places  fringed  with 
rocks.  The  hills  at  half  a  mile  inland  rise  to  a  height  of  from  230  to 
350  feet.  Rufane  river  lies  one  mile  eastward  of  Atherstone  point, 
but  its  mouth  is  closed  up.  The  hills  between  which  the  Rufane 
river  runs  are  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  beach,  the  eastern  being 
the  higher  rises  to  a  height  of  265  feet,  covered  with  bush,  and  sand 
extends  some  way  up  its  sea-  face.  Half  a  mile  westward  of  Riet  point 
are  some  outlying  rocks,  at  2  cables  distance.  The  shore  here  is 
backed  by  hills  from  345  to  380  feet  high,  and  faced  with  sand  in 
places ;  their  summits  are  covered  with  bush  ;  at  one  mile  westward 
of  Riet  point,  immediately  behind  the  coast  ridge,  is  a  hill,  486  feet 
high,  and  when  seen  from  east  or  west  is  conspicuous.* 

Riet  (Reed)  Point  reef. — Riet  point  is  low  and  sandy, 
and  sunken  rocks  extend  i  cables  from  it.  The  sea  breaks  a 
con^derable  distance  off  the  point,  and  vessels  should  give  it  a  wide 
berth  in  passing ;  Glendower  peak  beacon,  bearing  W.  by  N.  f  N., 
leads  nearly  one  mile  seaward  of  the  rocks ;  f  at  1 J  miles  eastward 
of  the  point  are  the  Black  rocks  (Three  Sisters)  ;  near  the  middle  of 
the  bight  between,  Riet  river  drains  out. 

*  See  Admiralty  chart  :--Gape  St.  Francis  to  Waterloo  bay,  Nc.  2085. 
t  See  View  on  chart,  No.  2,085, 
S.0. 10625.  I  2 


132  PORT  ALFRED  TO  BAST  LONDON.      [Chap.  lYl 

Blaok  rooks  or  Tliree  Sisters  are  connected  with  the  shore 
by  a  narrow  neck  of  land  ;  they  show  .conspicnonsly  against  the 
white  sand  behind,  and  appear  like  an  island.  The  central  one  is 
50  feet  high,  and  on  their  sea  side  they  are  nearly  perpendicular. 

Eastward  of  the  Black  rocks  are  several  outlying  sunken  rocks, 
the  outer  one  lying  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E.,  distant  4  cables  from  the  highest 
Black  rock,  and  2  cables  ofE  shore. 

At  6  cables  beyond  the  black  rocks  is  a  low  sandy  point,  with 
outlying  rocks,  extending  3  cables  in  a  S.  by  E.  direction,  beyond 
which  the  sea  breaks  for  a  considerable  distance.  The  hills  at  the 
back  of  this  coast  gradually  rise,  and  at  a  distance  of  2  miles  are 
about  300  feet  in  height,  and  cultivated. 

The  Kleinemond  rivers  lie  about  one  mile  eastward  of  Black 
rocks.  The  sandy  mouths  of  these  two  rivers,  which  are  generally 
closed,  are  separated  by  a  narrow  strip  of  land,  and  at  a  short 
distance  off  appear  as  one  river  with  two  arms  ;  they  traverse  a  low 
country,  covered  with  grass  and  patches  of  bush.  The  hill  on  the 
east  side  of  the  river  is  177  feet  high,  and  in  front  of  it  is  a  small 
patch  of  rocks  extending  from  the  beach,  and  about  midway  between 
it  and  Fish  point  are  two  other  small  patches ;  with  these  exceptions 
the  beach  is  sandy. 

The  coast  from  Kleinemond  rivers  trends  3^  miles  eastward  to  Great 
Fish  point.  The  hills  near  the  sea  are  bushy,  faced  with  sand  nearly 
to  their  summits,  and,  at  IJ  miles  eastward  of  Kleinemond  rivers, 
attain  a  height  of  350  feet.  Three-quarters  of  a  mile  further  eastward 
is  the  highest  part  of  the  ridge  (390  feet),  and  on  the  east  side  of  it 
the  sand  is  bare  on  the  top,  which  is  conspicuous  from  seaward. 

GREAT  FISH  POINT  is  low,  sandy,  and  fringed  with  rocks, 
with  a  sand  hillock  near  its  extremity.  A  rock  which  shows  at 
low  water,  with  a  depth  of  12  fathoms  at  3  cables  outside  it,  lies 
with  the  sand  hillock  bearing  N.N.E.  nearly  half  a  mile.  The  coast 
hills  rise  in  a  short  distance  to  a  height  of  260  feet. 

From  Great  Fish  point  the  shore  trends  eastward  1^  miles  to  Little 
Fish  point  near  the  entrance  to  Great  Fish  river.  At  three-quarters  of 
a  mile  eastward  of  Great  Fish  point,  and  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile . 
off  shore,  is  a  half -tide  rock,  outside  of  which  and  off  the  rocky 
points  the  sea  breaks.  Little  Fish  point,  situated  about  half  a  mile 
westward  of  the  entrance  to  Great  Fish  river,  is  rocky,  and  dries  out 
for  some  distance  at  low  water;  the  hill  over  it  is  140  feet  above 
the  sea,  covered  with  bush  and  partially  faced  with  sand. 

GREAT  FISH  RIVER.— The  mouth  of  Great  Fish  river  is 
always  open,  but  the  depth  in  the  entrance  is  not  stated ;  probably 


Chap,  IV.]  BLACK  ROCKS— WATERLOO  BAY.  138 

it  is  not  known,  as  entering  it  must  be  at  all  times  attended  with 
considerable  danger,  on  account  of  the  breakers  across  the  entrance.^ 

At  Rocky  head,  the  north-east  point  of  entrance,  are  three  dark 
rocks,  25  feet  high,  extending  in  a  S.S.W.  direction ;  outside  and 
around  which  are  several  other  rocks,  showing  at  low  water,  and 
extending  to  the  distance  of  1^  cables  in  places.  The  sea  breaks  for 
some  distance  outside  these  rocks. 

At  3  cables  within  the  north-east  point  is  a  dark  bushy  peak 
100  feet  high,  rising  steeply  from  the  river,  and  near  the  base  of  it  is 
the  narrowest  part  of  the  entrance,  which  is  about  20  yards  wide, 
and  here  the  water  appears  deep  for  a  breadth  of  about  10  yards, 
where  the  sea  does  not  break  successively,  having  at  times  an 
interval  of  five  minutes,  when  a  boat  could  effect  a  landing ;  but  when 
the  sea  does  break  it  is  with  treble  the  violence  of  the  constant 
rolling  surf  along  the  sand  before  the  river's  mouth.  At  particular 
seasons  the  river  rises  considerably,  when  the  current  becomes  too 
strong  for  craft  to  enter ;  at  other  times  the  river  is  a  mere  stream, 
and  the  current  then  is  inconsiderable. 

The  position  of  Great  Fish  river  may  be  made  out  in  clear  weather 
by  some  distant  hills  of  an  undulating  form,  which  bear  N.N.W. 
when  on  with  the  ravine  through  which  the  river  flows.  The  river 
makes  apparently  a  very  perceptible  gap  in  the  coast  line  if  near  the 
land. 

Ourrent. — ^The  water  of  Great  Fish  river  is  of  a  red  colour,  and 
may  be  traced  after  rain  for  some  miles  westward  of  Kowie  point, 
but  is  seldom  seen  to  the  eastward  of  the  river  ;  from  this  fact  it  is 
evident  that  an  easterly  current  near  this  part  of  the  coast,  though 
occasionally  experienced,  is  not  a  constant  or  frequent  current. 

Waterloo  bay. — From  the  east  point  of  Great  Fish  river  the 
shore  curves  slightly  to  the  western  part  of  Stalwart  point,  which 
bears  East  distant  about  4  miles  from  Rocky  head.  There  are  two 
streams  between,  which  are  closed  with  sand.  The  western  part  of 
this  curve  is  named  Waterloo  bay.  All  vestiges  of  the  establishment 
that  existed  here  in  1846  and  1847  have  disappeared.  The  coast 
hills  rise  steeply  from  the  beach  to  a  height  of  from  180  to  250  feet 
faced  with  sand  nearly  to  their  summits,  which  are  covered  with 
dark  bush  ;  the  highest  part  of  the  ridge  is  about  2  miles  eastward 
of  the  river.t 

*  See  plan  of  Waterloo  bay,  No.  1,926  ;,and  view  on  chart,  No.  2,086. 
t  See  plan  of  Waterloo  bay,  No.    1,926 ;    scale,  m  =  40  inches ;  also  charts, 
Nos.  2,085  and  2,086. 


134  PORT  ALFBBD  TO  EAST  LOKDOK.  [Chap-  IV. 

Immediately  eastward  of  Rocky  head  and  inshore  of  the  eastern 
low- water  rocks  is  a  small  sandy  beach,  followed  for  about  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  with  a  beach  fringed  with  rocks,  when  it  becomes 
for  about  half  a  mile  clear  ;  about  If  miles  from  the  mouth  of  Great 
Pish  river  a  ledge  of  rocks  extends  eastward  two-thirds  of  a  mile, 
and  projects  from  the  beach  a  distance  of  nearly  2  cables ;  at  one 
cable  off  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  ledge  is  a  small  sunken  rock  ; 
thence  to  the  western  part  of  Stalwart  point  the  beach  is  sandy  and 
free  from  rocks. 

Anchorage.— Vessels  should  not  anchor  in  a  less  depth  than 
9  fathoms,  with  Great  Fish  point  bearing  W.  |  S.,  and  the  south-west 
end  of  the  rocks  about  half  a  mile  eastward  of  Rocky  head  landing 
place,  about  N.  by  W.  i  W.  This  is,  however,  an  exposed  rocky 
anchorage,  and  the  rollers  which  occasionally  set  in  during  calm  and 
foggy  weather  render  it  unsafe. 

Vessels  should  always  be  ready  to  slip  and  put  to  sea,  in  the  event 
of  a  S.E.  wind  or  rollers  setting  in,  and  should  not  remain  longer 
at  the  anchorage  than  absolutely  necessary. 

Large  vessels  should  avoid  this  anchorage,  but,  if  obliged  to  call 
here,  they  may  anchor  in  14  fathoms  at  a  considerable  distance  from 
shore,  in  which  depth  the  bottom  is  clean  and  good  holding  ground, 
coarse  sand  ;  but  this  is  too  inconvenient  a  distance  for  landing. 

The  Landing*  was  formerly  effected  in  the  bay  between  the 
rocks  of  Rocky  head  and  those  to  the  north-east  of  them,  in  surf 
boats,  and  with  them  it  was  difficult.  A  great  strain  was  brought  on 
the  surf  lines  by  the  strong  current  setting  along  the  shore. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Waterloo  bay,  at 
4h.  Om. ;  springs  rise  about  6  feet. 

STALWART  POINT.— From  the  west  part  of  Stalwart  point, 
the  shore  eastward  is  fringed  with  an  almost  continuous  series  of 
ledges  extending  in  a  southerly  direction  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from 
the  beach,  off  which  at  a  short  distance  are  several  sunken  rocks. 
The  sea  breaks  in  bad  weather  a  distance  of  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
from,  the  shore. 

Stalwart  point  is  broad  and  rounding,  the  beach  narrow,  and  the 
coast  ridge  near  its  west  end  224  feet  high,  but  is  much  lower 
towards  its  eastern  part.  The  hills  are  of  sand  some  distance  up 
their  sea  face.  From  this  ridge  the  grassy  land  at  the  back  rises  in  a 
short  distance  to  a  height  of  377  feet  and  slopes  on  both  sides  of  the' 
point ;  on  its  western  slope  are  two'or  three  farm  houses  visible  from 
seaward. 


Ohap.  IV.]  /  WATBRLOO  BAY — ^BBQUA  RIYER.  135 

Impekqilina  river,  an  insignificant  stream^  at  2  miles  eastward 
of  Stalwart  point,  is  generally  closed  ;  half  a  mile  westward  of  the 
river  the  before-mentioned  rocky  ledges  cease,  and  the  beach  is  free 
from  rocks  until  just  beyond  the  river.  A  little  west  of  the  river  is  a 
dark  bushy  head  144  feet  high  partially  faced  with  sand,  and  at  the 
back  of  which,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  inland,  is  a  white  house  visible 
from  seaward. 

Umtata  river. — ^From  Impekquina  river  the  shore  trends 
IJ  miles  eastward  to  Umtata  river,  which  is  generally  open.  The  in- 
tervening shore  is  fringed  with  rocky  ledges  extending  some  distance 
from  the  beach,  and  the  sea  breaks  a  long  way  outside  of  them. 

The  hill  on  the  west  side  of  Umtata  river  is  260  feet  high,  and  is  a 
third  of  a  mile  from  the  outer  part  of  the  beach ;  the  hill  on  the 
east  side,  is  149  feet  high,  covered  with  dark  bush,  and  faced  with 
sand  a  short  distance  up.  Off  this  hill  a  ledge  of  rocks  extends  from 
the  beach ;  outside  the  ledga  there  are  some  sunken  rocks  which 
bear  S.S.E.  from  the  highest  part  of  the  hill,  and  distant  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  from  the  shore. 

From  Umtata  river  to  Oolana  river  (which  is  closed),  a  distance  of 
one  mile,  the  beach  for  about  half  way  is  fringed  with  rocks.  A 
rocky  point  extends  from  the  east  side  of  the  river,  outside  of  which 
is  a  detached  rock  2  cables  from  the  shore. 

Bequa  river  is  generally  closed,  and  is  3  miles  eastward  of 
Oolana  river.  The  beach  between  is  fringed  with  rocky  ledges, 
extending  in  a  southerly  direction,  nearly  two  cables  from  the  shore, 
with  several  sunken  rocks  beyond.  The  coast  ridge  rises  steeply 
from  the  beach,  and  gradually  increases  in  height  as  Bequa  river 
is  approached  ;  sand  extends  up  the  sea  face  nearly  to  the  summit, 
which  are  covered  with  dark  bush,  except  the  highest  point  of  the 
ridge,  which  is  bare  sand,  308  feet  high,  and. three  quarters  of  a 
mile  westward  of  Bequa  river ;  this  is  the  last  bare  sand  hill  for 
many  miles.  About  half  a  mile  west  of  this  sand  hill  a  patch  of 
bushes  extend  from  the  top  of  the  ridge  nearly  to  its  base,  Mid 
renders  this  piece  of  coast  remarkable  and  easy  of  recognition. 

MadagUSCar  reef,  about  7  cables  in  length,  covered  at  high 
water,  and  with  a  depth  of  12  fathoms  at  2  cables  distance,  lies  half 
a  mile  from  the  shore,  with  the  west  extreme  of  the  hill  on  the  east 
side  of  Bequa  river  N.W.  ^  N.,  and  the  east  extreme  of  the  hill  on 
the  west  side  of  entrance  of  Gosha  river  N.E.  by  E.  The  sea  always 
breaks  over  the  reef. 

Qosha  river. — ^From  Bequa  river  to  Oosha  river  about  2  miles 
eastward,  the  shore  is  a  broad  sandy  beach,  and  midway  fringed  with 


136  .  POBT  ALHIBID  TO  EAST  LONDON.  [Chap.^U. 

focks  at  low  -water.    As  Gh)6ha  river  is  approached,  the  coast  ridge 
rises  to  a  height  of  270  feet,  the  sand  reaching  near  to  its  smnmit.  . 

Ooast. — ^At  3  miles  eastward  of  Gosha  river  is  a  point,  on  the  east 
side  of  which  a  small  stream  discharges ;  at  a  distance  of  a  quarter 
of  a  mile,  and  one  mile  respectively  from  Gosha  river,  two  small 
streams  empty  themselves. 

Eastward  to  Keiskamma  point  the  beach  is  sandy  and  fringed  at 
low  water  with  rocks.  The  coast  ridge  is  partially  faced  with  sand  to 
a  height  of  40  to  70  feet,  except  in  one  spot  about  2  miles  west  of 
the  point,  where  the  sand  rises  obliquely  to  the  summit  of  the  ridge, 
and  attains  a  height  of  about  220  feet.  Inmiediately  behind  the  land 
rises  to  a  height  of  300  feet,  is  covered  with  grass,  and  about  half  a 
mile  westward  of  the  point  forms  a  remarkable  green  head,  on  the 
summit  of  which  is  a  large  white  house  visible  from  all  directions. 

At  one  mile  westward  from  Keiskamma  point,  and  3  cables  from 
the  shore,  is  a  rock  which  shows  at  low- water  springs.  Outside  the 
rock  the  sea  breaks  heavily  in  bad  weather. 

Between  Keiskamma  point  and  Buffalo  river,  which  are  about 
27  miles  apart,  the  land  appears  high,  covered  with  grass  and  bush  in 
patches,  and  is  intersected  with  several  streams  and  deep  ravines. 
The  shore  is  backed  with  an  irregular  ridge  of  coast  hills,  which  are 
xjpvered  with  dark  bush,  and  at  intervals  faced  with  sand. 

Aspect. — The  high  head  near  the  coast,  west  of  Keiskamma 
point,  with  a  white  house  on  its  summit,  together  with  the  bushy 
hillock  on  the  point,  and  a  round  topped  grassy  hill  3  miles  N.N.W. 
inland  of  it,  (which  is  visible  from  all  directions,  and  from  seaward*  a 
clump  of  bush  is  seen  on  its  southern  slope,)  as  well  as  the  Keiskamma 
river  presenting  a  wide  opening,  renders  this  part  easy  of  recognition 
from  the  southward. 

In  this  vicinity,  at  a  distance  of  5  or  6  miles  inland,  the  land  rises 
to  a  height  of  from  600  to  700  feet,  and  when  well  off  the  coast  a 
range  of  mountains  2,000  to  3,000  feet  in  height,  which  are  in  the 
vicinity  of  King  Williams  town,  may  be  seen.  The  range  in  the 
vicinity  of  Grahams  town  is  also  visible. 

KEISKAMMA  POINT  is  low,  sandy,  and  fringed  with  rocks ; 
near  its  extremity  is  an  isolated,  bushy-topped  sand  hill,  110  feet  high, 
which  when  seen  from  the  westward  and  from  a  position  near  the 
coast  appears  like  an  islet. 

See  Admiralty  chart : — Waterloo  bay  to  Basliee  river,  with  viewg,  No.  2086  ;  Mal«, 
j9i>«;O*Siiiohe0. 


Chap..iy.]  Q08HA  RIVBA^KBISKAMICA  RIVBB.  137 

i  Oautioil. — Between  Keiskamma  and  Bashee  points,  vesBels  Bhonld 
not  approach  the  shore  nearer  than  one  mile,  or  at  night  and  in  thick 
weather  under  40  fothoms.  The  edge  of  the  bank  of  sonndings  is 
always  well  defined,  the  sea  being  smoother  on  than  off  the  bank. 
The  distance  of  the-100  fathoms  line  of  soundings  from  the  coast  is 
10  to  13  miles,  beyond  which  depth  it  deepens  to  200  or  300  fathoms 
within  the  distance  of  one  mile. 

Keiskamma  river  lies  about  one  mile  north-eastward  of 
Keiskamma  point,  and  the  beach  between  is  sandy.  At  half  a  mile 
from  the  low  and  sandy  south-west  point  of  entrance  is  a  hill  205  feet 
high,  covered  with  bush.  The  north-east  point  of  entrance  is  also 
low,  but  rocky ;  extending  from  a  hill  152  feet  high,  covered  with 
dark  bush,  and  close  to  its  base  is  the  channel  of  the  river,  which  is 
about  half  a  cable  wide  at  low  water,  and  apparently  deep.  Inside, 
the  river  opens  into  a  basin  about  one  mile  in  extent,  partially  dry  at 
low  water ;  the  main  stream  trends  northward  from  the  basin,  and 
many  miles  into  the  interior,  draining  a  large  tract  of  country. 

On  the  west  bank  of  the  river  are  the  two  German  villages  of 
Hamburg  and  Bodiam ;  the  former  is  about  one  mile,  and  the  latter 
5  miles  from  the  entrance.  Boats  have  been  known  in  fine  weather 
to  leave  and  enter  the  river  in  safety,  but  such  an  occurrence  is  not 
frequent,  and  it  is  always  attended  with  danger,  as  no  dependence 
can  be  placed  on  the  bar,  the  depths  on  which  alter  after  every  gale 
or  heavy  rain.  The  surf  breaks  heavily  off  the  river,  and  in  bad 
weather  extends  a  long  half  mile  from  the  shore.  A  quarter  of  a 
mile  eastward  of  the  entrance,  and  about  one  cable  off-shore,  are 
some  rocks  which  appear  at  low  water. 

A  10-fathom  patch,  with  15  fathoms  inshore  of  it,  lies  with  the 
mouth  of  the  Keiskamma  bearing  N.N.W.  J  W.  distant  1^  miles. 

The  coast  about  the  Keiskamma  is  about  500  or  600  feet  above  the 
sea,  with  patches  of  ^hite  sand  80  or  100  feet  high,  conspicuous 
against  the  dark  land.  Keiskamma  river  may  be  identified  by  a 
mountain  of  a  conical  shape,  flattened  at  the  top,  standing  by  itself, 
and  a  short  distance  to  the  eastward  another  high  mountain  which 
has  three  distinct  elevations  and  falls ;  when  these  mountains  bear 
N  N.W.  they  are  in  a  line  with  the  entrance  of.  the  Keiskamma. 

The  Coast  from  Keiskanuna  river  trends  eastward  about  6  miles 
to  Chalumna  river  ;  there  are  several  streams  between,  two  of  which, 
like  most  of  the  small  streams  on  this  coast,  are  choked  with  sand  ; 
the  eastern  stream  (Ouanie)  is  open  at  high  water.   * 

The  shore  to  Guanie  river  is  sandy  and  fringed  with  rocks  at  low 
water,  with  the  hills  rising  suddenly  from  the  beach  to  a  height  of 


138  PORT  ALFRED  TO  EAST  LONDON.  [Ohap.  IV. 

from  150  to  270  feet,  faced  with  sand  some  way  up,  above  which 
they  are  covered  with  dark  bnsh. 

Abont  a  quarter  of  a  mile  west,  and  a  third  of  a  mile  east  of  Onanie 
river,  are  two  remarkable  bnshy-topped  sand  peaks,  the  eastern  one 
more  particularly  so,  as  the  hill  at  the  back  of  it,  which  rises  steeply 
to  a  height  of  430  feet,  is  covered  with  grass,  against  which  the  dark 
appearance  of  the  peak  forms  a  striking  contrast.  The  hill  at  the 
back  has  two  lumps  on  it,  which,  with  the  fact  of  its  being  the 
highest  head  near  the  coast  for  many  miles,  is  also  conspicuous. 

Glialuinna  river  is  about  7  miles  eastward  of  Keiskamma  point ; 
a  sand  bank  extends  across  its  mouth  at  low  water.  Rocks  extend 
about  li  cables  off  shore,  from  a  half  to  one  mile  eastward  of  the 
river. 

The  COAST  from  Chalumna  river  is  rocky,  and  trends  eastward 
IJ  miles  to  a  rocky  point ;  at  three  quarters  of  a  mile  beyond  the 
point  is  a  small  stream,  on  the  west  point  of  which  is  a  bushy  sand 
peak ;  at  one  mile  farther  on  is  another  point,  between  which  the 
coast  is  comparatively  low,  and  covered  with  bush  and  grass.  At 
the  back  of  the  bight  to  the  eastward  is  a  black  bushy  hill,  on  the 
west  side  of  a  small  stream ;  the  sand  extends  up  its  south-east  face 
to  a  height  of  about  70  feet. 

Thence  the  beach  is  sandy,  and  fringed  with  rocks  for  about 
1^  miles  to  a  small  point,  on  which  is  a  small  grassy  ridge  20  feet 
high  ;  at  3^  cables  S.W.  by  S.  from  it  is  a  dangerous  breaker.  At 
two-thirds  of  a  mile  farther  on  is  the  entrance  to  Nieca  river. 

Nieca  river  is  open  at  high  water,  but  a  spit  of  sand  extends 
nearly  across  from  the  west  side  at  low  water.  The  east  point  of  the 
river  rises  to  about  150  feet,  and  is  covered  with  bush. 

About  one  mile  beyond  the  Nieca  is  another  small  river,  eastward 
of  which  the  shore  becomes  low,  with  a  few  grassy  hillocks  near 
the  beach. 

Another  small  river  empties  itself  into  the  sea  northward  of  a  low 
point,  2^  miles  eastward  of  Nieca  river.  At  the  north-east  point  of 
entrance  is  a  black  bushy  peak  185  feet  high,  and  the  coast  west 
of  it  being  low  renders  it  conspicuous. 

Near  the  beach,  there  are  three  black  hummocks  with  white  sandy 
bases  ;  behind  the  westernmost  of  these  and  in  a  hollow  on  the  first 
line  of  hills  there  is  a  large  isolated  tree  which  is  conspicuous  at  4  or 
5  miles  distance  :  about  a  mile  west  of  this  tree  there  is  a  remarkable 
sand  cliff.  Excepting  these  marks  there  is  a  sameness  in  this  part  of 
the  coast,  sand-hills  topped  with  brush  being  the  prominent  feature. 


Ohap.  IV.]  CHALUMNA  BIVBR— OOVB  ROOK.  139 

NkutU  river  lies  nearly  5  miles  eastward  of  the  Nieca  river, 
and  is  generally  open  at  high  water.  South-eastward  of  the  river  and 
at  one  cable  from  the  shore  are  some  outlying  rocks  ;  and  a  sunken 
rock  lies  S.E.  distant  one-third  of  a  mile.  At  one  mile  inland  is  a 
long  bushy  hill,  414  feet  high,  and  near  its  eastern  part  half  way 
down  the  face  of  it,  is  a  white  house  which  may  be  seen  from  sea- 
ward. 

Oola  river. — ^At  2^  miles  eastward  of  Nkutu  river  is  the  entrance 
of  Gola  river,  which  is  open  at  high  water ;  the  shore  between  is 
fringed  with  rocks,  and  the  coast  hills  are  covered  with  bush  faced 
with  sand,  but  they  are  not  high.  The  hill  at  the  west  point  of  Gola 
river  is  about  120  feet  high  covered  with  bush,  the  sand  extending 
up  its  face  some  distance,  and  a  streak  of  sand  runs  up  its  south-west 
side  to  the  summit,  which  may  be  seen  several  miles  to  the  west- 
ward. 

At  about  one-third  of  a  mile  south-eastward  of  the  entrance  is- 
Gola  point,  from  which  the  land  rises  precipitously  336  feet  to  a 
rounded  top  covered  with  grass ;  and  inland  two-thirds  of  a  mile  is  a 
remarkable  peak  topped  hill  443  feet  high,  also  covered  with  grass, 
which  is  conspicuous  from  all  directions.  At  1|  miles  eastward  of 
Gola  point  is  a  small  stream,  off  which  is  a  sunken  rock,  bearing 
S.W.  i  S.  one-third  of  a  mile. 

Oove  rock,  situated  2^  miles  eastward  of  Gola  point,  is  a  blackish 
quoin-shaped  rock,  86  feet  high,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  long,  with 
a  deep  notch  in  the  middle,  and  sloping  to  the  westward.  It  is  con- 
nected with  the  shore,  from  which  it  is  about  3  cables  distant,  by  a 
long  broad  neck  of  sand,  and  hence  appears  as  an  island,  and  a  good 
mark  when  navigating  along  shore.  On  its  west  side  are  some  outlying 
rocks  ;  the  outer  or  western,  bears  West  from  the  highest  part  of  Cove 
rock,  distant  half  a  mile,  and  generally  breaks ;  also  S.W.  by  S.  from 
the  highest  part  of  Cove  rock  and  distant  nearly  2  cables  is  a  small 
rock,  visible  at  low  water  springs. 

Landing. — Eastward  of  Cove  rock  on  a  small  sandy  beach 
immediately  to  the  northward  of  the  rock,  boats  may  land  even  in 
S.E.  winds. 

The  Coast  from  Cove  rock  eastward  assumes  a  more  pleasant 
aspect ;  bare  sand  hills  are  now  only  occasionally  met  with,  and  they 
always  have  such  remarkable  forms  as  to  make  good  landmarks. 

From  the  small  stream  eastward  of  Cove  rock,  the  shore  trends 
eastward  to  Hood  point,  with  several  small  [streams  between,  and  is 


140  BUFFALO  RIVBR— EAST  LONDON.  pChap.  IK 

fringed  with  rocks,  but  there  are  no  off-l3ring  dangers.  The  coast 
hills  are  much  lower  for  1^  miles,  where  there  is  a  high  bushy  topped 
hill  between. the  mouths  of  two  small  streams,  the  hills  then 
become  low  again,  and  in  places  the  grassy  slope  reaches  down  to 
the  beach. 

Hood  point  is  low  and  rocky,  but  rises  steeply  from  the  beaph  to 
the  top  of  a  ridge  107  feet  high,  covered  with  grass  and  scattered 
bush  ;  the  bight  on  its  west  side  appears  shoal.  From  Hood  point 
the  shore  trends  eastward  for  IJ  miles  to  Castle  point,  the  south-west 
point  of  BuflEalo  river  ;  between  these  points  the  grassy  slope  comes 
close  down  to  a  stony  beach. 

BUFFALO  RIVER.— EAST  LONDON.— The  town  of  East 
London  stands  on  the  south  side  of  Buffalo  river,  at  about  60  feet 
above  the  sea  ;  and  with  its  flagstaffs,  churches,  lighthouse,  and  the 
bluff  150  feet  high,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river,  may  easily  be 
recognised  from  the  oflBing.*  It  is  about  700  miles  east  of  Cape  Town, 
150  miles  by  sea  from  port  Elizabeth,  and  is  the  terminus  of  the  line 
of  railway  from  Queen's  Town,  a  distance  of  about  180  miles.  The 
population  is  about  2,000. 

The  town  of  Panmure  is  situated  on  the  north  shore,  half  a  mile 
above  East  London ;  its  importance  is  probably  much  increased  by 
the  extensive  wharfage,  &c.  constructed  near  it. 

The  Buffalo  river  is  navigable  for  boats  for  about  3  miles  ;  its  banks 
are  steep,  and  attain  a  height  in  places  of  200  feet. 

The  port  is  generally  considered  the  natural  outlet  for  the  trade  of 
the  border  divisions,  and  of  the  states  and  territories  beyond  the  Orange 
river.  In  common  with  all  the  rivers  on  this  coast,  the  Buffalo  is 
obstructed  by  a  dangerous  sand  bar,  but  by  the  construction  of  train- 
ing walls  to  confine  the  river  and  the  use  of  dredgers,  rapid  progress 
has  been  made  in  deepening  it,  and  it  is  expected  shortly,  there  will 
be  sufficient  water  on  the  bar  for  ocean-going  vessels,  but  the  depth 
will  always  be  subject  to  great  variation  from  gales  of  wind.  As 
an  instance  of  the  improvement  effected,  it  may  be  stated  that  in 
1887,  only  vessels  of  less  than  11  feet  draught  could  cross  the  bar, 
whereas  in  November  1888,  a  vessel  of  15  feet  draught  entered.f 

•  See  Admiralty  chart  .-—Buffalo  river,  with  views,  No.  1,843  ;  scale  m=5-9  inches, 
t  Information  on  training  walln  and  breakwater,  from  Sir  John  CJoode,  December 
1888.— London  Shipping  Gazette,  22  December,  1888. 


Ohap.  IV.]  TO^^TfiT— ANGHOBAGB.  141 

■  The  wharves  are  fitted  with  steam  appliances  for  loading  and 
discharging  vessels  that  can  enter  the  river,  and  the  railway  runs 
along  the  wharves. 

The  wharves  below  Panmure,  on  north  side  of  river,  have, 
apparently,  depths  of  11  to- 18  feet  near  them. 

Castle  point  is  the  south  point  of  entrance  to  the  Bu&lo  river  ; 
it  is  low  and  rocky,  with  outlying  rocks  extending  a  distance  of  nearly 
2  cables ;  these  rocks  probably  tend  to  break  the  force  of  the  sea  on 
the  breakwater  which  has  been  built  out  from  the  point  some  500 
yards  seaward  of  the  lighthouse. 

•  The  coast  for  about  three  quarters  of  a  mile  to  the  northward  of 
the  river  is  fringed  by  a  ledge  of  rocks,  with  detached  low- water 
rocks  extending  in  places  to  the  distance  of  one  cable.  At  about 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  northward  of  the  point  is  the  quarry  where  stone 
is  obtained  for  the  harbour  works. 

Rocky  bank. — At  5^  cables  S.  J  W.  from  the  lighthouse,  and 
about  4  cables  off  shore,  is  the  east  extreme  of  a  rocky  bank,  which 
extends  about  2^  cables  in  a  W.S.W.  direction,  with  a  depth  of  4^ 
fathoms.    The  sea  breaks  heavily  over  this  bank  in  bad  weather. 

LIOHT. — ^From  a  lighthouse,  painted  in  alternate  red  and  white 
bands,  erected  on  the  reef  near  the  inner  end  of  the  breukwater  at 
Castle  point,  is  exhibited,  at  an  elevation  of  45  feet  above  the  sea, 
a  fixed  white  light,  visible  in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of 
twelve  miles.    Position,  lat.  33°  1'  45"  S.,  long.  27°  55'  2"  E. 

Anchorage. — There  is  good  anchorage,  with  westerly  winds,  in 
11  or  12  fathoms,  with  Cove  rock  in  line  with  Hood  point  bearing 
W.  J  S.,  Castle  point  lighthouse  W.N.W.,  and  Kahoon  point 
N.E.  by  E.  i  E.  In  the  summer  or  south-east  season,  vessels  should 
anchor  farther  off  shore,  so  as  in  ease  of  parting  to  have  room  to  clear 
the  dangers  off  Castle  point.  Vessels  whose  draught  permits,  will 
take  the  earliest  opportunity  of  entering  the  river. 

The  holding  ground  in  the  roadstead,  consisting  of  stiff  mud  under 
a  thin  Surface  of  sand,  is  good,  and  said  to  be  free  from  rocks. 
When  ships  have  gone  adrift,  it  has  been  from  parting,  and  not  from 
dragging.  Lost  anchors  are  rarely  recovered,  owing  to  the  shifting 
nature  of  the  bottom  in  gales.  The  anchorage,  however,  is  much 
exposed,  and  vessels  generally  lie  broadside  to  the  sea,  and  consequently 


142  BUFFAIiO  RIVER— BA8T  LONDON.  £Chap  lY. 

roll  and  strain  a  great  deal.  Vessels  proposing  to  risk  lying  here  in  bad 
weather,  should  on  no  accoont  be  in  less  than  10  fathoms.*  The 
worst  wind  here  is  what  is  called  a  black  south-easter.  See  Winds, 
p.  144. 

The  bar  of  BuflEalo  river  commences  in  about  .5  fathoms,  a  short 
distance  seaward  of  the  breakwater  and  training  walls,  and  decreases 
gradually  in  depth  to  about  10  feet  at  low  water  springs,  in  the 
entrance  between  the  breakwater  and  north  wall ;  this  depth  will 
probably  soon  be  increased  by  the  dredging  operations  in  progress. 
As  before  mentioned,  a  vessel  of  15  feet  draught  entered  the  river 
in  November,  1888. 

The  depths  alter  considerably  with  the  weather,  being  decreased 
generally  by  a  succession  of  S.E.  winds,  and  increased  by  westerly 
winds.  West  and  S.  W.  winds  causethe  heaviest  sea  on  the  bar ;  and 
after  heavy  gales  from  those  quarters,  communication  is  at  times 
impracticable.  As  the  rollers  set  across  the  channel,  the  bar  is 
dangerous  even  to  surf  boats. 

The  average  number  of  working  days  in  the  road,  exclusive  of 
Sundays  and  holidays,  is  22  per  month,  and  it  is  exceptional  for 
communication  with  the  shipping,  by  means  of  the  steam  tugs 
employed  for  that  purpose,  to  be  stopped* 

LandingT- — Boats  should  never  attempt  to  cross  the  bar,  even 
in  the  finest  weather,  unless  accompanied  by  some  one  having  local 
knowledge. 

Landing  is  generally  made  by  means  of  large  decked  surf  boats  of 
about  30  tons  burthen,  which  haul  backwards  and  forwards  by  a 
hawser  running  in  rollers  at  the  bow  and  stern ;  the  inner  end  of 
the  hawser  is  secured  within  the  breakwater,  the  outer  to  an  anchor 
outside  the  bar  in  6  fathoms,  from  which  a  branch  warp  is  laid  north- 
eastward, with  its  outer  end  in  7  fathoms,  from  whence  they  are 
hauled  alongside  the  shipping  for  loading  or  discharging. 

SigrnalS  for  the  surf  boats.— A  red  flag,  with  a  white  square 
in  the  centre,  hoisted  at  the  port  office  flagstaff  (nearest  the  light- 
house) signifies  that  the  bar  is  passable. 

The  flag  at  half-mast  denotes  that  the  bar  is  dangerous. 

*  See  remarks  on  winds  and  weather,  -page  144  In  1861,  the  Elizabeth  Mary,  of 
about  300  tons,  and  the  Shrimp,  of  45  tons,  went  down  at  their  anchors  with  all 
hands,  in  oonseqnenoe  of  lying  in  too  shoal  water. 


Chap.  IV.]  BAB— SIGNALS— SUPPLIES.  143 

When  no  flag  is  shown  the  bar  is  impassable. 

Commnnication  can  be  made  with  the  port  office  by  means  of  the 
Commercial  code  of  signals. 

Supplies. — ^Water  is  supplied  to  the  shipping  from  the  municipal 
works ;  fresh  provisions  are  cheap  and  plentiful.  There  are  several 
tugs  at  the  port,  one  of  which  is  always  in  the  roadstead.  There 
are  two  lighter  companies,  possessing  22  or  more  lighters,  some  of 
which  are  of  75  tons.  The  dispatch  afforded  to  steamers  is  such, 
that  their  cargo  is  taken  as  rapidly  as  they  can  put  it  out.  Sailing 
vessels  fitted  with  appliances  for  discharging,  meet  with  the  same 
facilities. 

Repairs. — Large  repairs  to  machinery  and  boilers  are  undertaken 
by  the  engineering  firms  ;  shafts  of  23  inches  can  be  turned,  cylinders 
of  40  inches  diameter  cast,  and  castings  of  1^  tons  made.  There  is  a 
steam-hammer  of  20  cwt.,  and  2  cranes  each  capable  of  lifting  10  tons, 
besides  smaller  ones. 

Coal. — ^About  5,000  tons  of  coal  are  usually  in  stock.  Coaling  is 
done  by  surf  lighters,  brought  alongside  by  tugs  ;  from  200  to  400 
tons  can  be  put  on  board  daily  if  due  notice  be  given.  Coaling  in  the 
road  is  often  interrupted  by  bad  weather. 

Time  Sigrnal. — ^A  ball  is  dropped  by  electricity  from  the  cape  of 
Good  Hope  observatory  at  Ih.  Om.  Osec.  P.M.,  Cape  mean  time, 
equivalent  to  23h.  46m.  5*3sec.  Greenwich  mean  time. 

Commuiiication,  Telegraph.— <Sfe^  page  8. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  the  mouth  of  Buffalo 
river  at  3h.  47m. ;  springs  rise  5ft.,  neaps,  3|  ft. 

Currents. — ^At  the  anchorage  off  East  London,  the  current 
generally  runs  to  the  westward  at  a  rate  of  one  to  2^  knots  an 
hour.  In  calm  weather  it  occasionally  runs  to  the  eastward  at  the 
rate  of  half  a  knot,  and  sometimes  stronger. 

In  shore  near  the  edge  of  the  breakers  an  eddy  current  frequently 
runs  to  the  eastward ;  this  current  is  variable  in  its  strength,  but 
seldom  attains  half  a  knot  an  hour. 

In  the  offing  at  about  15  miles  from  the  coast,  the  regular  Agulhas 
trorrent  runs  south-westward  from  2  to  4  miles  an  hour. 


144  BUFFALO  BIVBR— BAST  LONDON.  [Ohap,.IV. 

Directions. — Trading  vessels  bound  to  East  London  from  the 
westward,  generally  call  at  Algoa  bay  ;  when  practicable  they  should 
leave  that  port  so  as  to  make  East  London  during  daylight.  The 
remarkable  sand  streak  on  the  hill  at  the  west  point  of  Gola  river, 
and  Cove  rock  appearing  like  an  island  with  the  sand  hill  immediately 
inshore  of  it,  will  indicate  the  approach  of  the  vessel  to  East  London, 
and  on  reaching  Hood  point,  which  should  not  be  approached  nearer 
than  one  mile,  the  lighthouse  on  Castle  point  and  the  town  of  East 
London  will  be  visible.  Vessels  should  keep  at  the  distance  of  one 
mile  off-shore,  and  in  not  less  than  20  fathoms  water,  until  the 
lighthouse  bears  westward  of  North,  then  steer  for  the  anchorage 
before  described. 

Except  with  a  fair  wind,  sailing  vessels  should  make  for  a  position 
to  the  north-eastward  of  Buffalo  river,  bearing  in  mind  that  the 
current  nearly  always  sets  about  W.  by  S.  A  remarkable  sand  hill. 
Sand  Kop  Trig,  281  feet  high,  covered  with  bush,  and  partially  faced 
with  sand,  with  a  sandy  streak  stretching  up  its  west  side  to  the 
summit,  lies  2  miles  north-eastward  of  Castle  point  lighthouse,  and 
can  be  seen  at  a  distance  of  several  miles.* 

Winds  and  Weather. — The  weather  off  East  London  presents 
a  marked  difference  to  that  of  any  other,  part  of  the  coast.  When 
the  mercury  commences  to  rise  on  the  wind  shifting  to  the  westward, 
the  crisis  is  accompanied  by  lightning,  thunder,  and  heavy  rain.  If 
the  wind  shift  suddenly  in  a  squall  to  the  south-west,  the  barometric 
pressure  increases  rapidly,  a  fresh  gale  may  be  expected,  with  firi^ 
weather,  which,  will  continue  until  the  mercury  attains  aboujb 
30*4  inches.  If  the  barometer  remains  low  and  steady,  a  strong  gale 
may  be  expected  from  W.N.W.,  which  will  probably  continue  for 
several  days ;  but  if  the  wind  shifts  slowly  to  S.W.,  the  barometer 
rises  slowly,  and  a  drizzling  rain  sets  in,  a  fierce  gale  and  mountainous 
sea  may  be  looked  tot.  These  much-dreaded  south-west  gales  occut 
often  after  unsettled  weather  in  June,  July,  and  August,  preceded  by  a 
moderate  to  fresh  easterly  breeze,  and  a  gradually  diminishing  pressure. 

The  wind  begins  to  blow  hard  from  west,  and  shifts  slowly  until 
the  mercury  is  about  30*0  inches  ;  the  sky  becomes  leaden-looking, 
and  a  thick  drizzling  rain  sets  in  ;  the  barometer  oscillates  between 
30'00  and  30*10  inches,  and  the  thermometer  is  conside:Kibly  below 
the  average.  These  gales  blow  with  much  violence,  and  have  been 
the  cause  of  much  disasters  to  shipping  at  different  times  in  East 
London  roads. 

*  See  view  on  plan  of  Buffalo  river  ;  and  aspect  of  coast,  p.  145. 


Chap.  IV.]  DIRBOTIONS— WINDS  AND  WEATHER.  145 

During  the  summer,  October  to  April,  easterly  winds  prevail,  and 
S.E.  gales  may  be  expected.    See  Algoa  bay,  winds,  &c.,  p.  113. 

Sailing  vessels  (unless  they  prefer  the  risk  of  riding  it  out)  would 
do  well  to  put  to  sea  when  a  south-west  gale  is  approaching,  standing 
to  the  eastward  and  heaving-to ;  they  would  have  no  difficulty  in 
regaining  the  anchorage  without  loss  of  time,  as  soon  as  the  gale  had 
subsided.  During  S.E.  gales  it  is  also  advisable  for  them  to  put  to 
sea  in  time,  notwithstanding  the  delay  which  may  possibly  take 
place  in  regaining  the  port  after  the  gale  has  subsided. 

Rollers  seldom  set  in  during  the  summer  months,  but  they  are 
frequent  during  the  winter,  the  barometer  generally  standing  two  or 
three  tenths  above  30*0.  The  rollers  along  the  shore,  generally  break 
out  to  a  depth  of  3  fathoms,  and  in  stormy  weather  to  a  depth  of 
5  fathoms,  In  very  heavy  gales  it  is  stated  that  they  break  out  to  a 
depth  of  7  or  8  fathoms,  and  on  other  parts  of  the  coast  they  break 
occasionally  in  10  fathoms. 

The  COAST  between  East  London  and  Bashee  river  is  every- 
where fringed  with  rocks  and  a  heavy  surf ;  few  places  offer  any 
chance  of  successful  landing  even  in  the  most  favourable  weather. 
At  Gonubie  point,  on  the  south-west  side  of  the  bight,  landing  might 
apparently  be  effected. 

Aspect. — The  most  remarkable  features  on  this  part  of  the  coast, 
and  by  which  it  may  be  recognised  either  in  shore  or  the  offing, 
are.  Cove  rock,  westward  of  East  London  ;  the  remarkable  peak  east- 
ward of  Gonubie  river  ;  cape  Morgan  from  the  south-west  and  west- 
ward by  the  high  perpendicular  cliffs  (which  show  very  plainly 
between  Ikuko  and  Sklagha  rivers),  and  from  the  eastward  by  the 
Kei  Kop  hill  and  Snag  rocks  ;  Sandy  point  by  the  sand  hills ; 
Mazeppa  bay  by  the  remarkable  sand  hill ;  and  the  coast  near  the 
Bashee  river  by  the  Udwessa  cliffs. 

Fish  may  be  obtained  along  the  coast,  but  only  on  rocky  ground. 

Inkyanza  river. — The  coast  from  the  quarry  at  the  north-east 
point  of  Buffalo  river,  continues  rocky  to  the  small  stream  at  the 
west  part  of  a  sandy  bight,  the  grassy  slope  running  down  nearly  to 
the  beach,  thence  to  Inkyanza  river  is  a  flat  sandy  beach;  the 
mouth  of  the  river  is  closed  with  sand,  and  off  it  are  several  detached 
rocks,  and  some  outlying  breakers  about  2  cables  from  the  beach. 

Between  Inkyanza  river  and  Kahoon  point  the  coast  is  formed  of 
rugged  cliffs  20  to  50  feet  high,  against  which  the  sea  breaks  violently ; 
about  4  cables  westward  of  Kahoon  point  and  half  a  cable  off  shore, 
S.0. 10625.  K 


146  BAST  LONDON  TO  CAPB  MORGAN.  [Chap.  IV. 

la  a  water-worn  rock  15  feet  high,  with  a  patch  of  rocks  awash  at 
high  water  at  one  cable  eastward  of  it. 

KahOOn  point  is  a  pecnliar  shaped  bare  cliff  35  feet  high,  with 
a  peak  a  little  behind  it  115  feet  high  ;  from  the  foot  of  the  cliff 
boulders  extend  in  a  south-east  direction  for  about  a  cable  to  low- 
water  mark.  About  65  yards  seaward  of  the  cliff  is  a  black  rock 
10  feet  high.  The  breakers  in  ordinary  weather  extend  3  cables  off, 
and  the  point  should  always  be  given  a  wide  berth. 

Landing. — From  Kahoon  point  the  coast  trends  northward  for 
about  half  a  mile,  forming  a  small  sandy  bight,  where  it  is  said 
landing  might  be  effected,  in  case  of  emergency,  in  westerly  gales. 

Clearing  mark.— The  north  comer  of  the  barracks  on  the  top 
of  the  hill  at  East  London,  open  of  the  low  part  of  the  bluff  over  the 
east  point  of  Buffalo  river,  bearing  West,  leads  clear  of  the  dangers 
off  Kahoon  point. 

Kahoon  river,  lying  about  two-thirds  of  a  mile  north-eastward 
of  Kahoon  point,  is  generally  open  at  high  water,  the  tide  rimning 
up  about  3  miles.  The  west  point  of  the  river  is  formed  by  a  black 
bushy  peak  80  feet  high,  and  partially  faced  with  sand. 

DANGER  POINT,  2  miles  eastward  of  Kahpon  river,  is  low, 
sandy,  and  fringed  with  rocks ;  between  them  is  a  small  stream 
named  Gonega  river  :  the  highest  part  of  the  coast  hills,  210  feet  above 
the  sea,  is  behind  Danger  point,  and  the  sand  extends  up  to  its  summit. 

A  dangerous  reef,  which  dries  one  foot,  with  11  fathoms  at  2  cables 
distant,  lies  4  cables  S.W.  by  S.  from  Danger  point.* 

Between  Danger  point  and  Gonubie  point,  3  miles  to  the  eastward, 
are  the  Klakla  and  the  Ganindugs  streams.  At  the  first  stream  the 
coast  hills  become  much  lower,  ranging  from  30  to  40  feet  in  height 
and  continues  so  to  Gonubie  point.  The  beach  between  the  points 
is  fringed  with  rocks. 

•  Gk>nubie  point  and  river.— From  Gonubie  point  a  ledge  of 
rocks  extends  to  the  westward  for  about  half  a  mile,  at  about  2  cables 
off  shore.  At  one  mile  west  of  Gonubie  point  the  breakers  extend 
in  bad  weather  3  cables  from  the  shore,  with  very  uneven  bottom 
outside  them.  Gonubie  point  has  a  small  grassy  hummock  near 
its  extremity  about  50  feet  in  height ;  from  this  point  the  shore  turns 
sharply  to  the  northward  for  half  a  mile  to  the  mouth  of  Gonubie 
river,  which  is  open  at  high  water,  the  tide  running  up  about  3  miles. 

•  See  Admiralty  chart :— Waterloo  bay  to  Bashee  river,  No.  2086  ;  scale,  w=0'3  of 
aninoh. 


.Chap.  IV.]  KAHOON  POINT— CAPB  HENDERSON.  147 

From  Gonubie  river  the  shore  trends  eastward  for  3  miles  to 
Ewelegha  point;  the  coast  hills  between  are  higher  and  for  a  short 
way  up  their  sea  side  are  faced  with  sand ;  the  beach  is  fringed  with 
rocks.  At  2  miles  eastward  of  Gronubie  river  is  a  dark  bushy  peak, 
242  feet  high,  inclining  to  the  eastward;  from  its  peculiar  shape 
this  is  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  objects  in  the  neighbourhood. 
There  is  also  a  remarkable  dome-shaped  peak  about  3  miles  eastward 
of  it. 

Kwelegha  point  is  low  and  rocky,  and  half  a  mile  to  the  north- 
ward of  it  is  the  mouth  of  Ewelegha  river,  which  is  only  open 
occasionally;  at  one  mile  eastward  is  Bologha  river,  also  open  at 
times.  On  the  south-west  bank  of  the  Bologha  is  a  remarkable 
bushy  hill,  237  feet  high,  and  faced  with  sand  a  short  way  up  its  sea 
face ;  the  east  point  of  the  river  is  rocky. 

Reef  point. — Prom  Bologha  river  the  shore  trends  north-eastward 
for  2^  miles  to  Reef  point ;  the  beach  is  sandy  and  fringed  with 
rocks.  Reef  point  has  two  rocky  horns,  at  the  back  of  which  is  a 
wide  sandy  beach,  from  which  the  coast  hills  rise  to  a  height  of 
313  feet.  At  a  quarter  of  a  mile  off  the  west  horn  of  the  point  is  a 
ledge  of  rocks,  some  of  which  appear  at  low  water,  and  the  sea 
breaks  fully, half  a  mile  from  the  point. 

From  Reef  point,  the  shore  trends  northward  for  H  miles  to 
Kintza  river,  which  is  closed  with  sand.  Thence  it  trends  eastward 
for  If  miles  to  Klefani  river  (also  closed),  a  mile  beyond  which  is 
Kwenugha  river.  Farther  eastward  is  Naagh  river  and  cape 
Henderson. 

Between  Reef  point  and  cape  Henderson  the  shore  forms  a  long 
deep  bight ;  the  coast  hills  are  high  and  faced  with  sand  some  way 
up  ;  immediately  behind,  the  land  rises  to  a,  height  of  350  to  400  feet, 
and  is  covered  with  grass  and  patches  of  bush. 

The  west  point  of  the  Naagh  river  is  a  bare  sand  hill  about 
130  feet  high,  and  conspicuous,  being  the  last  sand  hill  of  note  for 
nearly  25  miles.  - 

Oape  Henderson  rises  directly  from  the  rocky  beach  to  a  height 
of  485  feet,  and  is  covered  with  grass ;  the  land  is  lower  on  both 
sides  of  it.  The  cape  has  a  dark  bluff  looking  appearance  from  sea- 
ward, which  probably  gave  rise  to  its  being  called  a  cape. 

From  cape  Henderson  the  shore  trends  eastward  about  3  miles  to 
Flat  point ;  at  1^  miles  eastward  of  the  cape  is  a  small  stream,  the 
west  head  of  which  is  410  feet  high.    At  one-third  of  a  mile  eastward 

8.0. 10625.  K  2 


148  BAST  LONDON  TO  CAPE  MORGAN.  [Chap.  IV. 

of  this  stream  is  a  point,  the  hill  over  which  is  250  feet  high.  OflE 
this  point  is  a  sunken  rock  on  which  the  sea  breaks  in  bad  weather, 
bearing  E.  by  S.  ^  S.  1|  miles  from  cape  Henderson,  and  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  off  shore.  About  one  mile  eastward  from  the  point  is  the 
Agaga,  another  small  stream  ;  here  the  shore  becomes  much  lower. 

Flat  point  and  the  land  eastward  for  nearly  a  mile  is  low  and 
grassy,  not  more  than  25  feet  above  the  sea,  but  about  half  a  mile 
inland  a  grassy  ridge  rises  abruptly  to  a  height  of  356  feet. 

At  1^  miles  eastward  of  Flat  point  are  two  small  streams,  the 
Umtwendwe  and  Nukwana.  Eastward  of  these  the  coast  is  much 
higher,  and  trends  gradually  to  Ikuko  or  Double-mouth  river,  a  third 
of  a  mile  westward  of  which  the  coast  is  163  feet  high  and  nearly 
perpendicular. 

Ikuko  or  Double-Mouth  river  is  generally  open,  and  the 
tide  runs  up  about  1^  miles  at  high  water.  At  6  cables  eastward  of 
Ikuko  river  and  one  cable  off-shore  are  some  rocks. 

From  Ikuko  river  the  shore  trends  eastward  for  nearly  2  miles  to 
Sklagha  river  ;  between  the  two  rivers  the  coast  is  irregular,  and 
consists  of  perpendicular  cliffs  varying  from  140  to  220  feet  in  height. 

At  Skagla  river  the  cliffs  cease  ;  thence  a  small  sandy  beach  extends 
nearly  to  cape  Morgan,  between  which  and  Skagla  river  are  several 
rocks  at  a  distance  of  3  to  4  cables  off-shore. 

From  Skagla  river  to  the  west  extreme  of  cape  Morgan,  the  coast 
hills  rise  steeply  from  the  sandy  beach,  and  are  covered  with  bush. 


149 


CHAPTER    V. 


CAPE   MORGAN   TO   CAPE   CORRIENTES. 
(Long.  28"  22'  E.  to  35°  30'  E.) 


VARIATION  IN  1889. 

St.  John  river 28°  0' W. 

Natal 26°20'W. 

Delagoabay 23°  30' W. 


OAPE  MORGAN  is  a  broad  flat  low  point,  rising  abruptly  to  a 
height  of  275  feet,  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore,  and  at  a 
distance  of  half  a  mile  inland  to  a  height  of  395  feet.  It  drops 
suddenly  on  its  eastern  side,  and  from  seaward  appears  a  remarkable 
flat-topped  hill  covered  with  bush. 

From  the  west  to  the  east  extreme  of  cape  Morgan,  the  coast  line 
is  rocky  and  nearly  straight ;  it  then  turns  north-eastward  for  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  to  Ikwili  river,  the  mouth  of  which  is  choked  ; 
thence  eastward  to  Kei  river,  the  beach  is  fringed  with  rocky  ledges 
extending  one  cable  from  high  water  mark. 

Rooks. — The  highest,  and  eastern  of  the  group  of  rocks  between 
the  cape  and  Sklagha  river,  is  2  feet  above  high  water,  and  bears 
West  3^  cables  from  the  west  extreme  of  cape  Morgan  ;  in-shore  are 
several  other  rocks,  most  of  which  show  at  low  water.  Seaward  of 
these  are  two  detached  breakers  2  cables  apart ;  the  western  one 
which  generally  breaks  lies  S.W.  by  W.  f  W.  distant  6^  cables  from 
the  west  extreme  of  cape  Morgan.    The  eastern  one  seldom  breaks. 

Olearilisr  Mark. — The  west  head  of  Kei  river,  open  of  the  east 
extreme  of  cape  Morgan,  leads  south-eastward  of  the  rocks. 

Anohoragro. — ^There  is  good  shelter  from  north-west  and  westerly 
winds,  from  a  half  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile  eastward  of  cape 


150  CAPK  MORGAN  TO  PORT  NATAL.       [Chap.  V. 

Morgan,  and  the  same  distance  off  shore.    Here,  under  favourable 
circumstances,  landing  might  be  effected. 

KEI  RIVER  lies  1|  miles  eastward  of  cape  Morgan.  The  bar  is 
scarcely  ever  practicable,  but  the  depth  is  reported  to  be  6  or  7  feet 
at  low  water.  Breakers  extend  about  one  mile  seaward  of  the 
entrance. 

On  the  south-west  side  of  entrance  is  a  dark  bushy  hill  190  feet 
high,  rising  almost  directly  from  the  beach  ;  from  the  foot  of  this 
hill  a  long  spit  of  sand  extends  in  a  north-east  direction,  to  within 
about  85  yards  of  the  north-east  side  of  the  river,  between  which  the 
stream  flows  ;  the  channel  is  about  25  yards  wide  at  low  water. 

This  channel  leads  between  the  sunken  rocks  extending  from  the 
north-east  point,  and  the  breakers  on  the  bar,  which  are  30  or  40 
yards  to  the  southward. 

Inside  its  narrow  entrance,  Kei  river  opens  to  a  width  of  one-third 
of  a  mile,  and  near  the  mouth  are  two  sand  banks  dry  at  low  water ; 
the  river  runs  first  IJ  miles  north-north-west,  for  which  distance  the 
west  bank  is  low ;  it  then  turns  north-north-east  for  2^  miles,  the  land 
on  the  west  bank  being  about  500  feet  high  and  nearly  perpendicular  ; 
the  east  bank  rises  gradually  for  about  1^  miles  above  the  first  bend, 
and  then  becomes  perpendicular  and  about  500  feet  in  height ;  the 
stream  then  turns  to  the  north-west  and  west  for  3  miles,  and 
narrows  to  about  250  yards. 

In  this  upper  bend  the  left  bank  rises  nearly  perpendicular  to  a 
height  of  825  feet,  and  its  right  bank  to  a  height  of  865  feet,  ter- 
minating in  a  round-topped  hill  named  the  Kei  Kop,  which  may  be 
.  seen  from  most  directions,  being  the  highest  hill  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. The  river  then  runs  southerly  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile, 
and  turning  sharp  round  a  long  flat  point,  runs  in  a  north-north-west 
direction.  At  1^  miles  beyond  this  last  point  is  the  head  of  the 
tidal  water,  and  where  at  times  it  is  shallow  enough  to  wade  across. 
The  waggon  drift  is  about  20  miles  farther  up  the  river. 

Snag:  rooks  lie  about  half  a  mile  off  the  mouth  of  Kei  river, 
three  of  them  being  visible  at  high  water.  The  outer  or  south-west 
rock  is  about  half  a  cable  long,  but  only  a  few  feet  broad ;  its  south- 
west end  is  10  feet  high.  It  lies  E.  by  N.  |  N.,  distant  1^  miles  from 
the  east  extreme  of  cape  Morgan,  and  S.W.,  distant  8  cables  from  the 
©astern  point  of  the  Kei  river. 

Two  other  dry  rocks  lie  from  one  to  two  cables  northward  and 
eastward  of  the  above,  and  are  2  to  3  feet  high. 


Chap,  v.]  KBI  RIVER— DIRECTIONS.  151 

Sunken  rocks  extend  from  3  to  5  cables  east  and  north-eastward  6f 
the  highest  rock,  most  of  which  are  visible  at  low- water  springs. 

The  sea  breaks  heavily  all  round  the  Snag  rocks,  and  in  bad 
weather  the  breakers  extend  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  mile  outside  them. 

Anohoragre. — There  is  anchorage  off  the  river  in  about  9  fathoms, 
with  cape  Morgan  bearing  W.  by  S.  |  S.,  Snag  rock  West,  and  Sandy 
patch  at  river  entrance  N.  |  W. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Kei  river  at  about 
4h.  Om. ;  springs  rise  about  5  feet. 

Current. — At  about  one  mile  off  the  Kei,  the  current  was  found 
invariably  setting  to  the  south-west,  at  the  mean  rate  of  1^  knotd. 
At  first  quarter  ebb,  the  stream  from  the  river  reached  as  far  to  the 
south-eastward  as  the  anchorage,  where  it  joined  the  coast  current 
and  both  ran  to  the  south-west  together.  During  flood  tide  the 
influence  of  the  stream  was  not  sufficient  to  alter  the  general  direction 
of  the  ship's  head. 

Bar. — ^Directions. — In  consequence  of  the  channels  shifting,  and 
the  depths  varying  after  gales  or  rain,  strangers  should  not  attempt 
to  enter  Kei  river.  From  the  anchorage  a  remarkable  sand  patch  is 
seen  on  the  face  of  the  dark  hill  on  the  north  shore  of  the  river.  This 
serves  as  a  guide  to  the  entrance,  as  the  low  ledge  of  sunken  rocks 
extending  from  the  northern  shore  is  nearly  in  line  with  it,  and  it  is 
from  this  point  the  river  must  be  entered.  If  attempting  to  enter 
the  river  in  case  of  necessity,  a  fair  opportunity  must  be  waited  for, 
keeping  a  good  look-out  on  the  low  ledge,  over  which  the  sea  breaks 
furiously;  and,  when  a  favourable  chance  offers,  pull  in,  keeping 
the  rocky  shore  so  close  as  to  leave  just  sufficient  room  for  the  oars ; 
probably  there  is  not  a  less  depth  than  6  or  7  feet  at  low  water  over 
the  bar.  The  breakers  on  the  bar  extend  to  the  rocks  only  during 
heavy  rollers,  when  of  course  the  channel  is  impracticable.* 

Landing  outside. — If  landing  is  decided  upon,  and  the  bar 
prove  impassable,  it  may  possibly  be  effected  at  a  sandy  spit,  sheltered 
in  some  degree  by  a  patch  of  sunken  rocks  to  the  southward  of  it ; 
these  rocks  lie  about  one  cable  off  shore  at  about  three  quarters  of  a 
mile  to  the  southward  of  Kei  river ;  the  sea  breaks  violently  over 
them.* 

The  flood  stream  sets  north-eastward  close  in  shore,  and  the  ebb 
south-westward.    Care  must  be  taken  in  landing  on  the  spit  that, 

♦  F.  Skead,  Master,  R.N.,  1858. 


152  CAPE  MORGAN  TO  PORT  NATAL.       [Chap,  V. 

while  waiting  for  a  smooth,  the  boat  be  not  swept  too  far  to  the 
north-east,  for  it  was  found  on  one  occasion,  when  a  whale  boat  of 
H.M.S.  Qei/ser  was  swamped  in  endeavouring  to  pass  through  the 
surf,  that  the  boat  was  not  thrown  on  the  spit  by  the  rollers,  but 
carried  to  the  north-eastward  by  the  flood  tide  into  the  breakers  on 
the  bar,  thence  into  the  river  through  the  channel,  and  was  not 
recovered  until  twelve  hours  afterwards.  On  the  other  hand,  during 
the  ebb  tide  equal  care  is  necessary  that  the  boat  be  not  drifted  to 
the  south-westward,  where  the  surf  is  so  much  heavier  and  the  beach 
rocky.* 

Landing  in  surf  boats  is  sometimes  practicable  in  the  Sandy  bay 
at  1^  miles  eastward  of  the  Kei,  and  also  at  the  beach  near  Kologha 
river, 

COAST.— The  only  sand  hills  for  a  hundred  miles  eastward  of 
the  Kei  are  the  sand  bluff  at  Sandy  point  and  a  similar  one  18  miles 
farther  east.  The  coast  between  the  Kei  and  these  sand  hills  is 
covered  with  grass  and  bushes  down  to  the  beach. 

Koko  river  is  half  a  mile  eastward  of  Kei  river,  and  its  mouth  is 
generally  closed  at  low  water.  The  beach  from  Kei  river  eastward 
is  fringed  with  rocks,  and  with  the  exception  of  a  dark  bushy  hill 
110  feet  high,  on  the  east  side  of  Koko  river,  the  shore  is  low  and 
grassy.     The  shore  thence  trends  to  the  entrance  of  Kologha  river. 

Kologrlld'  river  is  open  at  high  water,  and  the  channel  in  is  close 
to  the  south-west  point ;  a  sand  spit  extends  from  the  north-east  point 
nearly  across  the  entrance.  The  distance  between  the  points  is  one- 
third  of  a  mile.  The  shore  from  one  mile  south-west  of  Kologha 
river  to  4  miles  north-east  of  it  is  grassy,  and  covered  with  small 
hillocks  about  10  feet  above  the  ground,  formed  of  ant  hills  over 
which  has  grown  small  bush,  and  when  4  or  5  miles  distant  are  a 
conspicuous  feature  of  this  part  of  the  coast. 

The  east  hill  at  entrance  of  Kologha  river  is  covered  with  dark 
bush  and  is  about  150  feet  high. 

At  4  cables  S.S.W.  from  the  west  point  of  Kologha  river  is  a  sunken 
rock,  and  at  one  cable  west  of  the  rock  is  the  east  end  of  a  ledge  which 
uncovers  at  low  water,  thence  trending  south-westward  for  half  a  mile. 
Eastward  of  the  sunken  rock  are  two  others,  bearing  respectively 
from  the  west  point  of  Kologha  river  S.S.E.  ^  E.  2  cables,  and  East 
nearly  a  third  of  a  mile. 

*  F.  Skead,  Master,  R.N.,  1858. 


Chap,  v.]  KOLOGHA  RIVER— BOWKBRS  BAY.  153 

Mound  point. — From  Kologha  river  the  shore  trends  easterly 

2  miles  to  Mound  point ;  the  beach  between  is  rocky  and  three 
small  streams  empty  themselves. 

Mound  point  has  a  small  grassy  hummock  near  its  extremity,  about 
40  feet  high  ;  at  the  back  the  land  is  uneven  and  rises  to  a  height  of 
240  feet,  at  a  distance  of  half  a  mile  inland. 

About  1^  miles  eastward  of  Mound  point  is  Kobinnaba  river  ;  the 
beach  between  is  fringed  with  rocks,  and  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
S.W.  I  W.  from  the  west  point  of  the  river,  is  a  sunken  rock  on  which 
the  sea  generally  breaks. 

Koblnndba  river  is  always  open,  and  the  tide  runs  up  some 

3  miles,  where  there  is  a  ford.  The  rocky  east  point  of  the  river  has 
a  grassy  hummock  about  20  feet  high,  and  off  the  extremity  of  the 
point  is  a  small  rock  visible  at  low  water.  About  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  beyond  the  river  is  the  point  of  the  same  name,  the  shore 
between  forming  a  sandy  bight ;  off  the  west  part  of  this  point  are 
several  rocks  visible  at  low  water.  Within  the  point  a  hill  rises 
almost  immediately  to  300  feet  high,  gradually  sloping  to  the  mouth 
of  Nxaxa  river. 

Nzaza  river. — From  Kobinnaba  point  the  shore  trends  eastward 
for  1^  miles  to  Nxaxa  river,  the  mouth  of  which  is  generally  open  ; 
the  beach  between  is  rocky.  The  west  point  of  Nxaxa  river  is  low 
and  a  stony  reef  extends  off  one  cable  in  an  easterly  direction,  close 
to  which  is  the  narrow  channel  into  the  river.  The  east  point  of  the 
river  is  a  small  sand  hill  covered  with  bush,  with  a  spit  of  sand 
stretching  to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  west  side. 

From  Nxaxa  river  the  shore  trends  IJ  miles  to  Sandy  point.  The 
coast  hills  which  rise  precipitously  from  the  sandy  beach  form  a 
conspicuous  ridge  covered  with  dark  bush,  and  faced  with  sand  to 
some  height,  extending  from  Nxaxa  river  to  about  half  a  mile  past 
the  point,  on  which  are  four  distinct  peaks  ;  the  third  from  the  west, 
ward  is  the  highest,  being  280  feet  above  the  sea. 

SANDY  POINT.— On  sandy  point  is  a  small  sand  hill  75  feet 
high,  covered  with  bush,  and  from  it  a  stony  point  extends  off  nearly 
one  cable.  The  hill  is  connected  with  the  ridge  behind  by  a  high 
neck  of  sand. 

Bowkers  bay. — From  Sandy  point  the  shore  curves  north-east- 
ward for  two-thirds  of  a  mile  to  a  point,  and  thence  northward  half  a 
mile  to  a  small  stream,  the  western  of  which  is  closed  by  a  sand 
bank.     This  bight  is  known  as  Bowkers  bay.    The  hill  on  the  west 


154  CAPB  MORGAN  TO  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V. 

Bide  of  the  western  stream  is  180  feet  high,  covered  with  bush  and 
partially  faced  with  sand. 

Anchorage. — Landing. — H.M.S.  Active  found  good  anchorage, 
with  shelter  from  westerly  winds,  in  10^  fathoms,  sandy  bottom,  one 
mile  off  the  stream,  and  E.N.E.  the  same  distance  from  Sandy  point. 
This  appears  to  be  the  best  anchorage  on  this  part  of  the  coast,  and 
is  certainly  the  safest  place  for  landing.  The  examination  of  the 
bay  was  made  under  favourable  circumstances.  The  surf  broke  in 
3  fathoms  abreast  the  landing. 

On  the  bank  fronting  the  stream,  and  at  the  foot  of  the  remarkable 
sandy  hill,  landing  was  effected  in  a  whale  boat  manned  by 
experienced  boatmen  from  port  Elizabeth. 

Umfdnl  river,  situated  in  the  northern  part  of  Bowkers  bay, 
is  open  at  high  water  ;  there  are  two  small  bushy-topped  hillocks  on 
the  south-west  side  of  this  river.  A  third  of  a  mile  farther  eastward 
is  the  mouth  of  Istamfoona  river,  which  is  also  open  at  high  water. 

Between  these  rivers  is  a  small  rocky  point,  at  the  back  of  which, 
and  forming  a  headland  common  to  both  rivers,  is  a  remarkable 
black  bushy  peak,  255  feet  in  height,  appearing  in  some  directions  as 
a  double  peak ;  sand  extends  up  its  sea  face  about  40  feet.  At 
3  cables  S.S.E.  ^  E.  from  the  mouth  of  Umfani  river  is  a  sunken 
rock  which  frequently  breaks  ;  the  beach  to  Stony  point  is  fringed 
with  outlying  rocks  to  the  distance  of  one  cable. 

OOAST. — Stony  point  is  low  with  outlying  rocks,  one  cable 
from  the  shore  ;  about  half  a  cable  from  the  point  is  a  square  rock 
6  feet  above  high  water. 

Two  breaking  patches  lie  southward  of  Stony  point,  the  outer  is 

one  cable  long,  and  lies  with  the  point  bearing  N.  ^  E.,  distant  half  a 
mile. 

At  two-thirds  of  a  mile  north-eastward  of  Stony  point  is  the  river 
Umtilwane,  the  mouth  of  which  is  nearly  closed,  and  half  a  mile 
beyond  is  the  mouth  of  the  Manubie  ;  the  shore  between  is  low  with 
a  rocky  beach,  and  skirted  at  a  short  distance  with  rocks.  On  the 
west  side  of  Umtilwane  is  a  sharp  black  head  155  feet  high ;  the 
east  side  is  low. 

Manubie  river  is  open  at  high  water,  and  has  a  long  spit  of 
sand  running  nearly  across  its  mouth,  the  channel  being  on  its  west 
side.  At  the  west  point  of  entrance  the  land  is  95  feet  high,  and 
covered  with  bush  ;  the  east  point  is  low,  being  the  extremity  of  a 
long  ridge  of  beach  hills  which  extend  to  the  eastward  and  rise 
abruptly  from  the  beach. 


Chap,  v.]  umfAni  river— kogha  rivbr.  155 

Off  a  point  4  cables  eastward  of  the  Manubie,  are  several  rocks 
about  one  cable  from  the  shore.  At  the  back  of'  the  point  is  the 
highest  peak  of  the  ridge  just  mentioned,  the  whole  of  which  is 
covered  with  bush. 

About  1^  miles  eastward  of  the  Manubie  is  the  mouth  of  the 
Kleena,  which  is  open  at  high  water,  and  farther  on  is  Mazeppa 
point ;  the  shore  between  is  rocky  and  sandy  beach  fringed  with 
rocks. 

Mazeppa  point. — The  hill  over  Mazeppa  point  is  about  190  feet 
in  height;  the  point  may  be  identified  by  a  grassy  peaked  islet^ 
26  feet  high,  lying  8  or  10  yards  off  it.  There  appears  to  be  no 
dangers  off  Mazeppa  point,  but  the  sea  breaks  a  considerable  distance 
off  in  bad  weather. 

Mazeppa  bay  lies  north-eastward  of  Mazeppa  point,  between  it 
and  Kogha  river ;  small  vessels  have  landed  cargoes  here  in  very  fine 
weather,  but  with  great  difficulty ;  the  best  place  is  on  the  beach 
xmder  the  conspicuous  sand  hill,  190  feet  high,  just  eastward  of 
Nebbelelli  river.  In  bad  weather  rollers  set  in  right  across  the  bay, 
and  render  it  unsafe.  A  path  runs  from  the  western  side  of  this  bay 
up  the  ridge,  through  the  Manubie  forest,  and  continues  up  the  ridges 
to  the  Natal  road,  about  30  miles  from  the  coast,  joining  it  a  few  miles 
east  of  the  Butterworth  mission  station. 

The  Nebbelelli  river  lies  about  one  mile  north-eastward  of  Mazeppa 
point,  and  is  open  at  high  water ;  from  its  rocky  east  point  a  ledge 
dries  out  a  distance  of  one  cable  to  a  patch  of  rocks.  At  this  point  a 
sandy  beach  commences,  and  continues  for  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile, 
when  the  shore  becomes  rocky  again.  At  the  back  of  this  sandy 
beach  is  the  conspicuous  sand  hill  before  referred  to  ;  the  sand  extends 
up  to  its  sunmiit  on  the  sea  side,  and  the  top  and  western  slope  is 
covered  with  dark  bush. 

The  coast  between  Mazeppa  bay  and  Bashee  river  is  foul,  with  a 
heavy  surf. 

Kogrha  river  is  always  open  ;  a  sand  spit  extends  nearly  across  its 
mouth  from  the  west  point,  the  land  over  which  is  150  feet  high,  and 
covered  with  bush.    The  east  point  is  also  bushy,  87  feet  high,  and  • 
from  its  base  a  rocky  point  extends  to  the   south-west,   off  the 
extremity  of  which,  distant  about  half  a  cable,  is  a  low  water  rock. 

The  tide  runs  up  Kogha  river  4  or  5  miles,  and  its  banks  are  high, 
and  in  many  parts  perpendicular.  On  its  right  bank,  about  3  miles 
from  its  mouth,  a  thick  bush  commences,  and  extends  about  2^  miles 
to  the  north-west,  nearly  parallel  to  the  river,  and  about  a  mile  in 


156  CAPE  MORGAN  TO  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V 

width ;  it  is  dense,  and  known  as  the  Manubie  forest.    Buffaloes  are 
said  to  be  numerous  in  this  bush. 

At  two-thirds  of  a  mile  eastward  of  Kogha  river  is  a  low  rocky 
point ;  a  small  bight  is  formed  between,  in  which  are  several 
low  water  rocks.  About  2  cables  westward  from  the  point,  and  1^^ 
cables  off  shore  is  a  ledge  of  rocks  3  feet  above  high  water.  A 
sunken  rock  lies  1^  cables  from  the  point. 

Juju  river  lies  1^  miles  eastward  of  the  Kogha,  and  its  mouth 
is  generally  open  ;  its  west  point  is  low  and  rocky.  On  the  north- 
east bank  of  the  river,  a  short  distance  from  the  mouth,  is  a  dark 
bushy  head  about  90  feet  high,  and  from  its  base  a  sand  spit  extends 
nearly  across  the  river,  leaving  only  a  narrow  channel.  For  half  a 
mile  eastward  of  the  Juju  the  shore  forms  a  bight  with  a  rivulet  at 
its  head ;  the  beach  is  fringed  with  rocks,  and  at  the  back  the 
land  is  low  and  grassy.  On  the  east  side  of  the  bight  a  bushy  head 
rises  from  the  beach,  with  three  peaks,  about  80  feet  in  height. 

At  half  a  mile  farther  on  is  a  stream  which  is  open  at  high  water ; 
and  about  half  way  between,  and  IJ  cables  off  shore,  are  several 
rocks.  The  west  point  of  the  river  has  a  small  green  hummock, 
15  feet  high,  on  its  extremity,  with  a  rock  half  a  cable  off. 

From  the  east  point  of  this  stream  the  shore  trends  eastward 
1^  miles  to  Shekleen  river,  with  low  sandy  hillocks,  covered  with 
bush,  over  the  sandy  beach.  At  the  distance  of  two-thirds  of  a  mile 
along  the  beach,  and  three-quarters  of  a  cable  from  the  shore,  is  a 
low  sunken  rock,  from  which  to  the  next  river  are  several  outlying 
rocks.    The  coast  rises  to  a  height  of  200  feet  at  half  a  mile  inland. 

Shekleen  river  is  generally  open,  the  channel  running  out 
close  to  the  base  of  a  remarkable  green  peak,  120  feet  high,  which 
drops  perpendicularly  on  the  west  side  of  the  riv^r.  The  east  side  is 
low,  with  a  long  sandy  beach  in  front  of  it.  The  shore  then  trends 
eastward  one  mile  to  Shekleen  point,  and  a  little  more  than  half 
way  is  a  small  black  head  from  which  the  land  rises  abruptly  to  a 
height  of  275  feet. 

Shekleen  point  projects  some  distance  at  low  water,  but  at 
high  water  the  sea  washes  the  foot  of  the  small  bushy  head  which 
forms  the  point.  It  is  about  50  feet  high,  and  connected  with  the 
coast  ridge  by  a  low  neck  of  sand  and  bush,  and  when  seen  from 
near  the  coast  it  appears  as  an  islet. 

At  li  miles  to  the  north-east  is  Gnabie  stream;  the  beach 
between  is  rocky,  with  three  other  small  streams.  The  land  rises 
immediately  from  the  beach  to  a  considerable  height,  and  is  covered 


Chap,  v.]  JUJU  RIVER— UDWBSSI  POINT.  157 

with  grass  and  bush.  About  2^  miles  inland  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Qnibie  is  a  remarkable  tree  on  a  mound,  conspicuous  when 
seen  from  a  vessel  5  or  6  miles  off  the  coast. 

Kunduluana  river  is  a  third  of  a  mile  farther  eastward ;  at 
another  third  of  a  mile  beyond  is  Kawka  river ;  the  land  between 
rises  steeply  to  a  height  of  150  feet,  with  a  small  bushy  hill  in  front, 
the  sea  face  of  which  is  sand,  about  30  feet  high. 

At  2  miles  beyond  the  Kawka  is  the  Onabbakka  river  ;  the  coast 
between  is  fringed  with  rocks,  and  a  low  ridge  of  bushy  hills  rise 
immediately  ^from  the  beach,  the  land  at  the  back  of  which  is 
covered  with  grass  and  bush,  and  is  250  feet  high  at  a  distance  of 
half  a  mile  inland. 

Landmark. — ^At  half  a  mile  south-west  of  Gnabbakka  river 
there  are  some  bushy  hillocks  faced  with  sand  for  100  or  135  yards 
in  length,  and  about  40  feet  in  height ;  the  bushes  extend  down  the 
middle  of  the  sand  nearly  to  the  bottom,  making  it  appear  when 
some  distance  from  the  shore  as  two  small  sandy  peaks,  and  which 
can  be  seen  8  or  10  miles  off.  This  is  the  only  sand  which  shows 
from  any  distance  between  Mazeppa  bay  and  Bashee  river. 

Qnabbdkka  river  has  a  wide  entrance ;  the  west  point  is  low 
from  which  a  sandy  beach  stretches  across  towards  the  east  point  and 
into  the  river ;  the  mouth  is  common  to  two  rivers ;  the  eastern  is 
the  larger  and  the  tide  runs  up  it  about  five  miles.  The  east  point  is 
high,  grassy,  and  nearly  perpendicular.  Thence  to  Gnabbakka  point 
the  coast  is  nearly  straight  and  rocky,  the  land  attaining  a  height  of 
from  200  to  300  feet  at  a  distance  of  one  third  of  a  mile,  from  the 
beach,  and  broken  by  several  ravines. 

Ingoma  river  is  a  small  stream,  and  about  1^  miles  north-eastward 
of  Gnabbdkka  point ;  half  a  mile  farther  eastward  is  KaboUa  river ; 
between  the  two  rivers  is  a  rocky  point,  and  the  coast  is  about  170 
feet  high. 

From  Kabolla  river  the  coast,  which  is  of  high  cliffs,  trends  south- 
eastward to  Udwessa  point,  a  dark  bluff  ;  the  cliffs  are  perpendicular 
and  160  feet  high,  from  which  the  land  rises  to  a  grassy  peak  310  feet 
above  the  sea  ;  a  short  distance  east  of  which  and  somewhat  higher 
is  a  dark  bushy  hill. 

From  Udwessa  point  (half  a  mile  east  of  which  the  cliffs  cease), 
the  coast  trends  eastward  for  1|  miles  to  Amendu  point,  westward  of 
which  is  the  mouth  of  Amendu  river  ;  the  shore  in  places  is  fringed 
with  rooks. 


158  BASHBB  RIVBR.  [Chap.  Y. 

Amendu  point  is  a  long  rocky  projection,  with  several  outlying 
rocks.  A  sunken  rock  lies  one  cable  E.S.E.  from  the  outer  low  water 
rock,  or  about  2^  cables  off  the  point.  On  the  point  is  a  small  bushy 
hillock  25  feet  high,  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile  inland  on  the  east  side 
of  Amendu  river,  is  a  hill  115  feet  high,  covered  with  grass  and  bush. 
The  Amendu  river  forces  its  way  to  the  sea  through  a  sandy  spit, 
which  stretches  across  from  the  east  point. 

Landingr  might  possibly  be  effected  about  half  a  mile  eastward  of 
the  rocks  extending  from  Amendu  point  where  also  there  is  reported 
to  be  fair  anchorage. 

Between  Amendu  point  and  Bashee  river,  the  shore  is  stony  with 
a  small  sandy  beach,  from  which  the  coast  hills  covered  with 
bush  rise  about  60  feet  high,  backed  by  land  about  180  feet  above  the 
sea.  Between  are  two  streams,  and  the  western  one  is  named 
XJmandwana  river. 

BASHEE  RIVER. — The  entrance  to  Bashee  river  is  about  one- 
third  of  a  mile  wide.  The  west  point  is  low  and  grassy,  but  about  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  up  the  river  on  the  right  bank  is  a  grassy  hill 
270  feet  high  ;  the  hill  on  the  east  side  of  entrance  is  high  and  covered 
with  bush.  Sand  spits  extend  from  both  points  of  the  river,  the 
eastern  spit  overlapping  the  western.  The  depth  in  the  channel 
between  (about  50  feet  wide)  is  3  feet  at  low  water.  The  sea  breaks 
for  a  distance  of  2  cables  or  more  outside  the  entrance. 

Inside  the  entrance  are  three  sand  bank^,  which  dry  at  low  water. 
The  channel  is  close  along  the  west  shore,  between  it  and  the  sand 
banks.  Above  the  sand  banks  the  river  expands  to  a  fine  sheet  of 
water,  running  nearly  straight  for  2  miles  in  a  N.  by  W.  direction, 
with  an  average  breadth  of  1^  cables.  The  banks  of  the  river  are 
steep,  and  on  the  west  side  are  generally  free  from  bush,  but  on  the 
east  side,  from  half  a  mile  within  the  entrance,  are  covered  with 
dense  bush.    Hippopotami  aboimd  in  the  river.* 

About  IJ  miles  up  the  river,  and  half  a  mile  from  the  right  bank,, 
the  dense  Udwessa  forest  commences,  and  extending  in  a  westerly 
direction  for  about  5  miles,  is  1 J  miles  in  width,  and  at  an  average 
distance  of  a  mile  from  the  coast. 

Anohoragre. — H.M.S.  Active  (1877)  anchored  several  times  off  the 
mouth  of  this  river.  A  good  berth  is  in  10^  fathoms,  sandy  bottom, 
commanding  the  right  bank    of    the    river,  with    Amendu  point 

*  See  Admiralty  ohart : — ^Bashee  river  to  Umtamvuna  river,  No.  2,087 ;  scale, 
mss  0*29  inches. 


Ohap.  v.]  ANCHORAOS— LANDING.  159 

W.  by  S.  i  S.,  Bashee  point  E.N.E.,  and  the  west  head  of  the  river 
N.W.  ^  N.  The  rollers  generally  set  in  heavily  after  a  strong 
westerly  or  south-westerly  breeze,  occasionally  breaking  in  6  or  7 
fathoms,  but  generally  off  the  mouth  of  the  river  in  3^  or  4  fathoms. 

Landingr  is  dangerous  as  the  breakers  are  confused.  The  following 
is  the  experience  of  H.M.S.  Active^  in  1887  : — 

Landing  was  tirst  made  on  the  eastern  spit  in  a  whale  boat,  but  the 
attempt  to  get  off  proving  ineffectual,  the  boat  was  carried  1^  miles 
to  the  westward  to  a  sandy  beach  close  to  a  small  river,  closed  by  a 
sand  ridge,  from  which  place,  with  great  difficulty,  the  crew  succeeded 
in  returning  to  ship.  On  a  second  occasion,  in  attempting  to  land,  the 
boat  was  capsized  (apparently  over  rocky  ground),  one  life  was  lost, 
the  remainder  of  the  crew  reached  the  shore  with  difficulty.  Several 
attempts  were  made  to  return  to  the  ship  but  without  success,  and 
the  crew  had  to  go  to  East  London. 

Oaution. — Before  attempting  to  land  on  this  beach,  which  is  about 
200  yards  in  length,  and  three-quarters  of  a  mile  north  of  Amendu 
point,  the  direction  of  the  current  outside  the  edge  of  the  surf  should 
be  ascertained  so  as  to  avoid  being  set  over  the  rocky  ground  which 
evidently  extends  from  the  shore  on  either  side  of  the  sandy  beach. 
The  rollers  occasionally  without  warning  break  heavily  a  considerable 
distance  outside  the  usual  line  of  breakers. 

Current. — ^The  Agulhas  current  off  this  coast,  generally  sets  about 
W.  by  S.  or  nearly  in  the  direction  of  the  coast  at  the  rate  of  one  to 
3^  knots  an  hour  ;  it  is  weak  in  strength  near  the  coast,  and  strongest 
near  the  edge  of  the  bank  of  soundings.  It  almost  invariably  sets  to 
the  westward  in  all  the  anchorages  between  East  London  and  Bashee 
river,  but  sometimes,  in  fine  weather,  within  a  distance  of  about 
2  miles  from  the  coast,  a  weak  current  sets  to  the  eastward ;  this 
easterly  set  has  occasionally  been  known  to  extend  some  7  or  8  miles 
off  the  coast. 

Bashee  point. — From  Bashee  river  a  sandy  shore  curves  slightly 
to  Bashee  point  1|  miles  distant.  The  high  part  of  thiS  point  is  bushy, 
and  on  the  outer  part  is  a  small  grassy-hummock.  A  rock  lies  a  short 
distance  off  the  point.  From  the  westward,  a  sandy  streak  on  the 
west  side  of  a  bushy  hill,  near  the  east  side  of  entrance  to  the  river 
is  visible. 

THE  OOAST  between  the  Bashee  and  Umkomass  rivers  is  fringed 
with  outlying  rocks  for  a  distance  varying  from  one  to  5  cables  from 
the  shore. 


160  OAPB  MORGAN  TO  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V. 

Hole  in  the  Wall. — ^At  about  17  miles  north-eastward  of  Bashee 
river  are  two  remarkable  rocks  about  100  feet  high.  The  south-western 
is  flat-topped,  has  a  natural  archway,  known  as  Hole  in  the  Wall,* 
and  is  perforated  at  the  base  ;  the  north-eastern  and  higher  of  the  two 
has  a  cleft  in  the  summit  in  the  form  of  a  wedge. 

Whale  rock  point  is  about  70  feet  high,  and  wooded  for  about 
300  yards  inland.  The  surrounding  country  is  grass  land,  with  the 
exception  of  two  patches  of  trees  between  it  and  Umtata  river  to 
the  westward.    Whale  rock  lies  off  the  point. 

Rame  head,  situated  about  15  miles  westward  of  St.  John 
river,  is  a  bold  rocky  point,  sloping  gradually,  with  a  small  rock  at 
its  CTtremity.  At  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  off  shore,  a  little 
to  the  westward  of  the  head,  there  are  depths  of  8  to  10  fathoms. 

Brazen  head,  about  5  miles  to  the  north-east  of  Rame  head,  has 
from  the  eastward  the  appearance  of  two  distinct  points,  densely 
wooded,  steep,  and  bold.    The  summit  is  809  feet  above  the  sea. 

Landmarks. — Between  Rame  head  and  Waterfall  bluff,  about 
33  miles  to  the  eastward,  the  coast  is  faced  with  a  number  of  high 
bluffs,  which  does  not  occur  on  any  other  part  of  the  coast,  eastward 
or  westward,  for  a  long  distance.  St.  John  river  lies  about  midway. 
Between  Brazen  head  and  St.  John  river  is  a  Sugar  Loaf  rock,  and 
to  the  westward  of  the  rock  is  a  remarkable  green  peak. 

GORDON  BAY  is  an  indentation  in  the  coast  to  the  eastward  of 
cape  Hermes,  and  at  the  mouth  of  St.  John  river,  with  good  anchor- 
age and  gradual  decrease  in  the  depths,  but  it  is  exposed  from  about 
E.  by  N.  round  by  south  to  W.  by  N.f 

Cape  Hermes,  the  south  extreme  of  Gordon  bay,  is  distinguished 
by  a  round,  grass-covered  hill,  433  feet  above  the  sea,  with  a  white 
flag-staff  on  the  summit,  and  by  a  rock  8  feet  high  at  one  cable  off  it; 
the  north  extreme  of  the  bay  has  a  similar  hill  over  it,  but  neither  so 
large  nor  so  high  as  the  other.  The  summit  of  the  cape  is  in 
lat.  31°  38'  6"  S.,  long.  29°  33'  16"  E. 

The  shore  for  a  third  of  a  mile  to  the  northward  of  the  cape  is 
rocky,  whence  a  sandy  beach  extends  to  within  the  entrance  of  the 
river. 

*  Whiolielo  Bank. — Abreast  of  Hole  in  the  Wall,  and  about  75  miles  from  land,  a 
bank  of  soundings  of  from  42  to  48  fathoms,  in  lat.  about  32°  40'  S.,  and  long,  from 
30°  10'  E.  to  30°  45'  E.,  is  said  to  have  been  discovered  by  Captain  Whichelo,  in 
October  1847.  This  localioy  was  partially  examined  by  H.M.8.  Serpent^  in  1869,  but 
bottom  was  not  reached  with  from  100  to  200  fathoms  of  line. 

t  See  Admiralty  plan  of  St.  John  or  Umumvubn  river,  with  view,  No.  2,666 ; 
loale,  m  a  6  inohes 


Chap,  v.]  HOLE   IN  THE  WALL— PORT  ST.   JOHN.  161 

Landing:. — Just  within  the  cape,  at  its  junction  with  the  sand,  is 
a  nook,  named  Pauls  cove,  where  sometimes  landing  may  be  effected 
when  the  bar  of  the  river  is  impracticable  from  the  heavy  surf  upon 
it ;  the  boats,  if  necessary,  can  thence  be  dragged  along  the  beach  into 
the  river. 

Close  inshore  during  the  flood  tide  of  the  river,  which  runs 
regularly,  a  strong  current  was  found  setting  to  the  S.S.W.  along  the 
sandy  shore  inside  the  breakers,  and  to  seaward  along  the  rocky  shore 
in  the  direction  of  cape  Hermes.  This  current  should  not  be 
forgotten  in  attempting  to  land  with  a  flood  tide,  for,  upon  one 
occasion,  it  was  found  so  strong  that  a  cutter  could  barely  stem  it. 

Should  a  boat  be  swamped  in  the  surf,  it  would  be  almost 
impossible  for  the  crew  to.  reach  the  shore,  as  sharks  are  numerous 
and  ravenous,  both  outside  the  surf  and  in  the  river. 

The  anohoragre  in  13  fathoms  water,  with  cape  Hermes 
N.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  distant  three-quarters  of  a  mile,  and  Porpoise  rock 
N.  by  W.  I  W.  1^  miles,  was  found  to  be  good :  but  a  berth  closer  in, 
about  8  fathoms,  would  probably  be  better.  No  current  was 
experienced  at  the  anchorage. 

PORT  OP  ST.  JOHN  (Umzlmvubu  river)  is  navigable  for 
vessels  of  6  or  7  feet  draught  for  about  11  miles,  the  difficulty  being 
that  of  crossing  the  bar.  The  bottom,  above  the  Gates,  is  very 
irregular,  with  shallow  reaches  and  recurring  deep  holes,  a  depth  of 
56  feet  having  been  found  in  one  place.  Below  the  Gates  the  banks 
are  so  steep  that  small  craft  may  lie  alongside  the  banks.  The  appear- 
ance of  the  land  from  off  the  mouth  of  this  river  is  so  remarkable ' 
that,  having  once  seen  it,  or  the  sketch  of  it,  is  easily  recognised 
again.*  A  lofty  table  mountain,  1,200  feet  high,  appears  to  have 
been  cleft  to  its  base,  leaving  a  wedge-shaped  gap  in  the  centre, 
through  which  the  river  flows  to  the  sea.  The  upper  part  of  this 
table  land,  called  St.  John's  Gates,  is  bare  stratified  sandstone  rock, 
like  Table  mountain ;  but  at  200  feet  below  a  dense  forest  covers  the 
cliffs  to  the  edge  of  the  river.  The  Gates  are  1|  miles  from  the 
entrance  of  the  river ;  the  western  Gate,  1,239  feet  high,  is  very 
steep ;  the  eastern  (Jate,  1,163  feet  high,  has  two  distinct  terraces  of 
table-land  with  grass  on  it.  Beyond  the  Gates  the  river  becomes 
more  open,  and  its  banks  are  lined  with  reeds. 

St.  John  river  divides  Pondoland  into  two  nearly  equal  portions. 
West  Pondoland  is  bounded  by  XJmtata  river,  and  East  Pondoland  is 


♦  See  Admiralty  plan  :— St.  Jolin  or  Umzimvubu  river  with  view,  No.  2,566 
Boale,  m  =  6*0  inches. 

S.O.  10626.  L 


162  PORT  ST.  JOHN.  [Chap.  V. 

separated  from  the  colony  of  Natal  by  the  Umtavuna  river.  The 
"  Great  place  "  of  the  principal  chief  of  Pondoland,  is  situated  about 
6  miles  eastward  of  Palmerton,  which  latter  is  distant  about  22  miles 
direct,  both  from  St.  John  river  entrance  and  port  Grovenor.  The 
country  is  well  watered,  and  capable  of  supporting  large  herds  of 
cattle  ;  and  near  the  coast  the  soil  is  said  to  be  suitable  to  the  growth 
of  cotton,  sugar,  and  coffee  ;  copper  is  said  to  exist  in  various  places. 

There  is  a  trading  station  named  Whites  station  at  7  miles  up  the 
river,  on  the  right  bank,  and  about  2  miles  beyond  is  a  waggon  drift, 
now  known  as  Davis'  drift,  but  it  is  a  dangerous  crossing.  Small 
craft,  drawing  6  feet,  can  navigate  to  within  half  a  mile  of  the  drift, 
and  in  many  places  can  lie  alongside  the  banks.  There  is  plenty  of 
good  timber  and  limestone  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  river. 

Fort  Harrison  the  site  of  which  is  11  miles  up  the  river,  was 
dismantled  in  1882,  when  the  troops  were  removed  to  the  settlement 
at  the  north  of  the  river.  The  river  is  tidal  to  about  one  mile  above 
the  fort. 

The  bar  begins  at  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  southward  of  Porpoise 
rock,  the  east  point  of  entrance  to  the  river  ;  its  breadth  is  about  one 
cable,  and  the  average  depth  at  low  water  is  about  6  feet  during  the 
year.  On  both  sides  of  the  channel  there  are  often  heavy  breakers 
and  at  times  the  sea  breaks  across  the  entrance  for  four  or  five 
successive  days,  and  especially  after  S.W.  gales,  when  the  rollers  are 
unusually  high.  The  bar  is  of  quicksand,  constantly  shifting ;  in 
December  the  channel  is  to  the  eastward  near  the  Porpoise  rock,  but 
as  the  dry  season  advances  it  moves  to  the  westward  until  June  or 
July.  In  June,  when  the  bed  of  the  channel  is  to  the  westward,  the 
depth  on  the  bar  may  be  reduced  to  4  feet  at  low  water,  and  in  the 
rainy  season  it  may  be  increased  to  about  8  feet,  but  the  depth 
entirely  depends  on  the  quantity  of  the  rainfall.  The  rainy  season 
prevails  from  October  to  April. 

Even  during  the  unfavourable  part  of  the  year  for  small  craft 
entering  the  river,  it  appears  that  except  during  very  boisterous 
weather  the  bar  is  always  practicable  for  surf  boats.* 

Settlement. — A  settlement  formed  in  1883,  and  situated  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  river,  contained  in  1886,  a  population  of  402,  in 
eluding  145  Europeans,  military  and  civil.    The  Resident  Magistrate 
is  also  Captain  of  the  port. 

There  is  a  small  wooden  pier  with  derrick,  just  within  the 
entrance,  alongside  which  small  craft  might  lie. 

*  See  landing,  page  161. 


Chap,  v.]  BAR— TRADE— WATERFALL  BLUFF.  163 

Supplies. — Provisions  and  good  water  are  obtainable,  but  there 
are  no  facilities  for  repairs.  Good  timber  and  limestone  are 
abundant. 

Trade. — ^The  value  of  the  exports  in  1885  amoimted  to  £2,142, 
derived  chiefly  from  hides,  maize  and  gums ;  the  imports,  chiefly  dry 
goods,  amounted  to  £2,657. 

Small  steamers  and  other  craft  trade  regularly  to  Natal ;  15 
entered  in  1886  of  the  aggregate  tonnage  of  737.  No  other  means  of 
communication. 

A  surf  boat,  with  surf  warps,  communicates  with  these  vessels 
when  anchored  outside  the  bar. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  St.  John  river,  at 
about  4h.  8m.,  and  the  rise  is  5^  feet. 

St.  John  reef. — ^At  about  2  miles  eastward  of  the  entrance  to 
St.  John  river  is  Bluff  point,  the  coast  hills  between  ranging  from 
165  to  374  feet  above  the  sea.  The  shore  is  skirted  with  rocks  which 
extend  in  places  to  the  distance  of  one  cable.  At  2  cables  from  the 
shore  on  the  east  side  of  Bluff  point  is  St.  John  reef  with  6  feet 
water  at  low  springs,  and  deep  water  between  it  and  the  shore. 
From  the  reef  cape  Hermes  bears  W.  |  S.,  distant  2-i^  miles. 

The  COAST  eastward  of  the  St.  John  reef  continues  high  for  about 
17|  miles  to  Waterfall  bluff.  This  part  of  the  coast  is  cut  into  a 
number  of  ravines,  through  which  small  rivers  appear  to  empty 
themselves  into  the  sea,  but  none  of  them  can  be  mistaken  for  the 
St.  John,  as  they  are  much  smaller  and  generally  with  sloping  banks, 
whereas  the  sides  of  the  St.  John  are  precipitous.  The  Egosa  forest 
stretches  from  St.  John  river  to  port  Grovenor.* 

Umzimklava  river  is  situated  nearly  10  miles  eastward  of 
St.  John  river.  Upon  its  eastern  side  is  a  round  hill,  with  two 
remarkable  rocks  at  its  base,  projecting  into  the  sea.  The  Entafufu 
river  lies  about  4  miles  south-westward,  and  the  Umzimpanzi  and 
Embotyi  rivers  at  3  and  4  miles  north-eastward  of  it. 

Water&ll  Bluff  is  the  easternmost  of  a  succession  of  bluffs.  It 
is  about  200  feet  high,  and  from  its  summit  two  large  streams  of 
water  precipitate  themselves  into  the  sea ;  the  westernmost  fall 
enters  the  sea  at  one  leap,  but  the  fall  of  the  eastern  one  is  broken  at 
about  a  third  of  the  distance  down. 

These  falls  may  be  seen  7  or  8  miles  off,  but  in  dry  weather  the 
volume  of  water  is  probably  much  dimished,  if  not  entirely  dried  up. 

*  See  Admiralty  chart. — Bashee  river  to  Umtamyima  river,  No.  2,087. 
S.O.  10625.  L  2 


164  CAPE  MORGAN  TO  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V. 

Port  QPOvenOP. — The  bight  in  the  coast,  known  as  port 
Qrovenor  (a  vessel  named  Grovenor  having  been  lost  here)  is  situated 
about  3  miles  north-eastward  of  Waterfall  bluff ;  there  appears  to  be 
little  difficulty  in  landing  goods  here,  or  in  transporting  them  to  any 
part  of  Pondoland..   The  XJbazi  river  enters  the  head  of  the  bight. 

A  detached  coral  patch  is  reported  to  lie  about  2  cables  off  the  reef 
fronting  the  west  point  of  the  bay,  or  about  half  a  mile  off  shore. 

The  Coast,  eastward  of  Waterfall  bluff,  is  moderately  high 
inland,  sloping  gently  down  to  the  beach.  In  the  wet  season  this 
coast  appears  beautiful,  being  clothed  with  bright  green  grass  and 
clumps  of  trees  and  bushes,  frequently  relieved  by  streams  and  small 
cascades  ;  but  a  few  weeks  of  drought  probably  greatly  alters  the 
appearance. 

A  bight  similar  to  port  Grovenor  is  charted  about  4^  miles  to  the 
eastward,  and  into  which  Umisikaba  river  discharges.  South  Sand 
bluff,  on  its  eastern  side,  is  a  remarkable  round  topped  sand  hill 
presenting  a  sandy  bluff  to  the  westward,  the  top  being  covered  with 
dark  bushes. 

Another  Sand  bluff  22  miles  farther  'eastward  is  somewhat 
similar,  and  exactly  midway  between  these  is  a  remarkable  red 
topped  hill,  which  is  in  sight  from  both  bluffs.  Observe  that  there 
is  nothing  which  can  be  called  a  sand  hill  or  bluff  for  90  miles  on 
either  side  of  the  above-mentioned,  or  in  fact  to  the  north-eastward 
until  reaching  Natal.  Between  these  sand  bluffs  and  port  Natal 
there  is  nothing  remarkable  by  which  the  coast  may  be  recognised, 
except  a  bluff  418  feet  high,  about  11  miles  west  of  cape  Natal. 

The  XJmtentu  and  Isikota  rivers  lie  between  South  Sand  bluff  and 
the  Red  hill ;  and  the  Umyameni,  Umzamba,  and  XJmtamvuna  between 
the  Red  hill  and  North  Sand  bluff.  The  XJntamvuna  river  is  the 
southern  boundary -of  Natal  colony. 

Within  one  mile  southward  of  Impenjali  river,  at  half  a  mile  off 
shore  are  two  sunken  rocks.  This  river  is  situated  about  8  miles 
north-eastward  of  the  XJmtamvuna. 

nmzllllklLlu  Plver  may  be  easily  recognised  by  the  settlement. 
Port  Shepstone,  on  the  hill  over  the  western  bank,  and  by  the  white 
flagstaff  on  the  west  point  of  entrance. 

The  channel  of  the  river  has  been  deepened  so  that  small  craft 
may  enter  at  high  water.  The  inner  water  is  spacious  and  navigable 
for  several  miles  with  fertile  back  country.  Copper  is  found  in  the 
neighbourhood,  at  Insizwa.* 

♦  See  Admiralty  chart.— Umtamvuna  river  to  Tugela  river,  with  view,  No.  2088. 


Chap,  v.]       PORT  GROVENOR — ALIWAL  SHOAL.  165 

Red  Topped  hill,  about  15  miles  north-eastward  of  the 
Umzimkulu,  and  60  miles  south-west  of  cape  Natal,  has  a  native 
kraal  in  the  valley  just  east  of  it.  A  similar  hill,  situated  8  miles 
north  of  red  topped  hill,  is  liable  to  be  mistaken  for  it. 

Umtwalume  river  is  conspicuous,  resembling  St.  John  river, 
and  is  the  only  one  with  high  steep  banks  northward  of  the 
Umzimkulu.  When  the  river  is  open,  a  remarkable  rocky  peak  is 
seen  in  the  opening,  and  high  up  on  the  left  bank  are  a  few  houses. 

Besides  the  streams  mentioned  between  St.  John  river  and  Natal, 
there  are  many  minor  ones  about  which  we  have  no  information 
beyond  what  is  shown  on  the  charts.  The  navigator  wiU  take  notice 
that  few  soundings  have  been  taken  in  the  locality,  and  exercise 
caution  accordingly. 

Current. — From  the  mouth  of  the  river  Umtwalume  in  lat. 
30^  29'  S.  to  cape  Natal,  a  north-easterly  current  of  about  2  miles  an 
hour  has  been  experienced  in  the  month  of  May,  at  from  one  to 
2  miles  from  the  shore  ;  whilst  on  the  coast  to  the  south-west  of  the 
river  it  was  exactly  the  reverse.    See  current,  p.  166. 

Umzinto  river.— Bank.— Between  the  parallels  of  about  30°  22' 
and  30°  24^'  S.  and  3^  miles  off  the  Umzinto  river,  near  which  river 
there  are  many  houses  and  cultivated  land,  there  are  depths  of  10  to  14 
fathoms  extending  in  a  N.E.  by  E.  direction,  over  a  space  of  more 
than  2  miles.    From  the  latter  depth  no  bottom  was  obtained. 

ALIWAL  SHOAL. — This  dangerous  rocky  shoal  is  within  a 
depth  of  5  fathoms,  about  7  cables  in  length,  one  cable  in  breadth, 
2^  miles  off  Green  point,  and  in  the  track  of  vessels  bound  along  the 
coast  to  and  from  port  Natal.  Its  north  extreme,  in  lat.  30^  15|'  S., 
long.  30°  50'  E.,  has  only  a  depth  of  1^  fathoms,  with  from  14  to 
17  fathoms  at  2  cables  distant.* 

From  the  shoalest  part  of  the  Aliwal,  the  mouth  of  the  Umcomass 
river  bears  N.  ^  E.  distant  3|  miles,  Green  point  beacons  are  in  line, 
and  the  mouth  of  the  Umpambinyoni  river  W.  by  N.  3|  miles.  The 
depths  within  the  shoal  are  from  12  to  15  fathoms. 

Beacons. — A  mast  beacon,  70  feet  high,  228  ^eet  above  the  sea, 
and  surmounted  by  a  triangle,  has  been  erected  on  the  hill  behind 
Green  point,  about  500  yards  distant  from  a  pyramidal  beacon  28  feet 
high,  surmounted  by  a  cask,  on  Green  point ;  these  beacons  in  line 
on  a  N.W.  ^  W.  bearing,  point  to  the  direction  of  Aliwal  shoal.    The 

*  Captain  P.  Aldrich,  H.M.  Surveying  Vessel  Sylvia,  1884.  Si^e  plan  and  view  on 
chart  No.  2,088  ;  also  views  of  the  coast  on  No.  643. 


l66  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V. 

beacon  on  the  hill  has  been  recognized  from  a  distance  of  14  miles. 
A  white  house  just  east  of  Ifafa  river,  and  one  mile  inland,  is  also  a 
useful  day  mark,  when  approaching  from  the  south-westward. 
At  night,  vessels  should  not  stand  into  a  less  depth  than  40  fathoms. 

Current. — ^A  strong  current  is  found  to  set  over  Aliwal  shoal  in 
a  south-west  direction,  but  midway  between  the  shoal  and  Green 
point  it  is  reduced  to  one  mile  or  less ;  at  times  a  counter  current 
sets  to  the  north-eastward.    See  also  current,  p.  165. 

TJinkOIXiass  river  lies  3  miles  northward  of  Green  point,  and 
has  about  6  feet  over  the  bar  at  high  water  ;  the  XJmpambinyoni  or« 
Bloody  river  lies  2  miles  to  the  southward,  with  a  house  on  the  south 
point  of  entrance  ;  its  mouth  is  apparently  choked  by  a  sand  bank. 

Northward  of  the  Umkomass  river,  at  5^  miles  distant,  is  the  mouth 
of  the  Illova,  and  at  the  further  distance  of  9  miles  and  2  miles  east- 
ward of  False  bluff,  is  the  XJmlazi  river,  which  drains  the  Ipisingo 
flat  and  sugar  plantations.  There  are  several  steam  mills  near  the 
river.  Unless  certain  of  the  latitude,  this  part  of  the  coast  should 
not  be  approached  without  due  caution  on  account  of  the  Aliwal 
shoal. 

CAPE  NATAL. — Prom  Green  point,  the  shore  trends  north- 
eastward about  27  miles  to  cape  Natal.  About  11  miles  westward  of 
the  cape  is  False  bluff  418  feet  high,  which,  before  the  erection  of  the 
lighthouse  on  cape  Natal,  was  often  mistaken  for  it.  Cape  Natal  is  a 
high  wooded  tongue  of  land,  terminating  in  a  remarkable  bluff  195 
feet  high,  and  is  easily  made  out,  the  coast  to  the  northward  falling 
a  little  back  and  being  low  for  several  miles.  At  the  foot  of  the 
bluff  on  its  eastern  side,  flat  rock  20  feet  high  and  about  40  feet  long, 
projects  seaward,  and  thence  rocks  which  uncover  at  low  water 
springs  extend  to  the  north-west  towards  the  bar.* 

There  are  no  outlying  dangers  in  approaching  the  cape  and  the 

water  is  deep  close  to  the  land.f    On  the  bluff  is  a  light  tower  81 

^  feet  high,  and  painted  white,  also  a  flag  staff  and  watch  house  ;  and 

on  its  north-west  side  at  the  foot  of  the  bluff  are  two  white  leading 

marks  for  the  bar.    See  light,  page  167. 

To  the  southward  of  the  cape  the  coast  is  of  moderate  elevation 
near  the  sea,  and  broken  in  several  places  by  the  mouths  of  rivers 
and  streams.     The  hills  rise  inland  to  a  considerable  height,  and  the 

♦  See  Admiralty  plan : — Port  Natal  with  views,  No.  643  ;  scale,  m  =  6*8  inches, 
t  Bank.— A  bank  of  12  fathoms,  said  to  lie  about  3  miles  eastward  of  Natal 
bluff,  was  unsuccessfully  searched  for  by  Navigating  Lieutenant  Skead,  in  1887. 


Chap,  v.]  LIGHTS— ANCHORAGE.  167 

landscape  strikes  the  visitor  who  is  familiar  with  the  white  sands 
and  stunted  brushwood  of  South  Africa  as  one  of  great  richness  and 
fertility.  To  the  northward  of  the  cape,  as  before  remarked,  the 
coast  is  low  and  sandy,  with  bushes  a  few  yards  from  the  beach,  but 
the  character  of  the  country  is  very  similar  inland,  although  some- 
what more  thickly  wooded  than  the  coast  to  the  southward. 

PORT  NATAL,  although  not  naturally  a  good  harbour,  is  of 
great  commercial  importance,  as  it  is  the  only  inlet  capable  of  afford- 
ing the  least  shelter  in  the  Colony,  and  which  causes  it  to  be  the 
outlet  of  the  produce  of  an  extensive  and  valuable  region. 

It  consists  of  a  large  bay,  almost  filled  with  sand  and  mud 
banks  dry  at  low  water,  and  sheltered  at  its  entrance  by  cape  Natal. 
There  are  no  streams  of  importance  falling  into  the  inlet,  so  that  the 
entrance  is  only  kept  open  by  the  scour  of  the  receding  tide  between 
the  piers  in  course  of  construction  for  that  purpose,  and  by  dredging. 
It  is  anticipated  that  the  harbour  may  in  time  be  open  to  large  ocean- 
going vessels. 

Vessels  of  about  15  feet  draught  may  usually  cross  the  bar  at  high 
water,  but  the  depth  and  direction  of  the  channel  is  subject  to  much 
variation.    See  Bar,  p.  169. 

LIGHTS. — The  tower  on  cape  Natal  exhibits  at  282  feet  above 
•high  water,  a  revolving  white  light  attaining  its  greatest  brilliancy 
every  minute^  and  visible  in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  24  miles. 
The  light  does  not  open  clear  of  the  land  until  it  bears  northward 
of  N.  57°  E.,  nor  is  it  visible  from  Aliwal  shoal.  Position  of  light- 
house, lat.  29°  52'  40"  S.,  long.  3P  3'  50"  E. 

Three  fixed  white  lights,  placed  triangulary,  are  shown  from  the 
Rocket  house,  on  the*  coast  northward  of  the  port  entrance,  and 
bearing  N.  by  W.  I  W.,  distant  1^  miles  from  cape  Natal  lighthouse. 

A  fixed  red  light  is  shown  from  the  seaward  end  of  the  new  North 
(Milne)  pier. 

A  red  light  is  exhibited  at  night,  under  the  direction  of  the  harbour 
master,  for  the  information  of  the  pilots,  when  the  bar  is  considered 
dangerous  or  impracticable. 

Anchorage.— The  anchorage  off  port  Natal  may  safely  be 
approached  at  night  by  the  lead,  the  decrease  of  soundings  being 
regular.  The  best  berth  is  in  10  fathoms,  with  the  lighthouse  bearing 
S.W.  by  S.  distant  about  1^  miles,  and  the  Rocket  house  beacon 
W.  by  N.  The  holding  ground  is  good,  but  there  is  no  shelter  with 
southerly  and  easterly  winds,  and  there  is  nearly  always  a  heavy 
swell  along  the  coast.  In  a  more  southerly  position,  the  outset  of  the 
tide  is  more  felt,  swinging  vessels  broadside  to  the  swell,  and  causing 


168  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap  V. 

them  to  roll  heavily;  the  ground  is  also  encumbered  with  lost  anchors 
and  cables. 

It  is  recommended  to  lie  at  single  anchor  with  70  fathoms  of  chain, 
and  to  sight  the  anchor  occasionally.  In  the  event  of  parting,  and 
not  being  able  to  work  out,  vessels  should  run  for  the  beach  abreast 
the  Rocket  house,  keeping  the  head  sails  set,  and  remaining  by  the 
vessel  until 'communication  with  the  shore  is  established  by  the 
rocket  apparatus. 

If  apprehensive  of  bad  weather  on  arrival  in  the  road,  a  sailing 
vessel  should  anchor  in  16  fathoms,  2^  miles  from  the  lighthouse, 
from  which  position  she  would  be  able  to  fetch  out  on  one  tack  or 
the  other,  with  the  wind  from  any  quarter.*    See  Winds,  p.  172. 

Caution. — ^When  the  wind  is  inclined  to  freshen  from  the  south- 
eastward, with  a  loTJg  swell  and  high  barometer,  vessels  should 
proceed  to  sea  as  soon  as  possible.  The  head  lighthouse  keeper  states 
in  his  report  that  the  heavy  seas  from  the  south-eastward,  which  at 
times  occur,  are  generally  preceded  by  an  unusually  low  range  of 
barometer  for  three  or  four  days  before  the  seas  are  felt  here. 

Pilots. — Vessels  intending  to  enter  port  Natal,  and  in  want  of 
pilots,  should  anchor  in  the  road.  A  signal  being  made,  a  pilot  will 
be  sent  off  from  the  port  office,  or  if  the  surf  on  the  bar  is  too  heavy, 
it  will  be  communicated  by  the  Commercial  Code  of  signals  ;  see  also 
bad  weather  cones,  p.  172.  A  steam  tug  may  be  had.  H.M.  ships 
are  supplied  with  pilots  free  of  expense. 

Directions. — The  light  on  cape  Natal  not  being  visible  from  the 
Aliwal  shoal,  care  must  be  taken  in  making  for  port  Natal  from  the 
south-west,  not  to  approach  the  shore  nearer  than  4  miles,  or  stand  in 
to  a  less  depth  than  40  fathoms  water,  until  the  light  is  in  sight  from 
the  deck,  when  the  vessel  will  be  northward  of  the  Aliwal. 
Southward  of  port  Natal  the  soundings  are  coarse  gray  sand  and 
stones,  whilst  to  the  northward  fine  black  sand  will  be  found.  The 
light  kept  in  sight  will  also  lead  outside  all  known  dangers  while  to 
the  southward  of  Umlazi  river  (9^  miles  from  the  lighthouse)  ;  but 
when  northward  of  the  Umlazi  river,  keep  a  long  mile  from  the 
land.  When  the  lighthouse  bears  W.N.W.  steer  for  the  anchorage. 
From  seaward  the  masts  of  vessels  in  port  will  be  visible  when  the 
north  end  of  cape  Natal  bears  westward  of  W.  by  N.  See  bar 
directions,  p.  170. 

*  In  December  1874.  eight  vessels  were  in  the  anchorage,  waiting  to  cross  the  bar, 
when  a  south-easter  came  on ;  2  were  driven  ashore  and  all  hands  lost,  2  were 
dismasted,  one  lost  her  rudder,  and  the  remainder  dragged  and  lost  their  anchors. 

Detention  of  vessels  outside  has  much  decreased  since  that  time.    See  page  170. 


Chap  v.]  PILOTB— DIRECTIONS— BAR.  169 

THE  PORT.— A  breakwater,  about  700  yards  long,  named  the 
Milne,  or  New  North  pier,  has  been  constructed  in  an  east  north-east 
direction  from  Sandy  point,  the  west  point  of  the  entrance  to  the 
port,  and  a  similar  one  is  in  course  of  construction  from  the  foot  of 
the  bluff  opposite  ;  a  length  of  270  feet  was  added  to  it  in  1887  ; 
these  breakwaters,  by  narrowing  the  channel,  are  intended  to 
give  greater  force  to  the  out  going  stream  and  so  clear  the  sand. 
Dredging  and  blasting  operations  are  being  carried  out  with  the 
object  of  admitting  heavy  draught  vessels.  The  old  north  pier,  or 
breakwater,  locally  known  at  Vetch's  pier,  situated  4  cables  north- 
ward of  Sandy  point,  is  in  course  of  removal  to  the  level  of  ordinary 
spring  tides ;  at  the  extreme  outer  end  there  is  a  large  iron  triangle, 
surmounted  by  a  circular  plate. 

A  space  within  Sandy  point  extending  about  3^  miles,  east  and 
west,  and  nearly  2  miles  north  and  south,  is  almost  filled  with  mud, 
with  boat  channels  in  various  directions.  On  the  southern  side  are 
some  large  mangrove  islands,  and  elsewhere  around  this  space  are 
mangroves  and  mangrove  swamps.  The  part  available  for  a  harbour 
is  confined  to  a  narrow  channel  about  a  cable  in  breadth  and  about 
1^  miles  in  length,  with  depths  varying  from  7  to  20  feet ;  this  is  in 
course  of  being  improved  by  dredging. 

The  Bar  of  sand  which  crosses  the  mouth  of  the  port  is  constantly 
changing  both  in  direction  and  depth,  and  should  never  be  attempted 
by  a  stranger.  It  is  silted  up  by  the  ocean  swell,  and  scoured  out  by 
the  force  of  the  ebb,  which  has  been  found  at  times  to  deepen  the 
water  12  inches  in  one  tide. 

When  re-sounded  in  1887,  the  depth  between  the  piers  was  about 
10  feet  at  low  water,  excepting  the  shoal  in  mid-channel  which  had 
as  little  as  7  feet ;  thence  seaward  over  the  bar  through  the  northern 
channel,  13  feet  on  the  leading  marks  (19  feet  at  high  water  springs), 
but  this  channel  was  very  narrow  near  the  fairway  buoy  in  21  feet, 
which  marks  the  entrance.  The  breadth  of  the  bar  has  much 
decreased.  The  south  •  hannel  appears  to  have  had  about  3  feet 
less ;  a  buoy  lies  in  about  18  feet  just  northward  of  the  entrance. 
These  buoys  must  in  no  case  be  depended  on.* 

There  is  less  water  on  the  bar  after  southerly  winds  than  at  any 
other  time  in  consequence  of  the  sand  being  washed  in  ;  but  south- 

*  During  1885,  the  greatest  depth  on  the  bar  was  10  feet  at  low  water,  and  the 
least  depth  5  feet ;  and  in  1887,  12i  feet  (January),  8i  feet  (July).  Three  vessels 
drawing  over  15  feet  crossed  the  bar  in  1885 ;  eight  in  1886,  and  eight  in  1887 ; 
deepest  draught  15  feet  8  inches.  A  vessel  drawing  16  feet  9  inches  crossed  the 
bar  in  December  1886,  (but  she  took  the  ground  abreast  the  Bluff  marks)  ;  the  Italian 
vessel  of  war  Boy  all  drawing  17  feet,  crossed  in  October  1888. 


170  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V. 

westerly  winds  and  rain  deepen  the  bar.  From  June  to  the  end  of 
August  is  the  time  when  the  bar  is  shallowest.  (See  Bad  Weather 
Cones,  page  172,  and  Lights,  page  167). 

The  average  detention  in  crossing  the  bar  (1885-6)  was  1^  days, 
maximum,  23  days  in  August  1886 ;  also  in  March  and  November 
1885,  vessels  were  detained  19  days.  These  appear  to  be  exceptional 
cases.  In  1887,  the  average  detention  was  0*75  days ;  58  vessels 
entered  without  anchoring ;  one  vessel  was  detained  17  days. 

Directions. — If,  through  any  cause,  a  vessel  whose  draught  will 
admit,  should  be  forced  to  run  over  the  bar  without  a  pilot,  steer  for 
the  two  white  leading  marks  at  the  foot  of  the  bluff  on  the  west  side, 
in  line  ;  this  will  lead  through  the  north  channel  and  to  the  foot  of 
the  bluff,  where,  being  in  smooth  water,  the  vessel  may  anchor  off 
the  bar  leading  marks,  at  the  foot  of  the  bluff,  and  wait  for  a  pilot. 
From  abreast  the  bluff  marks,  vessels  may  pass  close  southward  of 
boathouse  shoal  to  the  wharves. 

Caution. — On  arriving  in  the  road,  it  will  be  well  to  inquire  the 
line  of  the  channel  with  reference  to  the  bluff  leading  marks. 

Berthing:. — ^Vessels  lie  in  the  northern  part  of  the  harbour  under 
Sandy  point,  and  within  about  2  cables  of  the  custom  house,  port 
office,  wharves,  &c.,  and  from  whence  a  railway  runs  to  Durban. 
The  berthing  space  is  very  limited  on  account  of  the  banks,  but  it 
is  being  increased  by  dredging.  A  good  berth  for  a  small  vessel  of 
war  is  to  moor  head  and  stern  alongside  the  wharf,  in  about  14  feet, 
at  low  water  ;  but  sand  is  blown  on  board  during  south-west  winds. 
The  mail  steamers  generally  lie  in  the  Bluff  channel.  At  the  outer 
set  of  moorings  in  this  channel,  a  vessel  drawing  over  12  feet  can  lie 
afloat.  All  vessels  are  compelled  to  take  in  or  make  fast  to  Govern- 
ment moorings,  of  which  there  are  several  sets. 

Durban,  the  town  of  port  Natal,  stands  about  1^  miles  from  Sandy 
point,  on  a  low  flat,  and  is  about  54  miles  by  road,  and  70  by  rail, 
from  Maritzburg,  the  capital  of  the  colony.  It  is  well  laid  out,  with 
side  streets  lined  with  trees,  and  a  tramway  runs  to  Sandy  point. 
The  houses  are  principally  built  of  wood.  Here  there  is  an  Episco- 
palian church  and  Wesleyan  chapel^  banks,  mechanics'  institute, 
several  clubs  and  societies,  a  market  place,  &c.  The  population  in 
1886  was  about  16,400,  half  of  whom  are  Europeans.  Most  of  the 
wealthy  inhabitants  dwell  on  the  Berea,  a  wooded  height  overlooking 
the  town. 

Shipping:.— In  1886,  112  vessels  anchored  in  the  road.  111  of 
which  were  steam  vessels.     213  vessels  entered  the  harbour,  54  of 


Chap,  v.]  DURBAN— SUPPLIES— SIGNALS.  171 

which  were  steam  vessels.  26  had  to  lighten  in  the  road  before 
entering.  In  1887,  198  vessels  entered  the  harbour.  For  trade  of 
the  colony,  see  page  4. 

CommuilloatiOIl. — Port  Natal  is  in  telegraphic  communication 
with  the  towns  of  the  Cape  Colony,  and  with  Aden,  &c.,  by  sub- 
marine cable,  via  Delagoa  bay  and  Zanzibar  ;  the  cable  is  landed  at 
about  3  miles  northward  of  Durban,  near  the  Umgeni  river  ;  there  is 
railway  communication  from  Durban  to  Maritzburg.    See  also  page  8. 

Supplies. — ^Water  and  provisions  may  be  obtained,  and  are  sent 
off  in  surf  boats  or  tugs  to  vessels  lying  in  the  roads.  In  the  harbour 
supplies  may  be  obtained  at  moderate  prices. 

Repairs. — The  railway  and  other  workshops  can  undertake  large 
repairs  to  hull  and  machinery  ;  a  large  shaft  can  be  turned,  cylinders 
of  96  inches  cast  and  bored,  and  castings  of  10  tons  made,  there  is 
also  a  steam  hammer  of  4  tons.  There  is  a  steam  crane  capable  of 
lifting  20  tons. 

Hospital. — The  Government  hospital,  situated  within  one  mile 
of  the  shipping,  admits  all  classes  ;  there  are  no  diseases  due  to 
climatic  causes,  nor  special  quarantine  or  customs  regulations. 

Patent  Slip. — There  is  a  patent  slip  capable  of  taking  a  vessel  of 
500  tons  burthen. 

Coal. — ^A  large  quantity  of  coal  is  kept  in  stock  ;  it  is  taken  off 
in  lighters  (of  which  there  are  a  great  number),  to  vessels  in  the 
road,  at  a  cost  of  about  45s.  per  ton,  but  the  exposed  anchorage  renders 
coaling  there  a  tedious  proceeding.  Vessels  drawing  14  feet  can 
coal  alongside  the  wharves  in  the  harbour.  The  coalfields,  situated 
about  18  miles  beyond  Ladysmith,  189  miles  from  Durban,  are  being 
developed,  and  the  coal  has  been  certified  to  be  good  for  steaming 
purposes.  There  is  railway  communication  between  the  coalfields 
and  port  Natal. 

Time  signal. — The  signal  is  a  ball,  which  is  dropped  daily, 
except  Sundays,  at  1  h.  0  m.  p.m.,  Durban  observatory,  mean  time, 
equivalent  to  22  h.  55  m.  59  s.  Greenwich  mean  time.  When  signal 
fails  in  accuracy,  a  blue  flag  with  white  centre  is  hoisted  at  the  Time 
ball  staging,  about  1  h.  5  m.  p.m.,  as  a  notice  that  the  signal  cannot  be 
relied  on. 

The  signal  is  made  from  a  position  3^  cables  N.N.W.  ^  W.  from 
Sandy  point,  north  side  of  entrance  to  Port  Natal. 

The  Durban  observatory  is  situated  on  the  Berea  range,  about  3 
miles  from  the  time  signal  at  the  point. 

Signal  Staff. — There  is  a  signal  staff  and  semaphore  at  the  port 
office  near  Sandy  point. 


172  PORT  NATAL.  [Chap.  V. 

Bad  weather  signal. — The  average  number  of  bad  weather 
cones  hoisted  per  month  during  1885-6,  were  7  ;  maximum  17  in 
September^  14  in  February,  2  in  June.  In  1887,  they  were 
considerably  less,  full  cones  (bar  impracticable)  being  hoisted  on 
13  days  only,  and  half  cones  (bar  dangerous)  23  days.  By  full 
cone  is  meant,  hoisted  right  up,  and  half  cone  at  half  mast. 

A  Life-boat  is  kept  at  Sandy  point,  and  the  harbour  master  has 
a  small  steam-tug  for  the  service  of  the  port.  The  steamer  is  sent 
oflF  to  communicate  with  men-of-war  on  their  arrival. 

Tides. — In  the  port  of  Natal,  the  time  of  high  water  at  full  and 
change  is  4  h.  30  m.,  the  greatest  rise  is  6  feet.  The  velocity  of  the 
ebb  at  springs  is  about  3  miles  in  the  BluflE  channel  and  the  flood 
about  2:^  miles. 

In  the  road,  outside  the  bar,  the  flood  stream  sets  nearly  north 
and  the  ebb  in  the  opposite  direction. 

Current. — It  is  necessary  to  caution  vessels  against  the  strong 
current  which  prevails  on  the  coast  of  Natal  beyond  a  distance  of 
about  3  miles ;  it  generally  sets  to  the  south-west  at  the  rate  of 
2  to  3  miles  an  hour.  Eastward  of  Natal,  within  that  distance,  as 
far  as  O'Neill  peak,  no  current  is  felt ;  there  the  Mozambique  cur- 
rent will  be  met,  sometimes  running  as  much  as  3  knots  an  hour 
close  in  to  cape  St.  Lucia.    See  page  178. 

Winds  and  Weather.— The  prevailing  winds  at  Natal  are  from 
N.E.  to  East,  and  from  S.W.  to  South,  and  in  about  equal  proportions 
alternating  throughout  the  year  in  periods  seldom  exceeding  a  few 
days  for  either.  In  the  year  1886, 157  days'  winds  were  registered 
from  the  former  quarter  with  a  maximum  force  9,  and  145  from  the 
latter  with  a  maximum  force  10,  the  wind  on  the  remaining  days  of 
the  year,  four  excepted,  were  from  between  South  and  East ;  on 
4  days  winds  were  registered  from  W.S.W.  to  N.E.  by  N. 

From  April  to  June  the  proportion  of  N.E.  winds  to  S.W.  winds 
was  37  to  25.    November  to  February  38  to  47. 

During  the  remaining  months  the  winds  were  about  equally  divided. 

The  wet  season  in  Natal  is  from  October  to  March,  but  rain 
occurs  occasionally  at  all  times  of  the  year.*  After  a  continuance  of 
rain,  the  mercury  rising  all  the  time,  an  easterly  gale  follows,  when 
the  weather  clears.  May,  June  and  July  are  the  finest  months,  a 
light  breeze  coming  in  from  seaward  during  the  day,  and  a  breeze 
from  the  land  during  the  night,  but  strong  gales  blow  both  from  the 
eastward    and     westward    even    during    these    months.     ■  August, 

*  During  September  to  December,  1887,  inclusive,  9-3  inches  was  tbe  amount  of 
the  rainfall  at  Durban.    The  gaufje  has  only  recently  been  set  up. 


Chap,  v.]  WINDS  AND  WEATHER  -TUGBLA  RIVER.  173 

September  and  October  are  the  most  boisterous  months,  when  the 
range  of  barometer  is  great,  and  the  gales  alternate  between  east 
and  west.  The  gales  from  the  eastward  blow  about  south-east  at 
50  or  100  miles  to  seaward,  but  are  deflected  on  reaching  the  coast  to 
E.N.E.  or  N.E.,  and  it  is  the  swell  set  up  by  the  wind  at  S.E.  so  far 
seaward,  which,  catching  the  vessels  at  anchor  in  Natal  road,  on  the 
starboard  bow,  heading  to  the  wind,  which  causes  them  to  ride  so 
uneasily,  and  when  they  part  their  cables  to  cant  towards  the  shore 
(see  remarks  on  gales,  pages  10-12  and  climate,  pp.  18,  19). 

COAST. — Between  cape  Natal  and  the  entrance  to  Tugela  river, 
a  distance  of  about  46  miles,  several  small  streams  fall  into  the  sea  ; 
the  principal  are,  the  Umgeni,  Umhlanga,  Umhloti,  Tongaati, 
Umhlali,  Umvoti,  Nonoti,  and  the  Sinkwassi.  The  hill  450  feet  high, 
just  south  of  the  Umhloti  is  conspicuous,  and  has  a  clump  of  trees  on 
it.  The  southern  bank  of  the  Umvoti  has  two  sand  patches  close 
down  to  the  sea.  The  south  point  of  the  Sinkwassi  is  a  sand  hill, 
with  a  wooded  top.  The  coast  hills  range  from  250  to  550  feet  high, 
and  are  backed  by  dense  bush. 

The  coast  may  be  safely  approached  to  one  mile.  At  this  distance 
no  bottom  will  be  found  at  12  fathoms,  until  close  off  the  Tugela.* 

Morewood  cove,  about  23  miles  north-eastward  of  Natal,  is  said  to 
have  a  seam  of  coal  in  its  vicinity.  The  red  cliff  southward  of  the 
cove,  is  conspicuous. 

Landmarks. — The  most  remarkable  landmarks  between  port. 
Natal  and  the  Tugela  river  are  : — 

A  red  cliff,  divided  by  bushes  nearly  to  the  water,  situated  just 
southward  of  Morewood  cove.  A  remarkable  red  bluff,  about  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  inland,  and  1^  miles  southward  of  the  Umvoti  river, 
in  lat.  29""  25'  S.  Half  a  mile  northward  of  this  bluff  is  a  well- 
wooded  ravine.  Conspicuous  red  ravines  show  against  the  green 
hills,  marking  either  side  of  the  Sinkwassi  river. 

TUGELA  RIVER,  forming  the  northern  boundary  of  the  Natal 
Colony,  is  easily  recognized  from  seaward  by  its  southern  head, 
composed  of  dark  bush,  thickly  wooded,  the  red  hill  on  its  northern 
shore,  which  has  a  conical  nob  on  its  summit,  and  several  patches  of 
red  clay  to  the  northward.  The  river  is  useless  for  transport  in  the 
dry  season,  when  boats  ground  repeatedly .f 

*  8ee  Admiralty  chart : — ^Umtamvuna  river  to  Tugela  river,  No.  2,088. 

t  See  Admiralty  charts  : — Umtamvtma  river  to  Tugela  river,  No.  2088  ;  Tugela 
river  to  Delagoa  bay.  No.  2089  ;  Scale  m=  0*17  inches.  Remarks  on  the  coast 
between  Tugela  river  and  St.  Lucia  bay  are  from  the  Navigating  Lieutenants  of 
H.M.  Ships  Active  J  Tenedos  and  Fttrester^  1879. 


174  PORT  NATAL  TO  DELAGOA  BAY.  [Chap.  V. 

The  discharge  from  this  river  is  observed  several  miles  seaward  ; 
the  bottom  is  rocky  at  the  anchorage,  but  has  a  thick  covering  of 
mud,  the  deposit  from  the  river. 

The  bar  is  impassable,  and  although  with  very  smooth  water 
apparently  a  landing  might  be  effected  at  the  northern  side  of  the 
entrance,  it  would  be  attended  with  great  danger,  as  the  beach  is 
fringed  with  rocks. 

Anchoragre. — At  the  mouth  of  the  Tugela  river  the  water  shoals 
gradually  to  5  fathoms,  which  depth  will  be  found  about  200  yards 
from  the  breakers.  •  The  anchorage  off  Tugela  river  affords  no 
protection  against  westerly  winds.  Should  a  strong  breeze  blow 
from  that  quarter,  a  vessel  should  at  once  proceed  to  sea. 

The  best  anchorage  is  in  9  to  10  fathoms,  with  the  red  hill  on  the 
north  side  bearing  N.W.  ^  N.,  and  the  small  red-topped  hill  near  the 
Inyoni  river  N.N.E.  J  E. 

A  reef,  on  which  the  sea  breaks  very  heavily,  about  half  a  mile 
from  the  shore,  extends  for  a  considerable  distance  along  the  coast 
from  the  northern  point  of  the  river ;  4^  fathoms  was  found  300  yards 
from  the  breakers. 

The  coast  from  the  Tugela  river  trends  in  a  north-easterly 
direction,  the  hills  rise  gradually  from  the  beach,  showing  grassy  and 
cultivated  valleys  between,  but  there  is  no  wood  near  the  sea  north- 
ward of  the  Tugela  river.  Several  red  patches  on  the  hills  are 
noticeable. 

Amatikulu  river. — Eight  miles  north-east  of  the  Tugela  river  is  a 
very  dark  bushy  head  about  300  feet  in  height,  the  most  remarkable 
headland  in  the  neighbourhood ;  it  makes  as  a  conical  hill  from  the 
north-eastward,  and  forms  the  southern  side  of  the  Amatikulu  river. 
This  river  is  entirely  barred  by  sand,  extending  in  a  long  bushy- 
topped  spit  nearly  to  the  north  shore.  No  out-flow  was  observed, 
although  the  water  could  be  seen  from  aloft.  The  north  side  of  the 
river  is  marked  by  a  red  hill  similar  in  appearance  and  height 
(280  feet)  to  the  red  hill  at  the  Tugela  river,  but  is  farther  from  the 
beach;  several  large  kraals  were  observed  in  the  neighbourhood. 
The  Inyoni  river  lies  about  midway  between  the  Tugela  and 
Amatikulu  rivers ;  its  east  point  of  entrance  may  be  known  by  a  red- 
topped  hill,  which  shows  well  in  certain  lights  against  the  higher 
land  behind. 

This  part  of  the  coast  should  not  be  approached  nearer  than 
2^  miles,  where  9  to  12  fathoms  will  be  obtained. 


Chap,  v.]  TUGBLA  RIVER— TBNBDOS  SHOAL.  175 

About  1^  miles  eastward  of  Amatikulu  river,  the  ranges  of  hills 
near  the  coast  gradually  become  lower,  and  a  large  quantity  of  white 
sand  shows  along  the  beach  nearly  as  far  as  Dumf ord  point. 

TJinlalaz  river. — ^The  coast  immediately  northward  of  Amatikulu 
river  presents  no  features  of  interest,  the  vicinity  may  be  recognized 
by  the  beach  hills  being  faced  with  sand,  but  of  less  elevation  (a 
noticeable  difference  when  north  of  the  Tugela  river).  Vedette  hill, 
situated  about  9  miles  northward  of  the  Amatikulu,  and  one  mile 
southward  of  the  entrance  to  Umlalaz  river,  is  conspicuous  from  the 
southward  ;  from  a  distance,  its  summit  (which  is  a  bushy  top  with 
white  sand  on  either  side)  appearing  as  a  dip  or  fork  in  the  hill. 

The  mouth  of  the  Umlalaz  was  examined  by  Commander 
I.  W.  Brackenbury,  R.N.,  who,  with  a  party  of  exploration,  rode 
over  from  the  camp  at  fort  Chelmsford  on  the  Inyezane,  a  distance 
of  about  10  miles.  Just  within  the  entrance  the  river  forms  a 
lagoon  at  the  back  of  the  sand  hills  on  the  north  point ;  beyond  the 
lagoon  the  river  sweeps  round  the  hills  on  the  south  side,  with  a 
breadth  of  about  90  feet,  a  clear  beautiful  stream  deepening  quickly 
from  the  south  bank,  apparently  deep  enough  for  the  largest  boats, 
and  reported  to  continue  so  as  far  as  the  first  drift.*  Two  of  the 
party  waded  across  the  river  at  its  mouth,  and  found  about  3  feet 
water  (about  half  ebb),  with  a  stream  running  out  about  2  knots  an 
hour.  The  water  off  the  mouth  of  the  river  was  discoloured  for  a 
considerable  distance,  but  it  was  breaking  at  about  50  yards  from 
the  beach. 

Glenton  reef,  lying  between  the  Amatikulu  and  Umlalaz  river, 
is  steep-to,  and  always  breaks.  Its  northern  extreme  lies  nearly 
abreast  Vedette  hill,  and  extends  about  IJ  miles  off  shore ;  thence 
towards  the  Amatikulu  it  gradually  merges  into  the  shore  breakers. 
The  sea  sometimes  breaks  without  warning  in  5  fathoms  of  water  in 
the  vicinity  of  Glenton  reef. 

Tenedos  shoal,  lying  midway  between  the  Umlalaz  river  and 
Dumf  ord  bay,  extends  nearly  2  miles  from  the  shore  and  is  steep-to  ; 
the  least  water  obtained  was  9  feet,  but  there  is  probably  less  among 
the  breakers.  There  is  a  narrow  passage  between  this  shoal  and  the 
shore,  having  3  to  4^  fathoms  water,  but  it  ought  not  to  be  attempted, 
except  in  boats,  and  then  only  in  smooth  water.     In  calm  weather, 

*  This  was  in  April  1879,  or  just  at  the  end  of  the  rainy  season,  when  the  river 
was  probably  swollen ;  there  was  a  gentle  off-shore  breeze  :  no  attempt  appears  to 
have  been  made  to  land  here. 


176  PORT  NATAL  TO  DBLAGOA  BAY.  [Chap.  V. 

although  the  surf  breaks  heavily  on  the  beach,  there  is  often  no 
indication  of  the  shoal. 

The  landing  inside  Tenedos  shoal  does  not  seem  to  be  at  all 
improved  by  the  breaking  of  the  rollers,  as  there  was  far  more  surf 
here  than  at  Dumford  bay. 

DIJRNFORD  BAY  is  the  name  applied  to  the  slight  indentation 
in  the  coast  off  the  mouth  of  the  Umlatuzana,  a  small  river  situated 
about  8  miles  westward  of  Durnf  ord  point.  The  mouth  of  the  river, 
which  is  generally  blocked  by  sand,  may  be  recognized  by  a  conical 
sand  hill  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  eastwiard  of  it,  at  the  foot  of  a 
well-wooded  range  of  hills  ;  it  has  a  remarkable  belt  of  white  sand 
on  its  eastern  side,  the  remainder  of  the  hill  being  only  partly 
covered  with  sand;  also  by  Grassy  hill,  at  1^  miles  westward  of  the 
river,  with  patches  of  wood  near  its  extremities.  The  hills  on  each 
side  of  the  entrance  being  more  wooded  than  those  more  remote, 
present  at  a  distance  a  dark  patch,  and  serve  to  identify  it. 

Anohorage  may  be  obtained  in  Durnf  ord  bay  in  5  to  6  fathoms, 
coral,  sand,  and  black  mud,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  shore,  with 
the  entrance  of  the  Umlatuzana  river  bearing  from  N.W.  to  N.N.E., 
and  Durford  point  E.  ^  N. 

It  is  a  very  good  anchorage  in  easterly  winds,  but  with  those  from 
westward  a  heavy  sea  gets  up,  and  heavy  rollers  set  in,  necessitating 
proceeding  to  sea. 

Between  Durnf  ord  bay  and  point  a  fairly  even  bottom  exists,  the 
average  depth  being  4  to  5  fathoms  within  half  a  mile,  and  6  to  8 
fathoms  at  about  2  miles  from  the  shore. 

Direotions. — ^Approaching  from  the  south-westward,  keep  Durn- 
ford  point  northward  of  E.  by  N.  ^  N.,  until  the  sand  hill  on  the  east 
point  of  the  Umlatuzana  river  bears  N.  by  E.,  when  steer  for  it  to  the 
anchorage. 

Landing. — There  is  occasional  landing  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Umlatuzana  river. 

Commissariat  stores  were  landed  here  without  much  difficulty,  in 
July  and  August,  by  surf  boats  brought  from  Algoa  bay,  but  the 
landing  was  not  so  good  as  during  the  months  of  May  and  June. 

Dumford  point  is  a  bluff,  in  lat.  28°  55'  S.,  long.  3P  59'  E.,  and 
may  be  recognized  by  the  square-topped  hill  over  the  point,  the 
cleared  land  to  the  west  of  it,  and  also  a  sandy  streak  on  the  north 
side  resembling  a  road.  The  hill  can  be  seen  nearly  as  far  north- 
ward as  cape  St.  Lucia. 


Chap,  v.]  DUBNFOBD  BAT— RICHARDS  BAY.  177 

From  the  point  a  ridge  of  mountains  takes  its  rise,  and  striking 
directly  to  the  westward,  increases  in  height  and  magnitude  as  it 
advances  into  the  interior.    This  ridge  is  from  3,000  to  6,000  feet  high. 

Shoal. — The  bottom  aromid  Dmnford  point  for  a  distance  of  one 
to  two  miles  is  rocky,  with  depths  of  3^  to  4  fathoms  only  ;  it  is 
advisable  to  give  it  a  berth  of  3  miles. 

From  Dumf  ord  point  the  land  trends  gradually  to  the  northward 
for  about  4  miles,  the  beach  hills  being  of  moderate  elevation  and 
covered  with  bush  ;  from  thence  to  the  Umlatiis  river  are  bare  sand- 
hills, and  sand-hills  covered  with  brushwood. 

RICHARDS  BAY,  into  which  the  Umlatiis  river  empties  itself, 
about  4J  miles  northward  of  Dumf  ord  point,  appears  to  have  an 
even  bottom,  shoaling  gradually  to  5  fathoms  close  to  the  breakers. 

Within  a  mile  of  the  beach  northward  of  Richards  bay  the  soundings 
vary  f com  10  to  6^  fathoms ;  abreast  O'Neill  peak  9  to  6  fathoms, 
coral ;  deepening  again  a  short  distance  to  the  northward  to  13 
fathoms,  no  bottom. 

From  the  mast-head  of  H.M.S.  Forester  at  anchor  off  the  mouth  of 
Umlatiis  river,  the  bar  appeared  to  extend  from  a  half  to  one  mile 
oflE  shore,  fairly  smooth  on  its  southern  part,  but  breaking  heavily 
on  its  northern  part,  the  lagoon  within  being  quite  distinct.  Landing 
is  considered  impracticable,  though  perhaps,  after  still  weather,  it 
might  be  possible. 

A  bare  round-topped  sand  mound  marks  the  northern  point  of  the 
entrance  of  Umlatiis  river.  A  short  distance  to  the  northward  of  this 
mound  is  a  well-defined  black  hill,  which  from  seaward  makes  as  a 
point ;  the  beach  hills  thence  to  O'Neill  peak  are  of  moderate  eleva- 
tion, faced  with  sand. 

Southward  of  the  river  the  shore  is  sandy  and  backed  by  low  sand- 
hills. 

Anchorage. — There  is  good  fine  weather  anchorage  in  11  fathoms 
with  O'Neill  peak  N.E.  by  E.  ^  E. ;  bare  sand  mound  North ;  and 
Durnford  point  W.  by  S. 

O'Neill  peak,  395  feet  high  and  dark,  is  easily  recognised  by  a 
small  cone  in  the  centre  of  the  range,  which  is  more  thickly  wooded 
than  the  surrounding  hills  ;  there  are  no  dark  hills  within  5  miles  to 
the  southward  of  it. 

COAST. — The  coast  northward  of  Richards  bay  is  fringed  by  a 
range  of  hills  which  become  almost  destitute  of  vegetation  as  cape 
St.  Lucia  is  approached,  again  becoming  thickly  wooded  between  the 
cape  and   St.  Lucia  river.    Off  the  east  point  of  Richards  bay  the 

S.0. 10625.  M 


178  PORT  NATAL  To  DBLAGOA  BAY.  [Chap.  V. 

shore  ehonld  be  approached  with  caution,  as  the  bottom  was  fotmd 
to  be  irregular;  5^  fathoms  was  found  at  nearly  one  mile  off-shore. 

Zulu  shoal,  reported  in  1875  in  lat.  28°  51'  S.,  long.  32°  6'  E. 
IJ  miles  off-shore,  has  been  unsuccessfully  searched  for.  Possibly 
the  Zulu  struck  on  the  shoal  of  3^  fathoms  (or  less),  situated  one  mile 
off-shore,  and  1^  miles  north-eastward  of  Dumford  point. 

The  surf  breaks  heavily  along  the  whole  of  this  coast. 

Oone  point,  4  miles  south-westward  from  cape  St.  Lucia,  has  a 
conical  hill  of  bare  sand  on  it,  and  north-eastward  is  a  round-topped 
bare  sand-hill,  380  feet  high,  appearing  as  a  sharp  summit  when 
approaching  it  from  the  northward. 

OAPE  ST.  LIJOIA  is  a  low  rounded  point  of  sand  with  a  hill 
at  the  back  rising  to  the  height  of  500  feet.  *  At  about  2  miles  north- 
ward of  the  cape  is  a  ledge  of  light  brown  coloured  rocks. 

Prom  the  eastward  it  makes  like  a  number  of  islands,  which  are 
the  summits  of  the  various  sand-hills  comprising  the  cape ;  the  most 
conspicuous  is  Sharp  peak,  630  feet  high,  about  2  miles  northward 
of  the  cape.*  Prom  Sharp  peak  the  range  extends  to  the  northward, 
ranging  from  400  to  600  feet  in  height ;  it  is  cpvered  with  stunted 
brushwood,  its  base  being  devoid  of  vegetation,  and  ending  abruptly 
in  the  bluff  hill  which  marks  St.  Lucia  river. 

Current. — Off  cape  St.  Lucia,  the  Mozambique  current  sets  to 
the  south-westward,  in  the  direction  of  the  coast,  at  the  rate  of 
2  to  3  knots  an  hour ;  at  times,  it  sets  close  in  to  the  cape.  This 
current  is  usually  found  within  one  mile  of  the  shore  as  far  north- 
ward as  Kosi  river ;  thence  to  Delagoa  bay,  within  3  miles  of  the  shore, 
the  current  is  seldom  felt.  Occasionally,  in-shore,  a  counter  current 
of  one  knot  an  hour  is  felt  along  the  whole  of  this  coast.  Strong 
southerly  winds  raise  a  considerable  sea  northward  of  cape  St.  Lucia. 

Winds. — ^At  times,  with  a  rather  low  barometer  and  light  easterly 
winds,  strong  south-west  winds  almost  amounting  to  a  gale  spring  up  in 
this  neighbourhood  with  but  little  warning  ;  the  barometer  then  rises 
quickly.     In  August,  during  one  of  these  blows,  it  rose  to  30*6  inches.f 

ST.  LUCIA  BAY,  an  indentation  of  the  coast  9  miles  northward 
of  the  cape  of  the  same  name,  may  be  recognised  by  a  conspicuous 
sugar-loaf  hill  of  sand,  200  feet  high,  about  one  mile  from  the  south 
point  of  entrance  to  St.  Lucia  lake.  This  hill  is  not  seen  when 
approaching  from  the  southward  until  it  bears  westward  of  N.N.W. 
At  about  4  miles  northward  of  the  lake,  a  conspicuous  square-topped 
sand  hill,  330  feet  high,  rises  from  the  beach. 

*  S0§  view  on  chart,  No.  2,089.  f  H.M.B.  Ibrester^  1879 


Ohap.  v.]  OAPB  ST.  LUCIA— ST.  LUCIA  BAY.  179 

Ancliorage. — The  bay  is  exposed  to  winds  from  S.S.W. 
through  east  to  N.E.  ;  the  bottom  is  sand,  gradually  decreasing 
in  depth  to  the  shore,  and  is  good  holding  ground.  A  good  berth  in 
10  fathoms,  is  with  Sugar-loaf  hill  bearing  W.  |  S.,  and  a  remarkable 
square-topped  hill  N.N.E.  J  E.  H.M.S.  Sylvia  (1884)  rode  out  a 
fresh  S.W.  gale  in  this  berth ;  but  with  the  wind  more  to  the  south- 
ward it  would  be  necessary  to  put  to  sea.  With  the  Sugar-loaf 
bearing  northward  of  West  the  bottom  is  foul.* 

Landing. — ^The  best  place  for  landing  is  under  the  Sugar-loaf ; 
here,  H.M.S.  Goshawk's  boats  effected  landing,  also  boats  from  H.M.S. 
Rapid,  March,  1886,  during  exceptionally  fine  weather  and  off-shore 
winds;  the  bar  of  the  river  was  not  practicable.  After  north- 
easterly or  easterly  winds,  a  swell  rolls  in  and  causes  heavy  breakers 
on  the  beach,  thus  rendering  landing  impracticable  in  ship's  boats. 
North  of  the  river  the  breakers  extend  a  long  distance  seaward. 
Sharks  appear  numerous  and  voracious,  as  they  several  times 
attempted  to  seize  the  oars  and  lead  of  the  boat  employed  sounding. 

St.  Luoia  river  and  lake.— In  the  dry  season  the  entrance  to 
St.  Lucia  river  is  completely  blocked  by  a  dry  sand  bar,  which  is 
annually  swept  away  by  the  floods ;  but  apparently  there  is  never 
more  than  a  depth  of  3  or  4  feet  at  high  water,  and  with  heavy 
breakers  right  across  it.  The  bar  was  not  practicable  when  seen  by 
Sylvia  in  August  and  January,  though  it  was  open. 

Discoloured  water  from  the  river  extends  at  times  some  distance 
seaward. 

St.  Ixicia  river  trends  north-eastward  about  12  miles  parallel  to  the 
coast,  and  distant  from  it  about  2  miles,  entering  the  south  end  of 
the  lake  abreast  cape  Vidal.  The  lake  is  about  35  miles  in  length, 
10  miles  average  breadth,  and  with  a  depth  of  about  9  feet.  The 
eastern  side  of  the  lake  is  separated  from  the  sea  by  a  strip  of  land 
about  3  miles  across,  with  sand  hills  from  300  to  500  feet  high. 

COAST. — At  8  miles  northward  of  St.  Lucia  river  is  a  conspicuous 
sand-slip,  from  whence  to  cape  Vidal,  a  further  distance  of  9  miles, 
is  a  range  of  dark-coloured  steep  hills  of  even  height.  Detached 
rocks  lie  a  short  distance  off  the  projecting  points. 

Gape  Vidal  rises  to  a  remarkable  peak,  500  feet  high,  and  when 
bearing  N.W.  by  W.  shows  a  long  triangular  patch  of  sand,  extending 
one-third  of  the  way  up  the  hill  ;  when  seen  from  thfe  southward  it 
has  two  reddish  coloured  patches  on  it. 

*8e§  plan  of  St.  Luoia  bay,  on  Admiralty  chart,  No.  2.089. 
S.0. 10626.  M  2 


180  PORT  NATAL  TO  DBLAGOA  BAY.        [Chap.  V. 

The  shore  from  cape  Vidal  to  the  north-east  end  of  Inyack  island, 
Delagoa  bay,  a  distance  of  about  132  miles,  trends  north-eastward,  in 
a  nearly  straight  line.  The  coast,  which  is  moderately  high  close  to 
the  beach,  is  a  continuous  line  of  sand-hills  from  50  to  500  or  600 
feet  high.    There  are  a  few  straggling  black  rocks  along  the  shore. 

Towards  cape  Colatto,  Delagoa  bay,  the  land  is  well  wooded.  The 
interior  southward  of  Delagoa  appears  to  be  a  low  level  country,  with 
some  knots  of  trees  here  and  there  like  park  land,  but  about  10  or  12 
miles  inland,  a  few  hills  apparently  800  or  1,000  feet  high,  are  visible. 

Leven  point,  12  miles  northward  of  cape  Vidal,  may  be  known 
when  bearing  northward  of  West,  by  four  sand  roads,  extending 
from  the  sea  to  the  summit  of  the  coast  hills,  9  miles  north  of 
cape  Vidal,  and  are  useful  marks  for  Leadsman  shoal. 

Leadsman  shoal,  a  small  patch  of  coral,  about  half  a  mile  long, 
has  2J  fathoms  water,  and  lies  nearly  one  mile  from  the  shore,  with 
Leven  point  bearing  S.W.  ^  S.  distant  6  miles. 

Another  coral  patch,  with  4  ^thoms  water,  lies  3^  miles  N.E.  of 
Leadsman  shoal.  Vessels  should  not  navigate  between  the  above 
shoals  and  the  land,  or  approach  them  to  a  less  depth  than  20  fathoms. 

Havergal  hill,  at  21  miles  north-east  of  Leven  point,  is  a  conical 
hill,  465  feet  high,  with  a  flat  top,  and  a  sand  road  from  base  to 
summit. 

Sordwana  bay.— At  about  2  miles  north-east  of  Havergal  hill  is 
.a  slightly  projecting  point,  on  the  north  side  of  which  is  a  shallow 
bight  about  2  cables  in  extent,  known  as  Sordwana  bay,  but  scarcely 
deserving  this  appellation  ;  its  south-east  point,  on  which  there  is  a 
hut  and  flagstaff  at  about  30  feet  above  the  sea,  is  in  lat.  27°  32'  22"  S., 
long.  32°  41' 39"  E.*  The  dark  bluff  150  feet  in  height,  behind  the 
flagstaff  is  covered  with  scrub,  and  conspicuous  from  seaward  ;  the 
coast  northward  of  it  is  composed  of  sand  hills,  ranging  from  40  to 
200  feet  in  height. 

A  small  stream  enters  the  sea  at  the  head  of  the  bay ;  it  is  but 
20  feet  wide  at  its  entrance,  which  dries  4  feet  at  low  water  springs, 
rock  bottom.  This  stream  carries  off  the  surplus  water  from  two 
lagoons  a  short  distance  inland  ;  the  nearer,  half  a  mile  distant  from 
the  bay,  is  about  half  a  mile  in  extent,  covered  with  grass,  and  i& 
very  shallow.  There  are  but  few  natives  in  the  neighbourhood,  the 
land  being  covered  with  scrub  and  unsuitable  for  agriculture. 

*  See  plan  of  Sordwana  road,  on  Admiralty  chart,  No.  2,089.  The  description  of 
the  coast  between  St.  Lucia  river  and  Delagoa  bay  is  from  the  survey  of  Captain 
Pelham  Aldrich,  H.M.S.  Sylvia,  1884 ;  Sordwana  road,  with  information  on,  by 
Commander  T.  F.  PuUen,  H.M.S.  Storh^  1889. 


Chap,  v.]  LBVBN  POINT— SORDWANA^  BAY.  181 

Landing. — A  reef,  about  one  cable  in  extent,  extends  north- 
eastward from  the  point  of  the  bay  affording  some  slight  protection 
to  the  landing  place,  but  owing  to  the  heavy  surf  and  rollers  usually 
prevailing,  landing  is  dangerous  and  impracticable  at  times  even  to 
surf  boats. 

Anchorage. — Temporary  anchorage  may  be  taken  by  steam- 
vessels,  in  the  road,  in  about  7  fathoms  at  half  a  mile  off  shore;  with 
the  flagstaff  on  the  point  bearing  S.W.  ^  W.  distant  about  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile.  The  holding  ground  is  not  good,  being  partly 
rock,  and  is  more  foul  nearer  the  shore  ;  there  is  also  considerable 
swell  here,  and  strong  on-shore  winds  would  render  the  anchorage 
untenable.  The  anchorage  is  open  to  winds  from  seaward  between 
N.E.  and  S.W.,  and  is  no  better  than  that  off  other  parts  of  this  coast. 

Coast. — ^At  8  miles  northward  of  Sordwana  bay  is  the  point  of  the 
same  name,  rising  to  a  hill  485  feet  high.  Lava  hill  is  a  grassy  hill 
with  a  sharp  summit ;  somewhat  lower  is  a  long  streak  of  red  sand. 

Boteler  point,  at  19  miles  north-eastward  of  Sordwana  point, 
projects  a  short  distance  as  a  dark  rocky  cliff,  15  feet  high.  Near 
Boteler  point  are  two  high  and  conspicuous  hills,  named  the  Paps,  a 
good  land  mark,  probably  Lava  hill  is  one  of  them. 

Black  rock  is  a  low  rock  lying  at  the  foot  of  the  sand  hills,  3^  miles 
northward  of  Boteler  point. 

Kosi  river. — The  entrance  to  Kosi  river,  in  lat,  26°  53'  S.,  is 
conspicuous  from  the  north-eastward.  Rollers  break  across  the 
mouth  which  appeared  very  shallow.* 

At  1|  miles  southward  of  the  river,  a  reef  extends  half  a  mile  off 
shore. 

Oro  point,  at  3  miles  northward  of  Kosi  river,  is  a  low,  dark, 
cliffy  point  resembling  Boteler  point ;  it  rises  to  the  coast  range  in 
Oro  peak,  about  390  feet  high.  Foul  ground  extends  half  a  mile 
northward  from  Oro  point. 

Landmarks. — ^At  7  miles  northward  of  Oro  point  are  three 
peaked  hills  about  1^  miles  apart,  the  highest,  named  Florence  peak 
is  400  feet  high ;  these  are  conspicuous  landmarks  from  all  directions ; 
the  land  is  cleared  of  bush  just  northward  of  Florence  peak. 

At  13  miles  northward  of  Oro  point,  shoal  rocky  ground  3  miles 
long  fronts  the  coast  to  a  distance  of  1^  miles.    Fish  are  plentiful  here. 

Steamer  rock,  10  miles  southward  of  cape  Colatto,  has  the  appear- 
ance of  the  hull  of  a  steam  vessel  low  down  on  the  beach. 

*  Captain  Barnes,  R.  Mail  s.8.  Florence^  states  that  he  passed  this  river  during 
strong  southerly  winds  and  high  sea,  but  saw  no  break  across  its  mouth,  which 
appeared  to  be  about  one  mile  wide. 


182  DBLAaoA  BAY.  [Ohap.  V. 

Cape  Colatto,  or  Santa  Maria,  a  rotind-topped  hill  360  feet  high, 
is  the  northern  extremity  of  Inyack  peninsula,  which,  with  Inyack 
island  and  its  shoals,  form  the  eastern  bomidary  of  Delagoa  bay. 

Inyack  peninsula  is  separated  from  the  island  by  a  sunken  reef 
through  which  there  is  no  passage. 

INYACK  ISLAND,  to  the  northward  of  Inyack  peninsula,  is 
aboufr  6  miles  long,  north-east  and  south-west,  by  3^  miles  across. 
Inyack  hill,  385  feet  high,  situated  2  miles  south  of  cape  Inyack,  is 
wooded,  and  has  a  dome-shaped  summit.  The  north-western  part  of 
the  island  is  low,  and  encloses  a  shallow  lagoon.  The  north  extreme 
of  Black  bluff,  the  west  point  of  the  island,  has  a  flag  staff  and  a 
white  barrack  on  its  summit ;  at  one  mile  southward  of  the  barrack 
is  the  highest  part  of  the  bluff,  177  feet  above  the  sea,  with  a  red 
streak  down  its  northern  face,  but  these  marks  are  not  seen  when 
eastward  of  the  island.  It  will  be  again  referred  to  in  connection 
with  Delagoa  bay. 

Cape  Inyack,  the  north-east  extreme  of  the  island,  has  a  steep 
face,  with  a  sand  hill  on  its  extremity  and  tolerably  level  land 
adjoining,  and  is  not  unlike  cape  Natal.  The  east  coast  of  Inyack 
may  be  approached  to  about  one  mile.* 

Danae  shoal,  within  a  depth  of  10  fathoms,  is  about  1^  miles  in 
extent,  with  a  least  depth  of  5  fathoms,  for  which  cape  Inyack  bears 
S.W.  by  W  I  W.,  distant  4^  miles  ;  the  square-topped  sand  hummock 
forming  the  cape  is  also  in  line  with  the  white  sand  patch,  265  feet 
above  the  sea,  on  the  hills  at  the  back  of  the  cape.  From  the  head 
of  the  shoal,  depths  of  13  to  17  fathoms  will  be  found  as  far  south- 
ward as  the  cape  ;  its  extent  to  the  northward  is  not  charted. 

Five  Fathom  bank. — A  bank  with  5  fathoms  water,  and  depths 
of  7  to  8  fathoms  charted  to  the  distance  of  2  miles  southward  of  it, 
lies  about  10  miles  N.E.  ^  E.  of  Danae  shoal.  The  locality  is  better 
avoided. 

DELAGOA  BAY,  also  known  as  Lorenzo  Marques  after  its 
discoverer,  who  was  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  Portuguese  navigators, 
belongs  to  the  kingdom  of  Portugal.  The  entrance  is  obstructed  by 
shoals,  extending  for  a  distance  of  20  miles  northward  of  Inyack 
island,  terminating  in  Outfield  flat,  north-westward  of  which  is  the 
north  or  main  channel  to  the  bay ;  the  depths  between  the  flats 
vary  from  4  to  7  fathoms  in  the  navigable  channels.  Vessels  of 
24  feet  draught  can  cross  the  bar  to  the  town. 

Between  Elephant  island  and  English  river,  the  bay  is  15  miles 
across,  southward  of  which  it  extends  about  20  miles.    Three  rivers 


Ohap.  v.]      CHANNELS  TO— SHOALS   IN  THH  APPROACH.  183 

empty  themselves  into  the  bay,  viz  : — the  King  George,  the  English 
river,  and  the  Maputa.  The  great  deposit  ejected  by  these  streams 
has  caused  shallows  and  flats,  which  renders  the  navigation  of  the 
bay,  particularly  in  the  southern  portions,  somewhat  intricate.  The 
depths  in  the  navigable  parts  of  the  bay  vary  from  6  to  12  fathoms, 
all  good  anchorage  ground.* 

CBEANNELS.— North,  or  Main  channel  lies  between  the 
north  extreme  of  Outfield  flat  and  the  shore,  a  distance  of  about  5  miles, 
with  depths  of  7  to  8  fathoms  in  the  fairway  between.  This  channel 
is  doubtless  the  best  one  for  a  large  vessel.  Outfield  flat  is  generally 
visible  by  the  colour  of  the  water.  Westward  of  the  fairway,  at  about 
3  miles  westward  of  the  north  end  of  Outfield  flat,  is  the  south  end 
of  a  bank,  2  miles  in  length,  fronting  the  shore,  with  depths  of  3  to 
5  fathoms.  The  least  depth,  3  fathoms,  is  on  its  north  extreme,  and 
one  mile  off  shore.  The  water  apparently  deepens  again  westward 
of  this  bank  to  6  fathoms.    See  directions,  p.  186. 

Oockburn  channel,  with  depth  of  4  to  8  fathoms,  over  a  breadth 
of  about  one  mile,  lies  along  the  north-east  side  of  Oockburn  shoal, 
between  it  and  Hope  shoals.  Vessels  from  the  southward,  of  moderate 
draught,  enter  by  this  channel ;  directions  are  given  on  page  187. 

There  is  said  to  be  a  passage  with  not  less  than  4  fathoms,  over 
the  Hope  shoals,  formerly  taken  by  vessels  ;  its  direction  is  nearly 
East  from  Fawn  shoal.  H.M.S.  Fawn  proceeded  to  sea  on  one 
occasion  by  that  route  nearly,  and  found  no  difi&culty.  The  colour 
of  the  water  does  not  sufficiently  indicate  the  shoal  patches  for  this 
passage  to  be  recommended.  The  tide  is  said  to  set  fairly  through, 
but  no  marks  can  be  given  for  it. 

SHOALS  in  the  approach.— Oockburn  shoal  is  the  name 
of  the  extensive  flat  with  from  one  to  3  fathoms,  which  occupies  the 
whole  space  lying  between  the  north  point  of  Inyack  island  and 
Elephant  island,  a  distance  of  5  miles.  It  is  triangular  in  shape,  and 
its  northern  point  terminates  in  a  3-fathom  patch,  with  8  fathoms 
close  beyond  it,  lying  with  Gibbon  point  bearing  S.S.W.  |  W. 
distant  4f  miles,  and  the  sand  patch  on  cape  Inyack,  S.  by  E.  |  E. ; 
the  shoal  may  be  said  to  occupy  the  whole  space  between  these 
bearings,  and  there  is  no  passage  through  it. 

Hope  shoals,  within  a  depth  of  5  fathoms,  are  about  5  miles  in 
length,  in  a  north  and  south  direction,  with  patches  of  2^  and  3  fathoms 
in  many  places. 

*  See  Admiralty  charts  :— Tugela  river  to  Delagoa  bay,  No.  2,089  ;  Delagoabay  to 
river  Zambesi,  No.  648;  and  plan  of  Belagoa  bay.  No.  644;  Scale  «»  =  1*0  inch. 
Directions  amended  from  survey  of  Captain  Aldrich,  H.M.S.  Faum,  1882-4. 


184  DBLAQOA  BAT.  [Chap.  Y. 

Domett  shoals,  with  about  the  same  depth  of  water,  lie  north- 
ward of  the  Hope ;  there  are  probably  Bome  deep  water  channelB 
between  the  patches,  but  the  locality  has  not  been  fully  examined. 

Cutfleld  flat,  the  northernmost  of  this  chain  of  shoals,  is,  within 
a  depth  of  3  fathoms,  4  miles  in  extent  in  a  north  and  south  direction; 
many  patches  of  2  fathoms,  coral  bottom,  were  found  on  this  flat.  Its 
north  extreme  lies  with  the  sand  patch  on  cape  Inyack,  bearing 
S.  ^  W.,  distant  19^  miles,  and  Cutfleld  hummock,  N.  ^  E.,  distant 
6^  miles. 

The  shoals  mentioned  break  in  places  during  and  after  strong 
south-west  winds. 

Patches. — At  about  10  miles  north-eastward  of  Cutfleld  flat,  and 
about  4  miles  off  shore,  is  a  patch  of  3|  fathoms,  the  southernmost 
of  the  patches  extending  from  Lagoa  shoal,  described  on  page  195. 
About  midway  between  this  patch  and  the  Cutfleld,  there  is  a  patch 
of  5^  fathoms.  Tide  rips  are  often  seen  about  here,  probably  caused 
by  the  uneven  bottom.* 

Sheflna  reef,  on  the  western  side  of  the  main  channel,  and 
abreast  Hope  and  Cockburn  shoals,  is  apparently  dry  at  low  water, 
and  extends  about  4^  miles  in  an  E.S.E.  direction  from  the  north-east 
point  of  Sheflna  island.  Shoal  and  discoloured  water  extends  a 
further  distance  of  1^  miles  south-eastward  from  the  point  of  Sheflna 
reef,  at  which  distance  there  is  a  depth  of  about  3^  fathoms. 

Fawn  shoal,  an  isolated  patch  of  2^  fathoms,  lies  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  southward  of  this  shoal  water,  with  Gibbon  point  bearing 
S.  I  E.,  distant  5^  miles. 

Lech  reef,  with  IJ  fathoms  water  and  7  fathoms  close-to,  is  the 
termination  of  the  shoal  water  extending  1^  miles  southward  of 
Sheflna  reef.  Vessels  must  keep  southward  of  a  line  joining  Lech 
reef  and  Fawn  shoal. 

Clearing  mark. — The  red  streak  (177  feet)  on  Inyack  island  in 
line  with  Gibbon  point,  leads  eastward  of  these  dangers.  See  view  B. 
on  plan. 

A  bank,  about  1^  miles  in  extent,  within  a  depth  of  5  fathoms, 
lies  in  the  fairway  to  the  anchorage  in  Delagoa  bay.  A  patch  of  2J 
fathoms  near  its  centre,  lies  with    Reuben    point    light    bearing 

*H.M.S.  Brink  in  proceeding  to  sea  in  1860,  after  rounding  Outfield  flat  and  when 
it  was  considered  that  the  vessel  was  well  clear  of  the  bay,  the  soundings  shoaled 
in  some  places  to  6  fathoms  rather  suddenly,  when  several  miles  out  to  seaward. 
The  bottom  appears  to  be  a  succession  of  sand  ridges,  with  6  and  7  fathoms  on 
them,  and  from  9  to  11  fathoms  between  the  ridges. 


Chap,  v.]  SHOALS— LANDMARKS,  185 

W.  I  N.  distant  about  7|  miles  ;  there  are  similar  depths  on  the 
north  end  of  the  bank.  A  projecting  horn  from  the  bar  of  English 
river,  lies  aboat  2  miles  S.W.  by  W.  from  the  centre  of  this  bank,  on 
the  south  side  of  the  anchorage,  with  a  depth  of  2  fathoms  near  its 
extreme.  This  concludes  the  description  of  the  important  shoals 
bordering  the  channels  from  seaward  to  the  anchorage. 

Sheflna  island,  between  4  and  5  miles  in  length  east  and  west, 
stretches  off  the  west  shore  of  the  bay,  at  the  mouth  of  George 
river.  It  is  low,  sandy,  covered  with  dense  bush,  and  abounds  in 
deer  and  other  game,  difficult  to  get  at ;  water  may  be  obtained.  The 
lower  part  of  the  island  is  all  white  sand,  and  at  a  distance  it  is 
difficult  to  distinguish  the  island  from  the  main  land. 

LIGHT. — On  Reuben  point,  north  point  of  entrance  to  English 
river,  above  a  small  tower,  is  exhibited  a  fixed  white  light  visible  in 
clear  weather  about  10  miles.  Within  the  river  the  light  is  not 
visible  when  bearing  southward  of  E.  ^  S. 

LANDMARKS. — Beacons. — A  white  beacon,  with  ball,  75  feet 
high,  situated  on  the  southern  end  of  Shefina  islands,  is  visible  from 
a  distance  of  about  7  miles.    {Existence  doubtful,) 

On  Gibbon  point,  a  sand  hummock  19  feet  high  at  the  west 
extreme  of  Elephant  island,  there  is  a  triangular  beacon,  surmounted 
by  a  disc  37  feet  above  the  sea. 

Black  bluff  and  Red  streak  on  Inyack  island,  and  Mount  Colatto 
to  the  southward  somewhat  resembling  a  haycock,  are  also  useful 
landmarks.    See  sketches  on  plan. 

George  hill,  the  summit  of  the  island  of  that  name,  may  be  of  use 
when  nearing  Shefina  reef,  but  it  is  not  conspicuous,  being  but  little 
above  the  land  about  it. 

Cutfleld  hummock. — From  the  northward,  or  for  vessels 
intending  to  enter  by  the  northern  channel,  Outfield  hummock, 
26  miles  northward  of  Inyack  island,  is  rather  a  conspicuous  land- 
mark. It  is  higher  than  the  surrounding  coast  hills  (210  feet  above 
high  water),  and  there  is  no  land  behind  it.  From  seaward  it  appears 
with  a  bushy  top,  and  southward  of  it  the  hills  are  also  bushy,  whilst 
to  the  northward  they  are  mostly  sand.  Approaching  it  from  the 
southward,  bearing  about  N.  by  W.,  which  leads  eastward  of  Outfield 
flat,  it  appears  with  two  peaks,  the  southern  one  dark,  the  other 
slightly  higher,  with  a  streak  of  sand  along  the  top.  It  is  visible 
about  16  miles.  When  inside  Outfield  flat,  the  hummock  appears 
with  a  large  streak  of  sand  down  it. 


186  DBLAGOA  BAT.  [Chap.  V. 

Tides.— The  time  of  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  port  Melville, 
is  4h.  30m.,  rise  15  feet ;  and  at  the  Portuguese  factory  in  English 
river,  5h.  20m.,  rise  12  feet. 

Seaward  of  the  shoals,  the  flood  sets  to  the  northward  at  the  rate 
of  2  knots,  with  a  strong  indraught  towards  Cockbum  channel,  across 
which  it  sets  obliquely.    The  ebb  sets  in  an  opposite  direction. 

Within  the  shoals  the  flood  sets  to  the  south-westward  through  the 
channel,  over  Shefina  reef  and  towards  English  river  at  the  rate  of 
from  one  to  3  knots.     The  ebb  sets  in  the  opposite  direction. 

DIRECTIONS.— North  or  Main  ohannel.— Pilots  for 
Delagoa  bay  are  not  to  be  obtained.  Heavy  draught  vessels  are 
recommended  to  take  the  North  channel,  as  there  are  patches  of 
4  fathoms  in  the  Cockbum  channel,  and  the  tides  set  obliquely 
across  it. 

Vessels  firom  the  northward  should  make  the  land  about 
the  parallel  of  25°  30'  S.,  avoiding  Lagoa  shoal,  and  endeavour  to 
identify  the  remarkable  ridge  of  bare  sand  hills,  with  four  cones  on 
its  summit,  290  feet  high,  westward  of  that  shoal ;  and  also  Outfield 
hummock  ;  thence  steering  so  as  to  be  within  3  miles  of  the  hummock 
before  it  bears  northward  of  N.W.,  to  clear  Outfield  flats,  when 
proceed  as  directed  below,  for  vessels  having  rounded  the  flats  from 
the  southward.  Inyack  hill  will,  in  fine  weather,  be  visible  northward 
of  Outfield  flats.* 

Vessels  from  the  southward  may  pass  cape  Inyack  at  from 
one  to  2  miles  distant,  thence  steering  N.  by  E.  (westward  of  Danae 
shoal)  about  20  miles,  taking  care  not  to  bring  cape  Inyack  south- 
ward of  the  bearing  S.  by  W.  ^  W.,  until  Outfield  hummock  bears 
N.  by  W.,  or  more  westerly,  which  will  lead  clear,  and  at  least  one 
mile  eastward  of  all  the  shoals.  With  the  hummock  on  that  bearing, 
it  may  be  steered  for,  and  there  being  no  other  object  to  assist  in 
determining  the  distance  from  it,  the  approximate  distance  should  be 
obtained  by  means  of  an  angle  of  elevation,  (210  feet).  When 
between  2  and  3  miles  from  the  hummock,  the  course  may  be 
altered  to  the  south-westward  to  bring  it  to  bear  N.  by  E.  |  E.,  which 
bearing  should  be  maintained  until  approaching  Fawn  shoal.  This 
course  may  be  continued  past  Fawn  shoal,  provided  Black  bluff  on 
Inyack  island  is  on  with  or  just  open  eastward  of  Gibbon  point 
(View  B.)t,  which  mark  leads  eastward  of  Fawn  shoal  and  Shefina 
reefs,  and  to  the  entrance  of  port  Melville  (page  193). 

*  See  footnote,  p.  184. 

-f-  Mount  Colatto,  seen  beiween  Gibbon  point  and  Elephant  island,  appears  a  good 
mark  for  leading  midway  between  Cockbum  and  Fawn  shoals. 


Chap,  v.]  DIRECTIONS.  187 

But,  for  proceeding  to  the  anchorage  off  English  river,  when  the 
white  sand  patch  on  cape  Inyack  bears  S.E.  ^  S.,  alter  course  to 
W,  by  N.  for  a  distance  of  5  miles,  passing  about  one  mile  southward 
of  Lech  reef,  when  the  beacon  on  the  south  point  of  Shefina  island  (if 
correctly  charted,)  should  bear  W.N.W.  ;  then  steer  for  it  on  that 
bearing,  passing  about  half  a  mile  northward  of  the  bank  fronting  the 
anchorage,  until  about  2  miles  from  the  beacon,  then  haul  south-west- 
ward to  the  anchorage.  Or  proceeding  to  the  anchorage  southward  of 
this  bank,  from  the  position  where  cape  Inyack  bears  S.E.  ^  S.,  steer 
W.  ^  S.,  until  the  sand  patch  on  cape  Inyack  is  in  line  with  or  just 
southward  of  Gibbon  point  beacon,  bearing  S.E.  by  E.  ^  E. ;  this 
mark  astern,  if  discernible,  will  lead  southward  of  the  bank  in  about 
4^  fathoms,  and  to  the  anchorage.    See  anchorage,  p.  188. 

The  beacon  on  Shefina  island  bearing  N.N.W.  also  apparently 
leads  southward  of  the  bank.  Bearings  of  Reuben  point  bluff,  200 
feet  high,  may  also  prove  useful  on  approaching  English  river.  See 
description,  page  188. 

At  night,  in  favourable  weather,  vessels  may  approach  Delagoa 
bay  by  the  lead,  if  certain  of  being  well  to  the  northward  of  Inyack 
island,  taking  care  not  to  stand  into  less  than  10  or  12  fathoms,  when 
they  may  anchor  or  stand  off  according  to  circumstances. 

Cockbum  or  South  channel  has  a  least  depth  of  4  fathoms 
at  low  water  over  a  breadth  of  one  mile,  and  the  telegraph  ships, 
drawing  24  feet,  made  use  of  this  channel.  It  is  not  recommended 
for  heavy  draught  vessels  as  there  is  generally  a  swell,  and  the  tide 
sets  obliquely  across,  the  flood  to  the  westward  and  the  ebb 
to  the  eastward. 

Moderate  draught  vessels,  from  the  southward,  having  passed  cape 
Inyack  at  the  distance  of  one  mile,  should  steer  N.N.W.  ^  W.,  until 
the  white  barrack  on  Black  bluff  is  in  line  with  the  Red  streak  on 
the  higher  land  southward  of  it,  bearing  S.E.,  when  cape  Inyack 
should  be  brought  to  bear  S.  by  E.  |  E. ;  this  bearing  kept  on  astern, 
will  lead  through  the  channel,  bearing  in  mind  the  cross  set  of  the 
tide.  When  the  red  streak  comes  in  line  with  Gibbon  point  (sand 
hillock,  19  feet  high,  with  bushes  on  it  at  the  west  extreme 
of  Elephant  island)  the  vessel  will  be  past  the  north  extreme 
of  Cockburn  shoal,  and  course  may  be  altered  to  S.W.,  until 
the  white  barrack  is  in  line  with  Gibbon  point,  view  B  ;  thence  a 
direct  course  may  be  steered  for  it  if  bound  to  port  Melville,  for 
which,  see  pages  193, 194. 


188  DBLAGOA   BAY— BKTOLISH   RIVER.  [Chap.  V. 

If  bound  to  the  anchorage  off  English  river,  follow  the  directions 
given  for  North  channel,  from  view  B,  page  186,  when  cape  Inyack 
bears  S.E.  ^  S. 

Anchorage. — ^A  good  position  off  English  river,  in  from  4^  to 
5  fathoms  appears  to  be  with  Shefina  south-west  point  N.N.W.,  and 
Reuben  point  W.  |  N.  There  is  a  depth  of  about  3 J  fathoms,  2  miles 
nearer  Reuben  point. 

ENGLISH  RIVER  (EsperitO  Santo).— This  river  lies  in  the 
western  portion  of  Delagoa  bay,  and  forms  an  excellent  land-locked 
harbour,  indeed  the  only  one  at  present  for  large  vessels,  between  the 
cape  of  Good  Hope  and  Mozambique.  The  shores  of  English  river 
are  generally  low  and  wooded.  Reuben  point  (ponta  Vermelha),  on 
the  north  side  of  entrance,  is  a  bold  red  bluff  about  200  feet  high, 
rising  abruptly  from  the  sea,  with  a  light  (page  185),  and  the  signal 
station  on  it.  Mawhone  point,  on  the  Catembe  shore,  south  side  of 
entrance,  has  two  faces  of  red  earth,  which  at  times  show  well  against 
the  dark  foliage  adjacent.* 

Beacons. — Two  beacons,  erected  on  the  south  side  of  entrance  to 
English  river,  within  Mawhone  point,  mark  the  northern  limit  of 
best  water  over  the  bar ;  the  front  beacon  is  36  feet  in  height,  the 
back  beacon  is  higher  and  on  rising  ground  ;  their  positions  are  not 
definitely  known. 

A  red  buoy  is  said  to  mark  the  shoal  water,  extending  S.S.E.  of 
Reuben  point,  in  19  feet,  but  it  must  not  be  depended  on. 

It  is  stated  that  the  channels  are  to  be  buoyed,  and  that  a  pilot  will 
be  appointed  by  the  harbour  authorities. 

Bar.— Directions.— The  bar  of  English  river  has  about  14  feet 
at  low  water  springs,  and  about  25  or  26  feet  at  high  water  springs, 
over  a  breadth  of  two  miles.  Shallow  water  extends  rather  more 
than  halfway  across  the  entrance  from  Mawhone  point,  and  a  sand 
spit  of  1^  fathoms  and  less  extends  E.  by  N.,  3  miles  from 
Mawhone  point ;  the  southern  tail  of  the  bar  stretches  to  a  distance 
of  7  miles  eastward  of  the  same  point. 

.  The  beacons  in  line  bearing  W.  ^  S.,  mark  the  northern  limit  of  the 
best  water  over  the  bar,  but  they  are  difiBcult  to  distinguish.  Reuben 
point  may  apparently  be  steered  for  from  the  outside  anchorage, 
bearing  about  W.  |  N.  until  Mawhone  point  bears  S.W.,  then  steer 
S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  until  Lechmere  point  comes  open  of  Reuben  point, 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  : — ^English  river,  No.  646  ;  scale,  wt  =  1*9  inches  ;  this  plan, 
bearing  date  1822,  must  be  used  with  considerable  cauiion. 


Chap,  v.]  BAR— TOWl^— TBLBGRAPH.  189 

then  haul  gradually  to  the  westward  so  as  to  pass  Reuben  point  at 
the  distance  of  half  a  mile,  and  southward  of  the  buoy  marking  the 
shoal  water  off  it. 

The  Dunbar  Castle  steam  vessel,  drawing  24  feet  6  inches,  has 
crossed  the  bar. 

Anohoragre. — ^A  vessel  may  anchor  in  9  fathoms,  with  the  fort 
flagstaff  N.E.  by  E.,  and  Lechmere  point  N.W.  \  W.,  or  anywhere 
along  the  north-east  side  of  the  river  below  Lechmere  point,  giving  a 
berth,  however,  to  a  mud  flat,  which  extends  off  some  distance 
between  the  fort  and  Reuben  point.  Vessels  lying  here  should  be 
moored,  particularly  about  the  time  of  spring  tides.  The  bight 
between  Mawhone  and  Lechmere  points  is  all  shallow.  Above  Lech- 
mere point  there  is  apparently  deep  water  nearly  all  the  way  to 
Refuge  island. 

Lorenzo  Marques. — The  Portuguese  toT\n  of  this  name,  the 
southernmost  establishment  of  that  nation  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa, 
is  on  the  north  bank  of  English  river,  about  1^  miles  within  Reuben 
point.  The  fort  is  in  a  dilapidated  condition,  but  apparently  suffices 
as  a  stronghold  for  the  Portuguese  garrison  in  case  of  attack  from 
the  natives.  The  establishment  is  almost  surrounded  by  a  swamp, 
and  this  appears  to  have  been  the  reason  for  choosing  it  as  a 
military  position,  but  it  is  consequently  very  unhealthy. 

Drainage  works  in  connection  with  the  railway,  will,  it  is  said, 
render  the  site  more  healthy. 

.  The  most  conspicuous  buildings  at  Lorenzo  Marques,  are  the  church, 
a  fine  looking  structure,  on  the  hill  at  the  back  of  the  town,  a  large 
hospital  not  far  from  it,  and  the  recently  built  Government  offices, 
close  to  the  wooden  landing  pier. 

The  Eastern  Telegrapli  Company's  station  is  about  half  a 
mile  west  of  the  lighthouse,  where  the  cables  are  brought  in  from 
Aden  and  Durban.  Their  positions  in  the  channels  will  be  seen  on 
the  plan. 

Position.— The  telegraph  station  is  in  long.  32°  35'  34"  E.,  deter- 
mined by  telegraphic  connection  with  Cape  Town,  in  1881. 

Population  (1886)  is  about  8,000 ;  natives  in  the  district  about 
20,000. 

Piers. — The  railway  company  have  constructed  two  piers  with 
wharfage  between  ;  one  of  the  piers  is  intended  to  have  a  depth 
of  24  feet  alongside  at  low  water.  A  boat  camber  and  Custom  house 
piers  are  to  be  built  by  the  Public  Works  Department.  Westward  of 
the  fort  is  a  wooden  pier,  dry  at  low  water. 


190  DBLAGOA  BAY.  [Chap.  V. 

Products. — The  shores  of  Delagoa  bay  are  divided  into  various 
kingdoms  or  tribes,  which,  at  the  time  of  Captain  Owen's  survey, 
1822,  were  thickly  populated.  The  land  is  generally  of  moderate 
elevation,  with  a  rich  dry  soil,  but  lakes  of  stagnant  water  also  abound. 
The  sugar  canes,  indigo,  pumpkins,  pines,  and  numerous  other  fruits 
are  indigenous,  also  the  orchilla  weed,  from  which  a  valuable  dye 
is  made.  Rice,  maize,  millet,  &c.,  are  plentiful ;  also  honey,  beeswax, 
dye  woods,  tortoiseshell,  amber,  gum-copal,  furs,  hides^  india-rubber, 
and  ivory.  The  country  in  the  vicinity  of  the  rivers  abounds  in 
elk,  and  hippopotami. 

Shipping. — Sixty-four  vessels  entered  in  1886,  forty-six  were 
steamers,  43  of  them  being  English ;  also  18  sailing  vessels,  total 
tonnage  36,500.  In  1883,  22  steam  vessels  and  18  sailing  vessels 
entered.  The  imports  amounted  to  £76,000,  and  the  exports  to 
£29,000.  A  fair  amount  of  cargo  is  received  at  this  port  from 
Mozambique,  and  Portuguese  and  Banian  passengers  are  frequently 
backward  and  forward. 

Oommunioatlon.— /Se^  page  8. 

Supplies. — Poultry,  eggs,  bananas,  and  pine  apples  are  to  be 
obtained  in  moderate  quantities.  Beef  may  be  purchased,  but  it  is 
better  to  purchase  the  animals  and  kill  them  on  board.  Machinery 
for  a  first-class  foundry  has  arrived.  The  Government  hospital 
receives  foreigners  and  seamen,  gratis. 

Boats  might  be  sent  for  water  to  Dundas  river,  about  6  miles  up, . 
where  the  water  is  fresh,  and  where  wood  also  is  procurable.    Water 
is  to  be  brought  into  the  railway  goods  station  ;  a  supply  is  obtain- 
able at  about  26s.  per  ton. 

Coal. — The  Eastern  Telegraph  Company  have  a  store  of  coal, 
about  300  to  400  tons,  but  it  is  not  for  ftale,  though  in  urgent  cases  a 
few  tons  might  be  obtained.  It  is  probable  that  the  railway  company 
will,  in  due  course,  maintain  a  supply  of  coal  sufficiently  large  to 
supply  the  shipping,  which  will  then  be  able  to  coal  alongside  the 
pier,  to  be  built  by  the  company. 

A  railway,  about  50  miles  in  length,  connects  the  town  with  a 
station  on  the  Komah  river  and  the  Transvaal  frontier  ;  it  is  proposed 
to  extend  it  to  Pretoria. 

Winds. — Seasons. — The  barometer  rises  with  southerly  and  falls 
with  northerly  winds.  From  September  to  March  the  weather  is 
mostly  fine,  although  it  is  the  rainy  season.  At  this  season  the  fine 
weather  is  accompanied  by  strong  sea  breezes  at  B.N.E.,  succeeded  by 


Chap,  v.]  SUPPLIBS— SBABONS— HATTOLL  RIVBB.  191 

light  land  winds  at  night.  After  some  days  fine  weather  the  sea  breeze 
fails,  and  rain  comes  on  with  southerly  or  south-westerly  wind«. 
South-westerly  gales  of  36  hours  duration  are  not  unfrequent,  blowing 
a  gale  which  draws  to  the  southward,  and  becoming  fine  at  S.E.  The 
wind  then  draws  round  gradually  to  N.E.,  and  it  continues  fine  for  a 
few  days,  then  undergoes  a  similar  change.  Bad  weather  always 
comes  on  with  winds  from  west  to  south,  improving  as  they  draw 
round  to  east. 

The  regular  sea  breezes  in  the  bay  are  from  S.E.  and  East,  and  are 
mostly  succeeded  by  land  winds,  but  at  times  the  sea  breeze  only 
relaxes  in  strength  for  two  or  three  nights  running. 

Olimate. — Delagoa  bay  has  acquired  the  reputation  of  being  very 
unhealthy  for  Europeans.  It  was  whilst  engaged  in  the  survey  of 
the  rivers  in  particular  that  the  climate  proved  so  fatal  to  the  officers 
and  men  under  Captain  Owen.  But  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose 
that  port  Melville  is  particularly  unhealthy,  as  it  is  exposed  to  the 
sea  breezes  and  at  a  considerable  distance  from  any  rivers ;  on  the 
contrary,  Inyack  island  is  said  to  be  used  by  the  natives  as  a 
sanatorium. 

MattoU  river  is  the  northernmost  tributary  of  English  river. 
It  is  320  yards  wide,  and  16  feet  deep,  at  the  junction ;  at  8  miles 
above,  its  width  diminishes  to  30  yards,  and  depth  to  8  feet,  above 
which  boats  can  ascend  but  a  short  distance.  This  river  is  salt  as 
well  as  the  Tembi,  but,  under  the  guidance  of  a  native,  a  good 
supply  of  water  may  be  obtained  on  the  bank  above  the  junction. 

Tembi  (Oatembe)  river,  the  southernmost  of  the  three 
tributaries  of  English  river,  is  broader  and  deeper  than  the  Mattoll. 
Including  the  windings  of  the  river,  the  boats  under  Captain  Owen's 
orders  ascended  46  miles,  when  the  river  divided  into  two  branches. 
A  short  distance  up  the  southern  branch,  it  was  found  to  be  about 
80  feet  broad.  Vessels  drawing  13  feet  can  navigate  the  Tembi  for 
a  distance  of  19  miles  from  its  mouth.  Some  of  the  land  is  under 
cultivation,  and  fresh  water  is  abundant,  but  the  river  water  is  salt. 

TJmvalus,  Impalus  or  Dundas  river  (also  called  Lorenzo 
Marques)  is  between  the  Tembi  and  the  Mattoll  ;  it  has  the 
advantage  of  its  water  being  fresh  a  few  miles  up,  and  is  navigable 
for  good-sized  cargo  boats  as  far  as  Bombai,  about  10  miles  from  its 
entrance,  probably  near  the  ford,  which  boats  can  only  cross  at  high 
water;  A  short  distance  below  the  ford  the  river  is  80  yards  wide, 
and  10  feet  deep. 


192  DBLAGOA  BAY.  [Chap.  V. 

Maputa  river  runs  into  the  south-west  part  of  Delagoa  bay, 
from  whence  there  are  two  channels  through  the  flats,  one  of  which 
leads  to  port  Melville,  and  the  other  towards  English  river.  The 
Maputa  is  said  to  be  navigable  for  boats  for  60  miles,  up  to  June,  but 
later  in  the  dry  season  they  probably  would  not  get  beyond  the  limit 
of  tidal  influence,  which  was  found  during  springs  to  extend  to 
Moham,  35  miles  from  its  mouth,  where  a  rise  of  2  feet  was  noted  ; 
at  high  water  springs,  a  depth  of  3  fathoms  can  be  carried  through 
the  channels  in  the  flats  to  the  entrance  to  Maputa  river.* 

For  about  17  miles  up  the  river,  the  banks  are  of  low  alluvial 
soil  lined  with  forests  of  mangroves,  after  which  it  is  a  fine  open 
country  with  sandy  soil,  the  banks  being  about  6  feet  above  high 
water.  Here  there  are  beautiful  plains  extending  about  2  miles  back 
on  either  side  of  the  river,  and  fine  ranges  of  hills  were  passed  before 
reaching  the  foot  of  the  Libomba  mountains.  The  narrowest  part 
is  60  yards  wide,  and  its  greatest  breadth  at  the  mouth  and  fork 
300  and  150  yards. 

For  the  first  20  miles,  18  feet  water  was  carried  (April),  the  next 
50  miles  an  average  of  6  feet,  the  next  30  miles  about  4  feet,  and 
the  last  30  miles  about  2  feet,  gradually  shoaling  to  where  the 
river  could  be  forded.  The  ford  is  2  miles  beyond  the  fork  up  the 
Umzutu  river. 

The  ebb  tide  at  the  entrance  runs  very  strong  for  about  7  hours,  and 
from  2^  to  5  knots  in  some  of  the  bends  of  the  river.  Great  difficulty 
would  be  experienced  in  navigating  beyond  Moham  in  boats  not 
having  steam  power,  owing  to  the  narrowness  of  the  channel,  and 
the  strong  current  running  down.f 

King  George  (Manioa)  river  runs  into  Delagoa  bay  to  the 
northward  of  Shefina  island.  The  main  stream  rises  near  Leyden- 
burg,  in  the  Bomba  mountains,  at  about  an  elevation  of  6,000  feet, 
its  chief  affluents  are  the  Salibala,  on  the  upper  waters  of  which  are 
the  new  gold  fields,  the  Umgerania,  and  the  Umlamase  ;  the  country 
around  them  is  fine  and  healthy.  The  coast  lands  drained  by  them 
are  fertile,  but  too  unhealthy  for  Europeans.  The  mouth  of  King 
George  river  has  a  shifting  bar  of  various  depths,  and  the  river 
frequently  bursts  its  banks  to  find  other  outlets  in  the  great  bay, 

*  The  Cochhurn  tender,  under  the  orders  of  Captain  Owen,  appears  to  have 
ascended  about  20  miles  (her  draught  of  water  being  8  feet),  and  the  boats  explored 
as  far  as  40  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  river,  but  they  did  not  proceed  any  farther 
on  account  of  the  fatal  fever  which  attacked  the^rew  ;  7  only  out  of  a  crew  of  20 
returned.    The  mosquitoes  at  night  were  intolerable. 

f  Commander  Cochrane,  H.M.S.  Petrel^  March  1869,  and  Lieutenant  H.  O'Niell 
June  1879,  H.M.  Consul,  at  Mozambique. 


Chap,  v.]  MAPUTA  AND  KING  GBORGB  RIVBRSt-PORT  MBLVILLB.  193 

one  apparently  passing  westward  of  Shefina  island.  From  its 
entrance,  it  trends  with  numerous  windings,  parallel  to  the  coast  as 
far  as  Cutfield  hummock,  when  it  turns  inland.  Captain  Owen's 
expedition  carried  22  feet  into  the  river  at  high  water,  and  ascended 
nearly  50  miles,  then  gave  up  the  exploration  on  account  of  fever 
attacking  the  crew.  The  current  ran  2^  knots,  and  the  water  was 
fresh  close  to  the  mouth. 

Mr.  Hillard  reports  having  ascended  the  river  from  120  to  140 
miles  in  the  trading  cutter  Herald^  the  depth  of  water  being  12  to  18 
feet  in  the  channel^  and  from  6  to  9  feet  near  the  banks  for  the 
whole  distance,  the  cutter  frequently  brushing  the  banks  with  her 
mainsail,  whilst  having  plenty  of  water  under  foot.  Only  one 
shallow  (6  feet)  was  found  in  the  whole  distance  of  120  or  140  miles. 
On  the  west  side  lies  a  ridge  of  high  land,  which  approaches  the 
river  at  a  few  points,  but  is  frequently  separated  by  a  flat  marshy 
tract  of  country  many  miles  in  width,  and  densely  covered  with  a 
coarse  kind  of  guinea  grass,  5  or  6  feet  high. 

On  the  east  side  there  flats  of  a  similar  kind  ;  from  the  highest 
point  attained  by  the  expedition,  these  flats  were  only  bounded 
by  the  horizon.  The  banks  cannot  easily  be  penetrated  where 
the  grass  has  not  been  burnt,  and  it  is  necessary  to  be  careful 
in  landing,  as  they  are  in  some  places  honeycombed  with  pitfalls 
for  hippopotami  and  other  animals.  For  some  miles  from  the 
mouth  the  banks  are  more  or  less  covered  with  bush  and  mangrove 
jungles,  but  for  many  miles  of  the  upper  part  of  the  journey 
there  is  no  timber,  except  here  and  there  a  straggling  fir  tree, 
bent  over  the  river  by  the  force  of  the  S.E.  winds.  Above  the 
influence  of  the  tide  the  river  becomes  narrower  and  very  serpentine. 

Captain  Elton  (1870)  crossed  the  river  by  a  ferry  near  Magud's  kraals 
about  30  miles  from  its  mouth,  where  he  says  it  is  a  magnificent  river, 
with  a  navigable  channel  of  deep  water  for  almost  its  entire  breadth. 
Sugar-cane,  cotton  and  indigo  grow  well  on  the  banks  of  the  river. 

PORT  MELVILLE,  on  the  eastern  side  of  Delagoa  bay,  is  a 
good  harbour  in  all  winds,  being  sheltered  by  Inyack  and  Elephant 
islands  and  Cockburn  shoal  on  the  east,  and  by  Gibbon  and  other 
shoals  on  the  west,  which  shoals  are  discernible  by  the  colour  of  the 
water.  This  is  a  safe  port  to  come  to  for  refitting,  and  far  better 
than  English  river  on  account  of  the  unhealthiness  of  the  latter. 
A  Portuguese  officer  with  a  detachment  of  soldiers  is  stationed  at 
Black  bluff,  but  there  is  no  pier.  Signals  are  made  from  Black  bluff 
to  Lorenzo  Marques  by  means  of  the  heliograph. 

S.O.  10625.  N 


194  DBLAGOA  BAY  TO  CAPS  CORRIBNTBS.  [Ghap.  V. 

Elephant  Island,  about  one  mile  northward  of  Black  Bluff, 
Inyack  island,  is  IJ  miles  in  length,  but  not  being  more  than  25  feet 
above  high  water,  is  difficult  to  make  out  from  a  distance,  when  in 
line  with  Inyack.  It  is  sandy,  with  bushes  on  the  top,  and  unin- 
habited. Gibbon,  the  west  point  of  the  island,  is  bold,  having 
6  to  8  fathoms  at  the  distance  of  one  cable.  Gibbon  point  is 
considered  to  be  situated  in  lat.  25°  58'  3"  S.,  long.  32^  54'  11"  K* 

Supplies. — Small  supplies  may  be  obtained  from  the  natives  of 
Inyack,  but  bullocks  are  scarce.  Water  may  be  obtained  with  a 
little  trouble.  Wells  should  be  dug  10  or  12  feet  deep,  about  70  yards 
inland  on  the  west  and  highest  part  of  the  island.  H.M.S.  Orestes 
obtained  from  6  to  8  tons  a  day  by  sinking  casks  in  the  sand.  The 
Portuguese  troops  have  their  water  brought  from  English  river. 

Directions. — Vessels  proceeding  to  port  Melville,  and  having 
followed  the  directions  given  on  page  186,  as  far  as  Fawn  shoal,  should 
then  steer  for  the  white  barrack  or  Black  bluff  in  line  with  Gibbon 
point,  bearing  S.  ^  E.  (view  B.  on  plan  644),  thence  passing  about  one 
cable  westward  of  Gibbon  point,  bring  it  to  bear  N.  by  E.,  and  anchor 
when  convenient  in  about  9  fathoms,  sand,  bearing  in  mind  that  the 
channel  here,  with  a  depth  over  5  fathoms,  is  but  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
wide.  A  large  vessel  will  find  more  space  just  eastward  of  Gibbon 
shoal,  and  should,  from  a  position  with  Gibbon  point  bearing  E.S.E. 
about  2  cables,  steer  about  S.W.  by  W.,  until  the  south  point  of 
Elephant  island  bears  E.S.E.,  where  anchorage  will  be  found  in  from 
8  to  10  fathoms,  sand. 

COAST. — North-eastward  of  Outfield  hummock  (page  185)  the 
coast  consists  of  sandhills  about  150  to  200  feet  high,  to  latitude 
25°  23'  S.,  a  distance  of  17  miles,  where  there  is  a  long  bare  sand 
ridge,  having  four  small  cones,  290  feet  in  height,  and  forming  a 
conspicuous  landmark. 

The  sandhills  increase  in  height  between  Lagoa  and  Limpopo 
rivers  to  380  and  430  feet ;  at  the  west  point  of  the  latter  river  is  a 
red  topped  sandhill,  whilst  at  a  distance  of  17  miles  eastward  is 
Salmon  cliff,  which  is  red  and  conspicuous,  and  backed  by  cultivated 
and  grassy  hills  ;  thence,  and  beyond  Zavora  river,  the  coast  sand 
ridges  are  very  low,  and  there  is  nothing  noticeable  until  the 
remarkable  orange-coloured  sand  hill  400  feet  high,  and  16  miles 
westward  of  Zavora  point  is  approached ;  between  this  hill  and  the 
point  is  a  peak  575  feet  in  height. 

*  iSee  Admiralty  plan  : — Port  Melville,  No.  645  ;  scale,  m=2  inches.  The  entrance 
to  port  Melville,  from  survey  of  Fawn,  was  found  to  be  narrower  than  in  former 
years.     H.M.S.  Fawn,  1882. 


Chap,  v.]   BLBPHANT?ISIiAND—IiAGOA  SHOAL— LIMPOPO  RIVER.    195 

Lagroa  shoal  Ib  a  ridge  of  rock  and  Band,  5  miles  long  9,nd  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  wide,  lying  parallel  to,  and  between  4  and  5  mileft 
distant  from  the  shore,  near  the  Northern  approach  to  Delagoa  bay. 
A  least  depth  of  2^  fathoms  was  found  near  the  centre  of  the  shoal, 
with  Cutfield  hummock  bearing  West,  distant  about  21^  miles,  and  the 
bare  sand  ridge  N.N.W.  |  W.,  distant  5  miles. 

.  Lagroa  lake. — The  entrance  to  Lagoa  lake  is  27  miles  northward 
of  Cutfield  hummock  ;  its  west  point  rises  to  a  sandy  hill  245  feet  high. 
When  near  the  flhore  the  lake  is  easily  identified  by  the  limestone 
cliffs  or  blocks  of  stone,  about  80  feet  high,  facing  the  sand  hills, 
extending  for  some  distance  on  either  side  of  it,  and  forming  a  gap 
about  500  feet  in  width.  It  is  this  break  in  the  cliff  which  has  caused 
the  lake  to  be  mistaken  for  a  river,  whereas  it  extends  back  only  for 
a  distance  of  about  3  miles,  and  is  but  a  ravine  full  of  water,  separated 
from  the  sea  by  a  ridge  30  feet  above  sea  level.  The  water  in  the  lake 
was  fresh  and  navigable  by  boats,  but  landing  from  seaward  was 
not  practicable.  Captain  Aldrich,  when  surveying  in  the  neighbour- 
hood, states  that  at  half  flood  a  narrow  stream  of  water  was  visible 
communicating  with  the  lake,  but  it  was  breaking  heavily  right 
across  the  entrance.  The  sandhills  in  the  neighbourhood  are  of  a 
red  colour,  differing  from  those  about  Delagoa  bay. 

LIMPOPO  OP  Innampura  river.— The  entrance  to  this  river, 
300  yards  wide,  is  situated  about  17  miles  eastward  of  Lagoa  lake,  in 
long.  33°  31'  E.  The  east  point  of  entrance  is  a  narrow  sand  spit 
about  12  feet  high,  but  its  west  point  has  several  sand  hills  200 
feet  high ;  tHe  outer  sand  hill  is  red,  and  a  conspicuous  mark  for 
identifying  the  river.  Within  these  points  there  is  a  large  basin  with 
depths  of  5  fathoms.  The  river  has  a  double  bar  extending  and* 
breaking  at  times  to  3  miles  from  the  coast.  There  is  said  to  be  a  depth 
of  3  feet  at  low  water  over  the  bar  (with  a  rise  of  about  11  feet),  but 
it  is  difficult  to  enter,  and  the  streams  run  with  great  strength. 
Within  the  bar  the  river  has  a  depth  of  12  feet  for  about  40  miles,  and 
is  said  to  be  navigable  for  light  draught  steamers  for  60  miles.  The 
banks  are  cultivated,  the  soil  is  rich,  and  everything  develops 
rapidly.  There  is  a  French  trading  station  about  4  miles  above 
the  entrance,  with  native  agents.  The  Limpopo  takes  its  rise  near 
Pretoria,  in  the  Transvaal  Republic,  and  is  about  1500  miles  in 
length. 

Captain  P.  Elton  (1870)  states  that  the  Limpopo  river  is  navigable 
for  steam  vessels  of  light  draught,  even  in  the  dry  season,  between 
the  tributaries  Nuanetzi  and  Lipalule  or  Oliphant  river,  100  miles 

S.O.  10625.  N  2 


196  DBLAGOA  BAY  TO  CAPE  CORRIKNTBS.     [Chap.  V. 

apart.    The  junction  of  the  Lipalnle  with  the  Limpopo  is  at  about 
120  miles  from  its  mouth.* 

Captain  Chaddock,  of  the  steamer  Maudy  65  feet  long  and  6  feet 
draught  of  water,  ascended  the  Limpopo  for  purposes  of  trade  in 
April,  1884,  with  not  less  than  3^  fathoms  as  far  as  Manjoba's  kraal 
and  crossing,  80  miles  from  its  mouth.  The  crossing,  bars  the  river, 
and  is  said  to  have  at  times  as  little  as  4  feet.  Eight  feet  was  the 
depth  at  the  time  of  his  visit,  and  his  people  stated  that  the  river 
commenced  to  rise  shortly  afterwards.  He  states  that  having  waited 
outside  the  bar  until  half  flood  he  got  nothing  less  than  4^  fathoms 
on  crossing,  but  there  was  a  4  knot  stream  against  him  On  coming 
out  of  the  river  13  days  later  at  high  water,  the  depth  was  but  2^ 
fathoms,  which  he  attributes  to  the  heavy  sea  and  bad  weather  that 
had  been  prevailing  for  3  days  previously.  (From  this  it  may  be 
gathered  that  the  first  account  of  the  bar  is  probably  not  much  in 
error.)  Though  he  paid  all  dues  demanded  he  received  no  pro- 
tection, and  eventually  lost  everything  but  his  vessel.  The  first  12 
miles  of  the  river  is  wooded  with  mangroves,  above  which  the 
country  is  low  and  level,  and  almost  destitute  of  fuel,  to  Manjoba^s 
kraal,  whence  it  gradually  rises  to  hills  and  mountains  in  the  interior, 
and  is  well  wooded.  The  Banians  have  a  small  inland  trade  with 
Manjoba's  kraal  or  village. 

COAST. — Innampura  shoals,  about  5  miles  in  length  and  one 
mile  off  shore,  are  charted  between  the  Limpopo  and  Salmon  cliff 
to  the  eastward,  but  we  have  no  other  information  about  them. 
M.  Marron  reports  shoal  water  of  3^  fathoms  between  the  Limpopo  and 
Lagoa  lake  to  the  westward,  at  2  miles  off  shore,  which  may  possibly 
be  the  correct  position  of  the  Innampura  shoal,  though  nothing  was 
seen  here  by  the  Sylvia ;  it  is  advisable,  however,  to  give  the  coast, 
in  both  positions,  a  wide  berth. 

Zavora  point,  in  lat.  24°  28f '  S.,  long.  35°  12^'  E.,  rises  to  a  ridge 
of  sand  hills  over  the  coast,  between  200  and  300  feet  high.  It  has 
no  particular  distinguishing  feature,  but  at  1  j  miles  northward  of  it 
is  a  conspicuous  sand  cliff,  nearly  half  a  mile  in  length. 

About  15  miles  north-eastward  of  Zavora  point  is  a  remarkable 
clump  of  trees,  the  only  ones  in  the  locality. 

Reef. — ^At  22  miles  north-eastward  of  the  same  point,  a  rocky  reef 
extends  nearly  half  a  mile  from  the  shore,  and  heavy  breakers 
were  seen  along  that  part  of  the  coast  for  a  distance  of  3  miles. 

*  Captain  Elton  was  informed  that  the  bar  of  the  Limpopo  was  frequently  crossed 
by  slavers,  who  went  a  long  way  up  the  river  to  avoid  British  cruisers. 


197 


CHAPTER  VL 

MOZAMBIQUE  CHANNEL. 


CAPE  CORRIENTES  TO  MOZAMBIQUE  HARBOUR. 

(Lat.  25°  55'  S.  to  lat.  15°  S.) 


Variation  in  1889. 

Cape  Corrientes       -        -        .        -  2P  15'  W. 

Sofala     -        -  '    -        -        -        -  19°    0'  W. 

Kiliman  river 16°  45'  W. 

Mozambique    -        -        -        -        -  14°    0'  W. 

CAPE  CORRIENTES,  the  south-west  extreme  of  Mozambique 
chaimel,  is  a  rounded,  sandy  point,  partially  covered  with  bushes, 
and  rises  at  the  back  to  a  height  of  375  feet,  while  the  land  on  either 
side  of  it  is  somewhat  higher.  The  cape  may  be  recognised  by 
detached  black  rocks  near  it,  also  by  an  islet  15  feet  high  situated 
2^  miles  south-west  of  it,  and  connected  with  the  shore  by  a 
rocky  reef.    The  islet  is  situated  in  lat.  24°  5^'  S.,  long.  35°  29|'  E. 

The  coast  about  the  cape  is  bold  and  safe  to  approach  within  one 
mile  or  less. 

OuPPent. — The  current  nearly  always  runs  to  the  southward  from 
one  to  2  knots  an  hour.*  H.M.S.  Sylvia^  in  December,  at  1^  miles 
off  cape  Corrientes,  found  the  current  setting  to  the  southward  at  the 
rate  of  3  miles  an  hour ;  within  one  mile  of  the  shore,  at  6  miles  to 
the  southward,  there  was  no  current,  whilst  at  a  further  distance  of 
8  miles  to  the  southward  and  1^  miles  off  shore,  there  was  a  counter 
set  of  one  mile  an  hour.    The  currents  were  found  to  be  stronger  off 

*  See  Admiralty  chart : — Gape  Corrientes  to  Juba  islands,  including  Madagascar, 
No.  597  ;  and  Delagoa  bay  to  Zambesi  river,  No.  648  ;  scale,  w  =  01  of  an  inch. 


198  innambAn  bay  and  river.  [Chap.  VI 

the  cape  than  on  any  other  portion  of  the  coast,  though  much 
influenced  by  the  winds,  but  they  always  set  direct  along  the  shore, 
and  never  on  or  ofiE. 

Coast. — Cape  Wilberforce,  at  about  14  miles  north-eastward  of 
cape  Corrientes,  has  a  grassy  summit  200  feet  high,  and  is  nearly 
cl«'ii'  of  bush;  the  coast  thence  trends  in  a  northerly  direction, 
about  8  miles  to  Burra  point,  the  southern  extreme  of  Innamban  bay. 
The  coast  from  cape  Corrientes  to  Innamban  is  composed  of  sand 
hills,  from  200  to  400  feet  high,  having  at  a  distance  the  appearance 
of  chalky  clifiEs,  and  visible  at  a  distance  of  20  miles  or  more. 
Anchorage  may  be  obtained  in  case  of  being  becalmed,  in  from  15 
to  20  fathoms  at  nearly  one  mile  off  shore,  an  advantage  to  sailing 
vessels  proceeding  northward  on  account  of  the  strong  southerly 
current  which  generally  prevails. 

INNAMBAN  BAY  lies  between  the  Burra,  and  Algoa  point  to 
the  north-westward,  a  distance  of  9  miles.  A  line  of  breaking  reefs, 
dry  in  places  at  low  water,  extends  nearly  the  whole  of  this  distance 
from  the  Burra,  completely  blocking  the  bay.  Innamban  river 
enters  the  sea  westward  of  this  reef,  and  abreast  Algoa  point.* 

Barrow  Wll,  on  the  south  point  of  Innamban  bay,  is  230  feet 
high.  From  the  northward  the  hill  is  readily  recognised,  rising  to  a 
sharp  summit  having  a  wooded  clump  on  it. 

Its  position  is  lat.  23°  45'  30"  S.,  long.  35°  31'  41"  E. 

Landmarks. — The  Pedestal,  a  large  white  triangular  mark 
situated  on  the  shore  of  Lingalinga  peninsula,  is  conspicuous  from 
seaward  only  in  the  forenoon,  and  iB  a  leading  mark  over  the  bar. 

The  Pillar,  on  the  ridge  of  l^^Us  forming  the  west  side  of  the 
harbour,  is  easily  distinguished  from  the  northward. 

Conspicuous  tree,  formerly  named  South  tree,  is  remarkable  only 
when  seen  from  the  northward,  or  with  the  pedestal  bearing  south- 
ward of  W.  i  S.,  it  then  shows  as  a  large  bush,  having  the  summit 
of  a  hill  a  little  higher  just  south  of  it. 

The  Burra,  on  which  stands  a  lighthouse,  is  about  one  mile 
eastward  of  Barrow  hill;  a  rocky  reef  extends  4  cables  north- 
eastward of  the  lighthouse,  and  other  patches  lying  the  same  distance 
off  shore,  are  situated  about  one  mile  north-west  of  it. 

LIGHT. — From  the  lighthouse  is  exhibited  at  an  elevation  of 
80  feet  above  the  sea,  a  fixed  white  light,  visible  in  clear  weather 
from  a  distance  of  14  miles. 

*  3ee  Admiralty  plan  :-— Innamban  river,  No.  660  ;  scale,  »*  =  1-66  inch ;  aurveyed 
by  H.M.S.  Sylvidy  1884. 


Chap.  VI.]  LANDMABKS— LIGHTS— ANCHORAGE.  199 

The  lighthouse  is  a  white  square  tower,  surmounted  by  an  iron 
scaffolding,  and  near  it  is  a  flagstaff  from  which  signals  are  made 
through  another  signal  station  on  Ilha  dos  Porcos,  to  the  town  of 
Innamban. 

Pilots. — Sigrnstls. — ^Vessels  passing  or  anchoring  are  signalled, 
and  if  requiring  a  pilot,  the  usual  pilot-jack  should  be  hoisted,  and 
the  ship  anchored  off  the  channel  across  the  bar,  or  keep  underway 
between  the  Burra  and  the  river.  The  pilot  boats  always  come  out 
across  the  bar,  and  are  in  the  employ  of  the  Government.  Pilots 
may  be  obtained  here  for  other  places  on  the  coast. 

Anchorage. — There  is  good  anchorage  in  about  8  fathoms,  half 
a  mile  off  the  bar,  with  the  lighthouse  bearing  S.  ^  W.,  and  the 
Pedestal  W.  by  S.  In  strong  southerly  winds  good  shelter  may  be 
found  under  the  lee  of  Barrow  hill,  about  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  from  the  shore ;  there  is  also  good  anchorage,  over  sandy  bottom, 
anywhere  between  these  positions  at  about  one  mile  off  the  reef. 
There  is  nearly  always  a  swell  at  the  outer  anchorage. 

At  night  it  may  be  advisable  to  keep  off  and  on  to  the  northward 
of  the  bar,  making  due  allowance  for  the  current  which  sets 
strong  to  the  southward. 

INNAMBAN  RIVER.-^Although  the  entrance  to  this  river  is 
spacious  and  forms  an  excellent  harbour  for  vessels  of  moderate 
draught,  the  river  is  scarcely  navigable  for  a  vessel  beyond  the  town, 
and  but  a  short  distance  further  for  boats.  The  channel  from  the  bar 
to  the  town  of  Innamban  is  14^  miles  long,  and  in  no  place  is  it  more 
than  one  mile  wide  ;  just  inside  the  bar  it  is  3^  cables,  and  off  the 
town  2^  cables  wide.  Many  banks  dry  at  low  water,  and  the  channel 
is  usually  marked  by  six  red  buoys,  but  four  of  these  were  missing 
in  1888. 

MafiEinin  islet. — ^A  sand  patch  3  feet  above  high  water  on  the 
west  extreme  of  the  reef  stretching  northward  from  Barrow  point,  is 
a  small  but  useful  mark  when  near  the  middle  ground  abreast  it ; 
formerly  it  was  much  larger.  It  lies  3^  miles  S.  by  W.  ^  W.  of  the 
Pedestal  bar  mark  ;  about  half  a  mile  south  of  it  is  a  boat  channel  to 
Barrow  point. 

Illia  dos  Porcos  is  low  and  flat,  with  cocoa-nut  trees  about  90 
feet  high,  and  lies  about  1^  miles  southward  of  Mafarun  islet.  On 
the  south-east  extreme  is  the  signal  station  for  transmitting  signals 
from  Burra  lighthouse  to  Innamban.  Ilha  dos  Rates  is  similar  in 
appearance. 


200  innambAn  bay  and  river.  [Chap.  VI. 

Shlkoki  point,  on  the  west  side  of  the  harbour,  is  a  remarkable 
sand  cliff,  used  as  a  leading  mark  to  the  anchorage  off  the  town. 
Rather  more  than  one  mile  south  of  these  cliffs  is  the  large  village 
named  Obra,  with  a  flagstaff  on  the  beach. 

Tlie  Bar  is  about  4  miles  from  the  shore,  and  according  to  the 
survey  by  H.M.S.  Sylvia  in  1884,  a  stranger  could  not  depend  upon 
more  than  9  feet  water  at  low  water  springs  on  the  line  of  the 
leading  mark.  In  1888,  the  bank  on  the  south  side  of  entrance  was 
stated  to  have  extended  to  the  northward. 

There  is  a  heavy  sea  on  the  bar  during  southerly  winds,  at  times 
rendering  it  unsafe  even  for  boats,  but  they  may  generally  cross 
safely  by  keeping  in  mid-channel.* 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Innamban  at 
5h.  38m. ;  springs  rise  11  feet,  neaps  7  feet.  The  tide  runs  strong  in 
the  river  ;  off  the  town  it  sometimes  amounts  to  4  knots  an  hour. 

Directions. — To  cross  the  bar,  steer  in  with  the  double  bush  just 
open  northward  of  the  Pedestal  bearing  W.  by  S.  \  S.  This  mark 
will  lead  northward  of  the  first  red  buoy  and  up  to  the  Pedestal, 
off  which  a  vessel  may  anchor  and  wait  for  a  pilot.f  If  proceeding 
without  the  assistance  of  a  pilot,  steer  on  the  leading  mark  above, 
and  when  No.  3  red  buoy  is  abeam,  alter  course  to  S.W.  ^  S.' until 
Conspicuous  tree  is  in  line  with  Lingalinga  point ;  thence  steer  to 
pass  No.  4  buoy  close-to  on  the  port  hand. 

After  passing  No.  4  buoy  keep  No.  5  buoy  about  a  point  on  the 
starboard  bow  until  within  2  cables  of  it,  and  then  steer  to  pass  both 
Nos.  5  and  6  buoy  close  to  on  the  port  hand  ;  thence  steer  a  course 
S.W.  \  W.  until  the  north  extreme  of  Ilha  dos  Ratos  is  in  line  with 
Barrow  hill  bearing  E.  |  S.,  and  the  summit  near  Conspicuous  tree 
is  in  line  with  the  west  extreme  of  Shikoki  cliffs  bearing  N.  |  E. ; 
this  latter  mark,  kept  astern  leads  up  to  the  anchorage  off  the  town. 

The  holding  ground  here  is  good,  but  it  is  advisable  to  moor  if 
intending  to  remain. 

Innambdn  town  is  situated  on  the  east  entrance  point  of  the  river, 
but  being  surrounded  with  cocoa-nut  trees  is  not  easily  seen  until 

*  The  bar  frequently  sliiftB  and  moves  north  or  south,  according  to  the  winds.  A 
strong  S.E.  gale  will,  it  is  said,  alter  the  bar  considerably.  The  leading  marks 
therefore  are  not  always  to  be  depended  upon.    H.M.S.  Faion^  1884. 

f  Too  much  dependence  must  not  be  placed  in  the  buoys  maintaining  their 
charted  positions,  more  especially  the  bar  buoy.  The  bar  leading  mark  is  for  the 
year  1888.  In  1884,  the  pedestal  had  to  be  kept  between  the  double  bush  and 
summit.    (Sb«  sketch  on  chart.) 


Chap.  VI.]  DIRECTIONS— SUPPLIES— CLIMATE.  201 

close  to.    There  are  no  good  public  buildings  to  attract  attention, 
and  the  streets  are  ill  paved. 

The  small  fort,  here,  has  a  garrison  consisting  of  native  soldiers. 

PJer. — There  is  a  wooden  pier,  but  it  does  not  quite  reach  to 
low  water. 

Population. — In  1884,  there  were  54  Europeans  in  Innamban, 
including  two  American  missionaries  ;  native  population  not  known. 

OUmate.— From  November  to  May,  fevers  are  especially  to  be 
guarded  against ;  Innamban  is  considered  to  be  the  most  healthy  of 
the  Portuguese  possessions  hereabouts. 

Oommunlcatlon.— /S^  page  8. 

Supplies  of  cattle,  poultry,  fruit,  and  vegetables,  are  readily 
obtained  at  the  town,  and  small  supplies  of  good  water  may  be  got 
by  rolling  casks  up  to  the  wells  in  the  town.  Oranges  and  lemons 
are  in  abundance.  Firewood  is  cut  and  brought  in  boats  from 
Barrow  point  by  the  natives,  through  the  numerous  channels  in 
the  reef. 

The  Products  are  ground  nuts,  gingelly  seeds,  copal,  beeswax, 
and  rubber ;  occasionally  tiger  skins  and  elephant  tusks  are  brought 
in.  The  imports  are  much  in  excess  of  the  exports.  Most  of  the 
trade  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Banians,  and  the  loading  is  done  by 
native  women,  who  wade  off  to  the  lighters  with  the  bags  of  produce 
on  their  heads. 

Lin^-Llnga  bay  is  the  mouth  of  the  north  branch  of  Innamban 
river ;  it  forms  a  fine  landlocked  harbour  for  small  vessels,  having  a 
depth  of  2  fathoms  or  more  at  low  water,  and  has  doubtless  been  used 
by  slavers  to  escape  the  observation  of  passing  cruisers. 

COAST. — From  Innamban  to  Burra  Falsa  (cape  Lady  Grey),  a 
distance  of  50  miles,  the  coast  has  no  remarkable  feature,  except 
Sylvia  ridge,  10  miles  southward  of  Burra  Falsa.  This  ridge  of  bare 
sand  of  a  reddish  colour  is  330  feet  high,  and  has  upon  its  southern 
end  a  conspicuous  solitary  tree,  somewhat  resembling  a  tower. 
Between  it  and  Innamban  the  coast  range  is  from  400  to  600  feet  high. 

Sylvia  Slioal  is  a  narrow  coral  ridge,  with  2^  fathoms  least 
water ;  within  the  depth  of  5  fathoms  it  is  about  4^  miles  long, 
parallel  to  the  shore  and  distant  3J  miles  from  it. 

From  the  north  end  of  the  shoal,  Burra  Falsa  bears  N.N.E.  ^  E., 
distant  9|  miles. 

OUPrent.— A  strong  southerly  current  is  generally  met  with  round 
Burra  Falsa  under  one  mile  distant  from  it.    When  bound  northward 


202  innambAn  to  chiluAn.  [Chap.  VI. 

and  clear  of  Zambia  Bhoal,  the  current  is  much  less  inshore  in  depths 
of  from  7  to  8  fathoms,  and  at  times  sets  to  the  northward. 

BTJRRA  FALSA,  or  cape  Lady  Grey,  in  lat.  22^  55'  8.,  long. 
35°  37'  E.,  is  a  low  point,  and  rises  to  two  small  conical  sand  hills 
about  95  feet  high.  To  the  southward  the  land  rises  to  365  feet  above 
the  sea. 

There  is  much  sand  about  the  high  land  over  the  cape,  making  it 
conspicuous  from  the  northward.  Good  shelter  may  be  obtained 
under  the  cape  during  southerly  winds,  and  landing  might  be  effected 
at  times  just  north-west  of  it. 

Pumene  river,  situated  3^  miles  north-west  of  Burra  Falsa,  was 
seen  from  the  Sylvia  at  high-water  neap  tides,  when  there  was 
apparently  a  narrow  boat  channel  into  it.  Inside,  the  river  opened 
to  a  large  expanse  of  water. 

SMvala  cUflfis,  situated  12  miles  northward  of  Burra  Falsa,  are 
nearly  two  miles  long,  about  120  feet  high,  and  red  coloured,  forming 
a  conspicuous  landmark. 

Zambia  shoal,  upon  which  the  British  ship  Zambia  struck,  is  a 
coral  ridge,  rather  more  than  one  mile  long  by  half  a  mile  wide;  from 
the  shoalest  part  in  3  fathoms,  Burra  Falsa  bears  S.  by  W.,  distant 
9^  miles,  and  the  highest  part  of  Shivala  cliffs  S.W.  §  W.  The  water 
deepens  rapidly  to  seaward  of  the  shoal. 

Dangerous  ground. — At  26  miles  northward  of  Shivala  cliffs  a 
depth  of  3  fathoms  was  found  one  mile  off  shore,  apparently  part  of 
a  reef  extending  from  the  land,  vessels  should  give  this  locality  a 
good  berth,  and  not  approach  the  shore  within  2  miles.* 

CAPE  ST.  SEBASTIAN,  in  lat.  22°  5^'  S.,  long.  35°  28|'  E., 
is  a  steep  bluff  225  feet  high  ;  from  the  southward,  a  small  white  sand 
patch  shows  at  the  upper  part  of  the  bluff,  while  from  the  northward 
the  face  of  the  cliff  shows  a  considerable  amount  of  red  sand  from 
base  to  summit.  The  coast  hills  terminate  at  7  miles  south  of  cape 
St.  Sebastian  ;  here  a  sandy  spit  begins,  partially  covered  with 
straggling  trees  and  bushes,  and  extending  in  a  northerly  direction 
for  6  miles,  to  nearly  abreast  the  cape. 

The  spit  is  about  half  a  mile  across,  having  shallow  water  west- 
ward of  it,  and  bounded  by  the  high  land  forming  the  cape. 

The  BAZARTJTO  ISLANDS  extend  along  the  coast  for  a 
distance  of  more  than  30  miles  northward  of  cape  St.  Sebastian. 

•  See  Admiralty  chart : — Delagfoa  bay  to  river  ZamibeBi,  No.  648 ;  «oale, 
wxsO'l  of  au  iiich. 


Chap.  VI.]  BURRA  FALSA— BAZABUTO  ISLANDS.  203 

These  islands  are  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Governor  of  Chiludn  ; 
a  few  Portuguese  troops  are  stationed  upon  them,  and  the  small 
produce  is  conveyed  by  boats  to  Chiluan  for  shipment.  The  principal 
establishment  is  on  Marsha  island.  They  are  five  in  number,  viz,  : — 
Bazaruto,  Benguerua,  Xegine,  Bango,  and  Marsha  or  St.  Carolina  ; 
the  first  four  of  which  form  the  east  side  of  Bazaruto  bay.  There 
does  not  appear  to  be  any  passage  between  the  islands,  except 
probably  boat  channels. 

This  is  the  site  of  the  famous  pearl  fishery  of  Sofala  ;  pearls  and 
mother-of-pearls  are  met  with  occasionally,  but  there  is  little  trade 
at  the  present  time  (1884). 

Bazaruto  Island,  the  northern  and  largest  of  the  group,  is  17^ 
miles  long,  and  from  the  southward  appears  as  a  hog-back  of  bare 
sand,  the  highest  part  of  390  feet  is  near  the  north  entrance.  There 
are  several  villages  on  the  island. 

Cape  Bazaruto  is  the  northern  extreme  of  the  island  ;  the  pitch  of 
the  cape  is  fronted  by  a  reef  to  the  distance  of  half  a  mile,  whilst  a 
sand  spit  covered  at  high  water,  and  steep-to,  extends  about  1^  miles 
north-westward  of  its  low  extreme. 

Anclioragre  was  obtained  by  the  Sylvia  on  the  north-east  side  of 
the  spit,  sheltered  from  southerly  winds.  Probably  there  are  better 
anchoring  places,  but  the  ground  westward  of  the  Bazaruto  islands 
was  not  examined. 

The  depths  northward  of  cape  Bazaruto  are  irregular,  and  the 
bottom  rocky  and  uneven,  with  strong  tide  rips  ;  but  no  spot  appears 
to  have  been  found  with  less  than  5  fathoms.  The  bottom  in  some 
places  is  sandy. 

Bengruerua  island,  sandy  and  partly  wooded,  lies  southward  of 
Bazaruto  island,  and  is  170  feet  in  height.  Off  the  south  point  a 
sand  spit  dries  out  1^  miles,  and  from  the  northern  end  a  sandy  spit 
dries  for  3  miles,  having  a  small  islet  upon  it,  and  a  rocky  reef  east- 
ward of  the  spit. 

In  1857,  there  were  5  villages  and  260  inhabitants,  including  a 
detachment  of  soldiers.  There  is  said  to  be  anchorage  in  3  fathoms 
near  the  shore,  on  the  south-ea3t  side  of  the  island  ;*  we  have  no 
information  or  any  passage  leading  to  it,  except,  that  between  Bazaruto 
and  Benguerua  there  is  a  break  in  the  reef,  which  under  favourable 
circumstances  might  be  available  for  boats. 

*  Statistics  of  Fortaguese  Possessions,  1859.  Description  of  islands  by  Captain 
Aldrioh,  HJiI.S.  Fawn,  1884. 


204  innambAn  to  chiluAn.  [Chap.  VI. 

Xeglne  Island  lies  southward  of  Bengnerea  island,  and  may  be 
recognised  by  some  red  cliffs  about  the  southern  part,  the  remainder 
being  wooded  down  to  the  water's  edge.  It  is  175  feet  in  height  and 
has  but  few  inhabitants. 

Bangro  island,  nearly  4  miles  north  of  Cape  St.  Sebastian,  is  low 
and  sandy,  and  has  a  dark  clump  of  trees  near  its  centre  ;  reefs 
and  foul  ground  extend  4]  miles  seaward  of  it. 

Marsha  or  St.  Carolina  Island,  in  the  middle  of  Bazaruto 
bay,  has  a  commandant  and  a  small  detachment  of  soldiers,  and  is 
the  principal  establishment  of  the  Portuguese  between  Innamban 
and  Sofala.  Marsha  is  low,  with  a  low  sand  hill  on  its  north-east 
side,  but  well  wooded  and  easily  made  out.  On  a  vessel's  approach, 
the  Portuguese  flag  is  hoisted,  near  the  centre  of  the  island.  There  are 
two  good  wells  of  water  on  the  island,  but  none  to  spare  for  shipping. 
There  is  also  good  building  stone. 

Bazaruto  or  Punga  bay,  appears  to  have  been  but  little 
examined  at  the  time  of  Owen's  survey.  The  anchorage  between 
Marsha  and  Bazaruto  is  good,  in  4  fathoms,  sand  and  stones  ;  a  ledge 
of  rocks,  which  uncovers  at  low  water  springs,  divides  this  anchorage 
from  another  channel  nearer  the  shore,  where  from  6  to  8  fathoms 
will  be  found. 

The  entrance  is  from  the  northward,  a  little  nearer  to  Bazaruto 
island  than  to  the  mainland  opposite.  There  is  anchorage  also  to  the 
southward  of  Marsha  island  in  5  to  7  fathoms. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  at  cape  Bazaruto,  full  and  change,  at 
about  4h.  10m.,  and  the  rise  at  springs  about  12  feet. 

COAST. — From  cape  Bazaruto  northward  to  Machanga  point,  a 
distance  of  39  miles,  the  coast,  known  as  the  Buok  coast,  is  little 
known  or  frequented ;  but  the  soundings  appear  to  decrease 
gradually  towards  it.  Northward  of  Machanga  point,  to  beyond 
Chiludn,  shoals  extend  to  a  distance  of  10  miles  off-shore. 

Qovuro  river  empties  itself  in  to  Moromone  bay,  14  miles 
southward  of  Machanga  point.  It  is  hardly  navigable  for  boats  at 
its  entrance,  but  is  reported  to  become  a  fine  river  in  the  interior. 

Sabi  river  enters  the  sea  both  northward  and  southward  of 
Machanga  point  by  several  shallow  mouths.  The  river  is  said  to  be 
one  mile  broad  in  the  interior,  but  not  navigable. 

SHOALS.  —  Machanga  point,  at  16  miles  S.  by  E.  from 
Ingomaimo  point,  is  low,  with  some  small  sand  hillocks  just  north- 
ward of  it.    The  coast  between  the  above  points  is  fronted  by  shallow 


Chap.  VI.]        BAZARUTO  ISLANDS— CHILUAN  ISLAND.  205 

ridges,  extending  9  miles  seaward,  from  which  distance  it  is  only 
just  visible,  so  that  great  care  and  attention  to  the  lead  is  necessary 
when  approaching  this  dangerous  locality.* 

Misadjuana  shoal,  also  known  as  Inverarity  shoal,  lies  10  miles 
E.S.E.  from  Chiluan  island ;  it  is  3  miles  long,  and  nearly  dry  in 
one  part  at  low  water.  From  the  shoal  no  distinguishable  land- 
marks can  be  seen,  but  heavy  breakers  usually  mark  its  position. 

OHILTJAN  ISLAND,  situated  at,  and  lying  partly  in  the  mouth 
of  Ingomiamo  river,  is  about  6  miles  in  length,  by  3  miles  in  breadth ; 
it  is  low,  and  in  many  places  nothing  more  than  a  mangrove  swamp, 
intersected  by  a  creek  navigable  for  boats  at  high  water.  The 
principal  village  and  residence  of  the  governor  (Portuguese)  is  upon 
the  south  side,  where  there  is  a  small  fort  and  a  flagstaff.* 

The  northern  channel  of  the  Ingomiamo,  named  Singune 
(Chingani),  is  the  one  used  by  vessels  visiting  Chiluan,  and  has  from 
22  to  28  feet  at  high  water  as  far  as  the  anchorage.  The  southern 
channel,  named  the  Inhabacara,  has  nearly  as  much  water  as  far  as 
the  southern  town,  but  is  narrow  and  intricate. 

Supplies. — Goats,  fowls,  and  eggs  can  be  obtained  in  small 
numbers,  but  no  vegetables  can  be  bought.  The  mail  steamer  calls 
at  Chiluan  monthly ;  see  page  8. 

Population.— Trade.— In  1884  the  population  of  Chiluan 
amounted  to  1,200.  The  exports,  consisting  chiefly  of  india-rubber, 
ground  nuts,  and  gum,  were  valued  at  £30,600  in  1883,  and  the 
imports,  consisting  chiefly  of  cotton  goods  and  hardware,  at  £17,400. 

Ingromaimo  point,  %\  miles  south-east  of  Chiluan  island,  is  low 
and  sandy,  with  no  mangroves,  thus  differing  from  other  points  in 
the  vicinity. 

A  beacon,  consisting  of  a  high  pole,  surmounted  by  black  and 
white  diamonds,  is  erected  on  the  point. 

Inhaguaia  point  shows  as  a  bluff  from  the  northward,  and  is  useful 
for  ascertaining  the  position  of  a  vessel  when  approaching  Chiluan 
anchorage. 

Shoals  in  tlie  Approach. — Misadjuana  shoal,  and  the  shoals 
lying  between  it  and  Machanga  point,  have  been  already  referred  to. 

South  breakwater  is  an  extensive  bank  fronting  the  south 
channel,  and  lying  3^  miles  eastward  of  Ingomaimo  beacon.  Anson 
knoll,  near  the  southern  end  of  the  bank,  has  9  feet  water,  and 
Richardson  knoll,  near  the  north  end,  has  1^  feet  over  it. 

*  Captain  P.  Aldrich,  HJM.  surrejing  vessel  Sylvia,  1884.  See  Admiralty  plan : — 
Oblln&n  island  and  approaches,  No.  921,  scale,  w  =  1  incli. 


206  chiluAn  island  and  anchoragb.         [Chap.  VI. 

* 

The  extensive  shoal  which  fronts  Chiluan  island  to  the  distance  of 
about  1^  miles,  extends  to  within  one  mile  of  the  south  breakwater, 
or  about  3f  miles  from  Inhaguia  point,  the  south-east  extreme  of  the 
island. 

North  breakwater  is  a  similar  bank  to  south  breakwater ;  it  lies 
4^  miles  E.N.E.  from  the  lighthouse  on  Singune  point,  and  fronts 
the  north  channel ;  the  tide  here  sets  strongly  across  the  channel. 

LIGHT. — The  lighthouse  stands  on  Singune  point,  the  north- 
west extreme  of  the  island ;  it  consists  of  a  white  tower  sur- 
mounted by  an  iron  ladder,  from  the  top  of  which,  at  an  elevation 
of  36  feet,  is  exhibited  a  fixed  white  light,  said  to  be  visible  in  clear 
weather  from  a  distance  of  10  miles ;  but  being  an  ordinary  ship's 
lantern,  is  probably  not  visible  more  than  5  miles. 

Position  :— lat.  ^0°  37'  12"  S.,  long.  34°  53'  33"  E. 

There  is  a  flagstaff  near  the  lighthouse,  and  also  a  white  house, 
which  is  visible  for  some  distance. 

Pilot. — There  is  only  one  pilot,  who  resides  at  the  south  village, 
and  is  not  readily  obtained.  It  is  customary  to  bring  a  pilot  from 
Innamban. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Chiluan,  at  4h.  49m. ; 
springs  rise  18^  feet,  neaps  13  feet.  The  streams  run  from  3  to  4 
knots  in  the  channels,  and  in  north  channel  set  across  the  vessel's 
course  between  North  breakwater  and  the  island. 

Direotions. — Anclioragre. — From  the  southward,  Chiluan  island 
presents  no  recognizable  features,  and  is  not  in  sight  from  Misad- 
juana  shoal,  which  is  steep-to,  but  except  at  high  water  and  fine 
weather,  it  will  be  seen  by  the  breakers.  From  the  northward,  a 
few  cocoa-nut  trees  are  remarkable  on  the  north-west  part,  being  the 
only  ones  in  the  vicinity  ;  also  a  large  clump  of  trees  about  1^  miles 
south-east  of  the  lighthouse,  but  these  objects  do  not  appear  to  be 
visible  much  beyond  the  North  breakwater  shoal.  The  north 
channel  is  that  generally  used,  but  as  the  banks  are  liable  to  shift  it 
is  advisable  to  employ  a  pilot. 

The  following  directions  applied  to  North  channel,  when  surveyed 
in  1884. 

Approach  Singune  point  lighthouse  bearing  W.  \  N.  until  Inha- 
guaia  point  bears  S.  \  W.,  when  alter  course  to  N.W.  \  N.  until  the 
lighthouse  bears  W.  by  S.  (observing  that  the  tidal  stream  sets  across 
the  channel).  The  course  should  now  be  W.  by  N.  \  N.  until  the 
lighthouse  bears  S.W.,  after  which  it  may  be  kept  a  little  on  the  port 
bow  until  the  anchorage  is  reached,  when  anchor  in  4  fathoms,  witJi 
the  lighthouse  bearing  about  S.E.,  distant  a  quarter  of  a  mile.    All 


Chap.  VI.]  LIGHTS,   &C.— DIRECTIONS— SOFALA.  207 

cargo  is  shipped  and  discharged  from  just  within  this  position. 
South  channel  should  not  be  used  unless  buoyed. 

The  channel  between  Chiluan  and  the  main  land  is  navigable  for 
vessels  of  14  feet  draught  at  high  water,  in  charge  of  a  pilot ;  so  that 
vessels  can  proceed  to  the  town  if  necessary,  off  which  there  is 
anchorage  in  4  to  5  fathoms. 

BOENE  is  a  small,  well-wooded,  uninhabited  island,  about 
21  miles  northward  from  Chiluan,  and  about  12  miles  southward  of 
Sofala,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gorongosi  river.  It  affords  a  good  shelter 
for  small  vessels.*    There  is  a  grove  of  palm  trees  on  the  island. 

SOFALA  BANK.— Sofala  is  situated  at  the  head  of  the  ex 
tensive  and  comparatively  shallow  bight  lying  between  cape  Bazarute 
and  the  Zambesi,  a  distance  of  about  170  miles.  From  Sofala  east- 
ward the  depths  appear  to  increase  very  gradually,  there  being 
30  fathoms  only  at  the  distance  of  70  miles.  Within  the  100-fathom 
line  this  bank,  known  as  Sofala  bank,  apparently  follows  the  contour 
of  the  coast,  but  its  actual  limits  are  not  known.  Inshore,  at  the 
mouths  of  many  of  the  rivers,  the  bottom  is  muddy,  but  the  general 
soundings  are  fine  sand,  which  becomes  coarser  as  the  distance  from 
the  land  is  increased,  and  is  very  coarse  near  the  outer  edge,  where 
it  deepens  suddenly. 

SOFALA. — The  town  and  fort  of  Sofala  are  situated  on  a  small 
sandy  peninsula  on  the  north  side  of  the  entrance  of  the  river,  in 
about  lat.  20°  11'  S.  Shallow  flats  with  three  fathoms  and  less  water, 
extend  about  7  miles  off  the  entrance,  with  depths  of  5  fathoms  at 
9  miles  distant.  Vessels  should  approach  cautiously  by  the  lead,  and 
little  dependence  must  be  placed  on  the  chart.t 

The  land  about  Sofala  is  all  low,  with  scarcely  any  trees,  but  imme- 
diately in  the  vicinity  of  the  river  the  land.is  a  little  higher  and  more 
irregular,  with  scattered  tall  trees  ;  three  of  these,  near  the  fort,  are 
remarkable  high  cocoa-nut  trees,  and  are  seen  from  some  distance, 
and  before  the  fort  is  sighted. 

Anoliorage. — H.M.  Brig  Helena  (1844)  anchored  in  6\  fathoms, 
sand,  with  the  fort  bearing  N.N.W.  7  or  8  miles.  This  was  the  best 
anchorage  for  strangers,  but  in  working  out  to  sea  the  depths  were 
found  to  be  very  irregular,  shoaling  suddenly  at  times  from  10  to  5 
fathoms,  then  immediately  deepening,  which  is  suggestive  of  great 
caution  being  required,  considering  the  rise  and  fall  of  tide  is  19  feet. 

•  Sea  Admiralty  chart : — Delagoa  bay  to  river  Zambesi,  No.  648  ;  scale,  «i=0*l  of 
an  inch, 
t  See  p!an  of  »Sofala  river  on  Admiralty  chart,  No.  648  ;  scale,  m=l'0  inch. 


OHILUiN  TO  ZAMBBSL  [Chap.  YI. 

Sofitla  river  is  about  if  miles  wide  at  the  entrance  ;  the  south 
side  is  formed  by  the  island  of  Inhancata,  separated  from  the  main 
by  a  narrow  boat  channel.  The  river,  although  so  wide,  is  almost 
blocked  up  by  sand  banks  which  dry  at  low  water. 

Bar. — ^The  depth  ^n  the  bar  appears  by  the  chart  to  be  9  feet  at 
low  water.  There  were  two  channels  divided  by  a  long  narrow 
shoal  dry  at  low  water,  but  in  1859  the  northern  channel  was  blocked 
up.  On  the  southern  side  of  the  channel  the  Matus  Orossa  sand 
projects  about  3  miles,  and  at  low  water  springs  is  dry  almost  to  that 
extent.*  This  bar  should  not  be  attempted  by  any  but  small  vessels 
unless  the  channel  be  previously  examined  and  buoyed. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  4h.  Om. ;  springs  rise 
19  feet. 

The  Town,  which  is  built  at  the  mouth  of  the  river,  is  divided 
into  two  portions,  one  of  which  contains  the  governor  and  his  sub- 
ordinates and  their  slaves.  The  total  population  of  Sofala  in  1858 
was  2,019,  of  which  number  266  were  Christians,  and  96  Moors.  A 
short  distance  to  the  northward  of  the  fort  is  a  church.  The  fort, 
which  is  old  and  dilapidated,-  is  garrisoned  by  about  80  half-caste 
Portuguese. 

Water. — There  is  a  great  want  of  water  in  the  town,  but  it  might 
be  easily  supplied  from  a  pure  stream  about  a  mile  distant.  There  is, 
however,  a  large  cistern  in  the  fort. 

Products. — Sofala  is  said  to  have  been  in  olden  times  the  Ophir 
of  Solomon,  whence  his  fleets  returned  laden  with  "gold,  almug 
trees,  and  precious  stones  ;  "  it  presents,  however,  no  trace  of  former 
opulence,  but  merely  a  paltry  fort  and  a  few  miserable  mud  huts. 
The  trade  is  insignificant ;  a  small  quantity  of  ivory,  beeswax,  and 
ground  nuts  is  sent  to  Mozambique. 

MASSANZANI  BAY.— From  Sofala  the  coast  takes  a  northerly 
direction  to  the  Pungue  river,  situated  at  the  head  of  the  bight 
formerly  known  as  Massanzani  bay.  This  coast  should  not  be 
approached  under  6  fathoms  water,  or  within  the  distance  of  8  miles, 
as  the  water  is  shallow  to  about  that  distance  ;  the  land  is  very  low. 

PUNQUE  RIVER  is  nearly  4  miles  wide  at  its  entrance.  It  is 
fronted  by  a  bar  to  the  distance  of  7  miles,  over  which  there  appears 
to  be  a  depth  of  3  feet  at  low  water,  or  19  feet  at  high  water  springs. 
Within  the  bar  there  is  apparently  anchorage  in  from  4  to  5  ^thorns 
between  Chieve  and  Massigue  points  at  the  mouth  of  the  river.  The 

*  Captain  Vidal,  R.X.,  1823. 


Chap.  VI.]       SOP  ALA  RIVER,   TOWN — ZAMBESI  DELTA.  209 

town  of  Bangue  is  situated  about  2  miles  within  the  north  point  of 
entrance  ;  here  the  ground  rises,  and  being  covered  with  large  trees 
is  seen  from  some  distance.  The  river  appears  to  be  navigable  by 
small  craft  for  many  miles.* 

COAST. — From  Maguti  point,  Pungue  river,  to  a  small  river  in 
lat.  19^  29'  S.,  a  distance  of  37  miles,  the  coast  is  slightly  elevated, 
and  bounded  by  a  range  of  low  sand  hills,  which,  at  about  midway, 
are  remarkable,  being  thrown  up  to  the  height  of  200  feet,  in  a 
number  of  sharp  pointed  hills  resembling  pyramids ;  these  are 
conspicuous  by  being  almost  devoid  of  vegetation,  whilst  a  thick 
jungle  prevails  around.  From  the  river  mentioned  in  lat.  19^  29'  S. 
to  West  Luabo  river  the  land  is  lower  than  that  to  the  south-westward. 
Several  small  rivers  run  into  the  sea  along  this  coast. 

The  ZAMBESI  DELTAt  may  be  said  to  comprise  the  West 
Luabo,  Melambe,  Inhamissengo  (Kongoni),  East  Luabo,  and  the 
Muselo  ;  the  West  Luabo,  however,  is  not  a  branch  of  the  Zambesi. 
The  land  forming  the  mouths  of  these  rivers  is  low,  nowhere 
exceeding  from  50  to  80  feet  high,  and  the  similarity  of  the 
appearance  of  the  different  rivers  renders  it  difficult  to  distinguish 
them. 

The  Zambesi,  or  East  Luabo  entrance,  forms  a  large  opening  between 
two  comparatively  lofty  and  densely  wooded  points  ;  the  trees  on  Bluff 
point  {see  sketch  on  plan)  are  remarkable,  the  light  showing  between 
their  straight  bare  trunks  give  them  a  resemblance  to  cliffs  when 
seen  from  a  distance.  The  Inhamissengo  may  be  identified  by  its 
lighthouse,  beacon,  and  flagstaff  on  the  West  point,  but  strangers  are 
recommended  to  identify  the  East  Luabo  entrance  before  proceeding  to 
the  Inhamissengo,  unless  absolutely  certain  of  the  position  of  the 
vessel.  The  Inhamissengo,  page  210,  is  the  best  entrance  to  the 
Zambesi ;  it  had  from  15  to  18  feet  over  the  bar  at  high  water 
springs  in  1888.    For  inland  navigation,  see  page  214. 

The  lead  is  of  much  assistance  when  making  this  part  of  the  coast, 
the  soundings  decreasing  from  20  fathoms  at  25  miles  to  7  fathoms 
at  4  miles  distant,  from  which  depth  the  soundings  still  decrease 
regularly  to  the  bars  of  the  rivers  without  any  known  outlying  dangers 
except  the  Elephant  shoal,  which  may  be  considered  as  the  bar  of 
the  Zambesi. 

*  See  plan  of  Fuiifirue  river  on  Admiralty  chart,  No.  648  ;  scale,  m  =r  0'65  of  an 
inch.  Information  given  above  is  gathered  from  the  chart,  from  a  rough  survey 
made  in  1885. 

t  See  Admiralty  plan : — Mouths  of  the  river  Zambesi,  with  view.  No.  2,865  ; 
scale,  m  ^  \  inch. 

S.O.  10625.  O 


210  THB  ZAMBBSI  DBLTA.  [Chap.  YI. 

Oaution. — The  various  directions  which  from  time  to  time  are 
given  for  croe^sing  the  dangerous  bars  of  the  Zambesi  delta,  shortly 
become  obselete  and  should  therefore  be  used  with  the  utmost  caution. 
The  large  body  of  water  which  runs  out  of  the  different  branches 
during  the  rainy  season,  and  the  continued  heavy  ocean  swell,  so  alter 
the  position  of  the  several  bars,  the  banks,  direction  and  depths  of  the 
channels,  and  even  cause  islands  to  form  and  wash  away,  that  no 
special  directions  of  any  permanent  value  can  be  given.  During  the 
southerly  monsoon  period,  the  dry  season,  the  bars  are  most 
dangerous  ;  the  wind  blows  then  directly  on  shore.  There  is  a 
Government  pilot  at  the  Kongoni. 

WEST  LUABO  (Luana)  RIVER.— At  Ord  point,  the  eastern 
side  of  entrance  to  this  river,  the  trees  commence  and  thickly  clothe 
the  eastern  bank.  Kirk  point,  the  western  point  of  entrance,  is 
distant  1^  miles.  This  river  may  be  known  by  a  range  of  hummocks 
on  its  eastern  side,  and  very  low  land  to  the  south-westward.  The 
West  Luabo  has  frequently  been  taken  for  one  of  the  mouths  of  the 
Zambesi,  but  it  has  been  ascertained  to  have  no  communication  with 
that  river,  unless  it  be  by  small  creeks.  It  pursues  a  zig-zag  course  for 
about  20  miles  with  not  less  than  2  fathoms  in  the  channel,  above  which 
it  does  not  appear  to  have  been  sounded.  Thornton  river  runs  into 
the  West  Luabo  from  the  westward,  at  about  25  miles  from  its  mouth. 

The  Bar  extends  more  than  2  miles  from  the  shore,  with  from  3 
to  6  feet  at  low  water,  and  16  or  17  feet  at  high  water  springs.  To 
enter  the  river  observe  a  quoin-shaped  clump  of  trees  about  IJ  miles 
inside  the  western  point  of  entrance.  Bring  this  clump  to  bear  about 
N.  by  W.  i  W.,  which  will  lead  over  the  bar  in  the  deepest  water. 
When  within  the  bar  keep  near  the  western  breakers,  as  the  deepest 
water  is  found  on  that  side  ;  and  when  well  within  the  western  point 
of  entrance,, steer  over  towards  the  eastern  point.* 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  4h.  30m. ;  springs 
rise  from  12  to  15  feet.  The  streams  of  ebb  and  flood  run  regularly 
in  the  river  from  1^  to  2  knots. 

MELAMBE  RIVER  lies  6  miles  eastward  of  the  West  Luabo,  and 
3i  miles  westward  of  the  Kongoni,  of  which  river  it  is  the  western 
mouth.  It  is  reported  to  have  been  the  chief  place  of  resort  in  former 
times  for  vessels  engaged  in  the  slave  trade,  but  its  mouth  appears 
to  be  choked  with  sand-banks  ;  it  has  not,  however,  been  sounded.* 

INHAMISSENQO  (KONGONI)  RIVER  is  about  midway 
between  West  Luabo  and  East  Luabo  mouths,  and  has  from  2  to 
5  feet  over  its  bar  at  low  water  springs.  It  extends  about  15  miles 
♦  F.  Skead,  Master,  R.N.,  1861.     See  Cantion,  above. 


Chap.  VI.]      WEST  LUABO  AND  INHAMISSBNGM)  MOUTHS.  211 

in  a  not  very  winding  course  to  the  northward,  with  depths  of 
from  2  to  5  fathoms ;  it  then  divides  into  two  branches,  the 
eastern,  which  is  the  navigable  one,  is  a  creek  about  30  yards 
wide,  and  about  3  miles  long,  at  which  distance  it  connects  with  the 
Zambesi ;  it  is  said  to  have  a  depth  of  2  fathoms  at  low  water.*  The 
western  branch  is  named  the  Doto,  but  apparently  is  not  used. 

It  was  by  the  eastern  branch  that  the  expedition  under 
Dr.  Livingstone  entered  the  Zambesi,  and  the  observation  of  all  those 
who  have  examined  these  rivers  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the  best 
method  of  entering  the  Zambesi  was  by  the  Inhamissengo  (Kongoni). 
Were  it  not  for  the  connection  with  the  Zambesi,  it  would  not  be  of  any 
importance.  There  is  a  boat  channel,  named  the  Inhanguru6,  within 
the  bar  which  communicates  with  the  East  Luabo  3  or  4  miles  from 
its  mouth,  but  at  times  this  channel  is  blocked  up.f  See  inland 
navigation  on  page  214. 

Town. — The  town  or  settlement,  created  in  1881,  is  situated  at 
the  south-east  comer  of  Inhamissengo  island  ;  the  buildings  are  of 
wood  and  well  arranged,  but  being  situated  on  low  land,  on  which 
the  river  is  encroaching.  The  town  is  connected  by  telegraph  with 
Conceicao,  13  miles  up  the  river. 

At  Inhamissengo  there  is  a  military  commandant  with  a  detachment 
of  soldiers,  and  several  European  trading  factories. 

Mails. — The  East  African  Company  it  was  stated  intended  their 
steamers  to  call  monthly,  but  no  arrangement  has  yet  been  come  to. 

There  is  probably  constant  communication  wifli  Kiliman,  from 
which  port  all  the  produce  of  the  Zambesi  is  shipped. 

LigrM. — ^A  fixed  red  light  is  exhibited  frcm  a  lighthouse,  painted 
white,  on  the  western  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  Inhamissengo,  at 
an  elevation  of  85  feet ;  it  is  intended  to  be  visible  from  or  beyond 
the  outer  anchorage,  but  it  must  not  be  depended  on. 

Beacon. — ^A  mast  beacon,  30  feet  high,  surmounted  by  a  triangle, 
stands  in  front  of  the  lighthouse,  and  S.  by  E.  J  E.  about  200  yards 
from  the  flagstaff. 

Buoys. — ^A  bar  buoy  usually  lies  just  within  the  bar  in  9  feet 
water ;  a  second  buoy  in  16  feet  marks  the  west  extreme  of  the  spits 
extending  fpom  Inhanguru6  island  nearly  across  the  channel ;  these 
buoys  must  not  be  depended  on.  The  channel  is  westward  of  the 
buoys. 

Pilot. — There  is  a  government  pilot  for  the  bar. 

•  P.  Skead,  Master,  R.N.,  1861.    See  Caution,  page  210. 

t  See  enlarged  plan  of  Inhamissengo  entrance,  on  Admiralty  chart,  No.  2,865. 

S.O.  10626.  O  2 


212  THB  ZAMBBSI  DBLTA.  [Chap.  YI. 

Direotions. — Vessels  proceeding  to  the  anchorage  off  the  Inha- 
missengo,  should  make  the  Zambesi  first,  unless  certain  of  their 
position,  as  its  entrance  is  more  easily  discernible  from  its  much 
greater  breadth.  Having  made  that  mouth,  steer  to  the  westward 
along  the  coast,  keeping  in  4  or  5  fathoms,  until  the  beacon,  light- 
house, or  flagstaff  bearing  the  Portuguese  flag  on  the  west  point  of 
entrance  of  the  Inhamissengo,  are  seen. 

Anclioragro* — The  most  convenient  anchorage  for  communicating 
with  the  shore,  is  with  the  gap  in  the  land  bearing  about  North,  in 
about  4^  fathoms,  sand  ;  but  except  in  fine  weather  vessels  should  lie 
farther  out,  say  in  7  fathoms  at  4  or  5  miles  from  shore.  The  current 
generally  sets  to  the  westward,  causing  vessels  at  anchor  to  lie  broad- 
side to  the  usual  S.E.  wind,  and  consequently  to  roll  a  good  deal. 

Bar  Direotions. — Steam  vessels  drawing  15  feet  water  might 
possibly  enter  the  Inhamissengo  under  favourable  circumstances 
at  spring  tides,  but  12  feet  is  the  greatest  draught  known  to  have 
passed  the  bar.  Sand-banks  extend  1^  miles  off  the  entrance  to  the 
river,  at  which  distance  they  are  connected  by  a  bar  less  than  2  cables 
across,  with  from  2  to  5  feet  at  low  water  (1888)  and  15  to  18  feet  at 
high  water  springs,  on  the  line  of  the  flagstaff,  lighthouse,  and 
beacon,  bearing  N.  by  W.  J  W.*  Within  the  bar  the  channel  deepens. 
Pass  the  west  point  of  entrance  at  the  distance  of  one  cable,  and 
anchor  off  the  settlement  in  about  3^  fathoms.  The  tide  runs  with 
great  strength  here  during  the  freshets.  In  crossing  the  bar  a  prob- 
able westerly  set  must  be  guarded  against,  but  a  vessel  should  not 
enter  without  the  assistance  of  the  pilot,  as  the  bar  is  subject  to 
considerable  alteration.  At  low  water  the  surf  t)reaks  right  across 
the  bar,  and  the  entrance  cannot  be  distinguished. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  4h.  30m. ;  springs 
rise  from  12  to  15  feet.  The  ebb  tide  at  springs  runs  strongly,  4  to 
4^  knots  at  the  river's  mouth,  and  at  low  tide  the  river  water  is 
generally  fresh.  During  the  rainy  season,  October  to  February,  the 
river  often  overflows  its  banks,  rising  at  times  2  feet  above  the 
level  of  portions  of  the  surrounding  country. 

EAST  LUABO,  known  also  as  the  Zambesi  or  Katrina,  is  the 
main  outlet  of  the  great  Zambesi  river.  First  Bluff  point,  on  the 
western  side  of  entrance,  is  so  called  from  its  high  straight  trees 
standing  very  close  together  ;  Hyde  Parker  point,  on  the  east  side 
of  entrance  is  distant  If  miles  from  it. 


*  The  least  depth  on  the  bar  was  2  feet,  in  October  1888,  at  the  end  of  the  dry 
season  ;  the  greatest  depth  will  probably  be  found  between  January  and  April. 


Chap.  VI.]      INHAMISSBNGO  AND  BAST  LUABO  MOUTHS.  213 

Bar. — The  shallow  water  around  the  mouth  of  the  East  Luabo 
extends  in  a  southerly  direction  nearly  4  miles  from  the  entrance. 
The  sand-bank  from  the  east  point  extends  nearly  across  the  mouth 
of  the  river,  leaving  a  passage  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  wide  between 
it  and  the  bank  on  the  western  side.  The  sea  at  low  water  breaks 
completely  across  the  passage,  at  which  time  a  great  portion  of  the 
banks  are  uncovered.  In  the  month  of  June  two  days  have  been 
occupied  without  finding  a  practicable  channel  across  the  bar,  which 
is  said  to  be  impracticable  during  the  south-west  monsoon  or  dry 
season.*  The  depth  on  the  bar  at  low  water  springs  is  at  times  about 
4  feet.t     Discoloured  water  is  seen  a  considerable  distance  off  shore. 

The  influence  of  the  tides  is  felt  at  25  or  30  miles  up  the  river  ; 
above  this  distance  the  stream  in  the  dry  season  runs  from  1^  to  2^ 
knots,  but  much  stronger  in  the  rainy  season.  The  river  water  is 
fresh  down  to  the  bar  with  the  ebb  tide,  and  in  the  rainy  season  it  is 
fresh  at  the  surface  outside. 

Commander  Hyde  Parker,  R.N.,  who  ascended  this  mouth  of  the 
Zambesi  in  the  boats  of  H.M.S.  Pantaloon^  October  1849,  remarks, 
as  follows  : — 

At  about  2  miles  above  Fif^st  Bluff  point  is  an  island  ;  the  main 
passage  is  on  its  eastern  side  ;  westward  of  this  island  a  boat 
channel  branches  off  and  joins  the  Inhamissengo.  In  the  rainy 
season  the  river  frequently  overflows  its  banks  at  springs,  but  the 
waters  do  not  remain  up  more  than  three  or  four  days  at  a  time. 
The  huts  on  the  banks  of  the  river  are  built  on  piles,  and  at  these 
times  the  only  communication  is  in  canoes.  The  first  village  is 
about  8  miles  up  the  river  on  the  western  bank,  and  is  opposite  the 
fork  where  the  Muselo,  the  eastern  mouth  of  the  Zambesi,  separates 
from  the  main  stream.  This  village  is  extensive,  and  there  is  a  large 
quantity  of  land  in  cultivation  around  it.  Beans  of  different  sorts, 
rice,  and  pumpkins  are  the  principal  products,  also  wild  cotton 
apparently  of  good  quality. 

The  banks  of  the  East  Luabo  for  the  first  30  miles  are  generally  thickly 
clothed  with  trees,  with  occasional  open  glades,  and  many  villages. 
At  one  village,  about  17  miles  up,  on  the  eastern  bank,  a  quantity  of 
excellent  vegetables  are  cultivated ;  it  is  surrounded  with  plantations 
of  banana  and  plantain  trees.  Above  this,  there  are  not  many 
inhabitants  on  the  western  bank,  although  it  is  the  higher  of  the  two, 
and  abounds  in  cocoa-nut  palms,  whilst  the  eastern  bank  is  sandy 
and  barren.    The  banks  of  the  river  continue  mostly  sandy,  with  few 

♦  J.  A.  R.  Fetch,  Master,  B.N.,  1860. 
t  B.  Cooke,  Master,  B.N.,  1869. 


214  THE  ZAMBESI.  [Chap.  VI. 

trees  until  within  20  miles  of  Maruru  ;  here  is  the  large  plantation 
of  Nyangue,  and  the  country  is  more  populous  and  better  cultivated. 
At  3  miles  above  Maruru  is  the  village  of  Mesan,  close  to  which  is 
the  entrance  to  Mutu  creek,  which  communicates  with  Kiliman  river 
when  the  river  is  in  full  flood,  but  is  dry  at  other  times.  In  October 
the  bed  of  the  creek  was  30  or  40  yards  wide,  and  at  least  16  or 
17  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Zambesi.  The  rise  of  the  river  here 
in  the  rains  must  be  nearly  30  feet  by  the  marks  on  the  banks.  The 
mouth  of  the  creek  is  also  known  as  the  Boca  do  Rio,  and  is  about 
70  or  80  miles  distant  from  the  mouth  of  the  East  Luabo.  The  voyage 
up  the  river  to  this  point,  occupied  seven  days,  but  only  two  and  a 
half  to  return.    See  Inland  Navigation,  below. 

Muselo  river,  the  eastern  outlet  of  the  Zambesi,  has  some  sandy 
cliffs  on  its  north-east  side ;  it  branches  off  from  the  East  Luabo,  about 

7  miles  from  the  mouth  of  that  river,  and  runs  into  the  sea  between 

8  and  9  miles  eastward  of  it.  This  outlet  is  impracticable,  even  for 
boats  in  ordinary  weather,  the  depth  of  water  on  the  bar  at  3^  miles 
from  shore  being  from  3  to  4  feet,  with  a  heavy  surf  on  the  only  spot 
where  a  channel  appeared  probable.  Inside  the  bar,  the  depths  vary 
from  1^  to  5  fathoms  to  the  junction  with  the  East  Luabo. 

INLAND  NAVIGATION*.— The  Zambesi  is  by  far  the  largest 
river  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa,  being  navigable  by  steam  launches,  of 
3  feet  draught,  at  all  times  of  the  year  as  far  as  the  Kebrabasa  rapids, 
320  miles  from  its  mouth,  or  about  20  miles  above  Tete,  one  of  the 
principal  Portuguese  settlements.  Powerful  steam  vessels  of  less  than 
10  feet  draught  might  reach  Tete  during  the  months  of  January  to 
March,  when  the  river  is  in  flood,  but  probably  not  without  grounding  ; 
after  this  the  river  falls  rapidly.  The  current  at  this  season  is  from 
3  to  5  knots,  and  more  in  the  Lupata  gorge,  where,  even  in  the  dry 
season  native  boats  have  to  be  tracked  through.  Navigation  is  easier 
for  steam  launches  in  the  dry  season,  when  the  current  is  probably  not 
more  than  1^  knots,  and  at  which  time  there  appears  to  be  a  least  depth 
of  about  5  feet  over  the  numerous  and  shifting  bars  formed  by  the 
floods ;  but  this  is  the  most  unhealthy  season,  especially  the  months  of 
April  and  May,  when  the  powerful  sun  acting  on  the  banks  which 
are  being  uncovered,  and  on  decaying  vegetation,  cause  the  most 
deadly  miasma.  The  distances  of  various  places  on  the  river  are 
given  on  page  217. 

Depths. — The  best  entrance  to  the  Zambesi  is  over  the  bar  of  the 

*  See  Admiralty  chart: — Delagoa  bay  to  Cape  Guardafni  (Has  Aslr),  No.  597  ;  «nd 
river  Zambesi  to  Mozambique,  No.  1810. 


Chap.  VI.]  INLAND  NAVIGATION.  215 

Inhamissengo  or  Kongoni  (page  210).  The  southern  branch  of  the 
Inhamissengo  leads  into  the  Zambesi  through  a  narrow  channel  or 
canal  only  about  30  yards  wide,  but  it  is  reported  to  have  a  depth  of 
12  feet.  The  Zambesi  has  depths  varying  from  3  feet  and  upwards  in 
the  dry  season  over  the  bars  in  the  river  left  by  the  preceding  floods 
from  the  upper  river,  with  deeper  water  in  the  reaches  between  them  ; 
these  bars  are  ever  shifting,  and  the  depths  in  the  river  are  never  two 
seasons  alike,  so  that  no  directions  can  be  given,  beyond  avoiding  all 
points  and  keeping  in  the  bends,  as  in  all  river  navigation. 

In  the  wet  season  the  river  appears  to  have  depths  of  from  15  to  30 
feet  or  more.  The  rise  in  the  river  caused  by  the  rains  in  the  interior, 
is  apparently  about  20  feet ;  the  natives  of  Tete  state  that  about  every 
fpurth  year  the  rise  is  about  30  feet ;  in  the  gorges  the  rise 
much  exceeds  this.  The  first  rise  takes  place  in  November,  when  the 
lesser  rains  begin ;  it  then  rises  a  few  feet,  but  falls  again,  there 
being  partial  droughts  in  December.  The  great  rise  begins  in 
January,  and  continues  rising  until  perhaps  the  middle  of  March,  after 
which  it  begins  to  fall  rapidly,  and  the  river  is  low  again  about  June. 

Climate. — ^As  before  stated,  the  river  is  most  unhealthy  during 
the  months  of  April  and  May,  when  the  action  of  the  sun  on  banks 
uncovering  and  decaying  vegetation  is  most  active.  The  heat  is 
great  in  February  and  March.  The  maximum  at  Tete  in  February 
was  103°  on  board  the  Pioneer ;  farther  down  it  was  97°  by  day  in 
the  shade  and  80°  at  night,  in  the  same  months.  Mosquitos  are  a 
terrible  plague.  The  rainfall  at  Tete  is  about  36  inches.  See 
also  p.  20. 

Settlements. — The  delta  of  the  Zambesi  is  thickly  wooded  but 
sparsely  inhabited,  as  large  portions  of  it  are  under  water  during  the 
floods,  but  villages  are  met  with  occasionally  on  the  higher  ground, 
and  small  supplies  are  procurable.  At  Shupanga,  is  the  grave  of 
Mrs.  Livingstone,  and  near  the  mouth  of  the  Ruo,  on  the  Shire,  lie  the 
remains  of  the  ill-fated  Bishop  Mackenzie,  of  the  Universities'  Mission. 
Just  below  Shupanga,  on  the  opposite  side,  near  Maruru,  is  Mutu 
creek  which,  during  high  floods,  enables  boats  to  reach  Kiliman. 
{See  remarks  on  East  Luabo  mouth,  pp.  213,  214.)  Sena  and  Tete 
are  the  principal  settlements  of  the  Portuguese.  Zumbo  was  at  one 
time  an  important  settlement.    See  distances  from  entrance,  p.  217. 

Products.— The  country  is  capable  of  producing  large  quantities 
of  wheat,  maize,  cotton,  various  kinds  of  fruits  and  vegetables,  and 
quantities  of  ivory  are  brought  to  the  trading  stations.  Magnetic 
ore  is  found  near  Tete,  and  about  4  miles  northward  of  Tete  several 


216  THE  ZAHBBSI.  [Chap.  VI. 

seaniB  of  coal   were  seen  by  Dr.  Livingstone,   one  of  which  was 
25  feet  in  thickness. 

Rapids. — ^Above  Tete  are  the  Kebrabasa  or  Chinaronga  rapids, 
before  mentioned.  The  lower  one  of  these,  named  Morambawa 
rapid,  when  seen  in  November  (low  river),  had  a  fall  of  20  feet  in  a 
distance  of  30  yards.  During  high  river  these  rapids  are  said  to 
disappear,  and  the  river  is  then  half  a  mile  wide,  but  at  low  river 
the  rapid  rushes  through  a  gorge  only  from  40  to  60  yards  wide. 
These  rapids  extend  nearly  to  Chicova,  a  distance  of  about  80  miles  ; 
in  descending  one  of  these  Dr.  Kirk  nearly  lost  his  life.  During 
high  river  these  are  said  to  be  smoothed  over,  but  it  is  very  doubtful 
whether  this  portion  of  the  river  could  be  made  available  for  trade. 

Victoria  fiEtUs  are  nearly  1,000  miles  by  the  river  from  its  mouth. 
Between  them  and  the  Kebrabasa  rapids,  a  distance  of  about 
60  miles,  are  several  navigable  reaches,  but  there  are  also  several 
rapids,  the  principal  of  which  are  the  Nakansalo  and  Kariba  rapids, 
about  200  miles  above  Zumbo. 

The  Victoria  falls  are  separated  by  an  island  into  two  portions, 
the  whole  measuring  about  one  mile  in  width.  The  river  drops  into 
a  deep  chasm  from  a  height  of  350  feet,  causing  a  vapour  to  ascend, 
which  has  caused  it  to  be  named  by  the  natives  the  "  Mosi-oa-tanya, " 
or  "smoke  sounding."  From  this  chasm  it  rushes  in  a  foaming 
torrent  through  precipitous  gorges,  and  finally  uniting  some  miles 
below. 

The  Sllir6  river  enters  the  Zambesi  river  about  110  miles  above 
its  mouth  ;  though  narrower  than  the  Zambesi,  the  water  is  deeper, 
but  navigation  is  somewhat  impeded  by  the  quantities  of  weed  in  its 
lower  portion.  The  Pioneer^  drawing  b\  feet,  ascended  to  Ohibisa, 
near  the  foot  of  the  Murchison  falls,  but  she  was  delayed  between 
Chibisa  and  the  Ruo  branch  on  her  return,  for  five  weeks,  owing  to 
the  river  not  rising  enough  in  November  to  allow  her  to  pass  the 
flats.  Vessels  of  4  to  5  feet  draught  can  probably  reach  Ruo  river  at 
all  times. 

The  Murollison  falls  on  the  Shire  are  situated  100  miles  above 
its  junction  with  the  Zambesi.  There  are  five  principal  and  four  minor 
cataracts,  extending  over  a  distance  of  40  miles,  beyond  which  the 
river  is  navigable  to  lake  Nyassa.  The  river  falls  1,200  feet  in 
40  mileS;  and  at  Mamvira,  the  lower  cataract,  the  fall  is  100  feet  in 
100  yards.  The  rise  in  the  river  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Zambesi, 
the  larger  rise  beginning  in  January.. 


Chap.  VI.]  INLAND  NAVIGATION— LINDK  RIVER.  217 

The  distances  from  the  Inhamissengo  (Kongoni)  mouth  are 
approximately  as  here  stated  : — 

Maruru  (junction  with  Kiliman,  at  high 

river  only)        -----  80  miles. 

Shupanga 90  „ 

Junction  of  the  Shir6      -        -        -        -  110  „ 

Murchison  falls  on  the  Shire  -        -        -  300  „ 

Sena  on  the  Zambesi       -        -        -        -  140  „ 

Lupata  narrows 240  „ 

Tete 300  „ 

Kebrabasa  rapids 320  „ 

Zumbo,  mouth  of  Loangwa     -        -        -  550  „ 

Victoria  falls  -        -     *  -        -        -        -  1,000  „ 

OOAST.-^From  the  Muselo  the  coast  trends  north-eastward  about 
56  miles  to  Kiliman  river,  in  which  space  there  are  several  rivers. 
This  coast  is  very  low,  being  scarcely  ever  seen  from  the  deck  in 
10  fathoms  water;  it  is  a  little  higher  about  8  or  10  miles  south- 
west of  Linde  river,  and  again  at  Linde  river  at  which  place  it  shows 
in  clumps  of  trees.  A  little  to  the  southward  of  this  river  there  are 
some  sand  cliffs  separated  from  the  beach  by  a  long  lagoon  ;  these 
cliffs  are  conspicuous  with  the  morning  sun  shining  on  them.*  The 
current  along  this  coast  is  generally  S.W.  one  knot  an  hour. 

At  about  15  miles  from  the  Muselo,  the  rivers  Inhamhona,  In- 
hamiara,  and  the  Inhaombe,  discharge  into  an  estuary  about  3  miles 
in  width,  and  in  the  centre  of  which  there  is  a  large  island. 

Here  is  the  harbour  of  Mitilone,  of  Livingstone,  but  we  have  no 
information  concerning  it. 

The  general  soundings  along  this  part  of  the  coast  are  4  fathoms  at 
low  water  at  3  miles  from  the  shore,  and  from  6  to  9  fathoms  at  5  or 
6  miles  from  the  shore,  except  off  the  entrance  of  the  rivers.f 

Linde  (Indian)  river.— The  mouth  of  this  river  lies  about  31 
miles  south-west  from  that  of  Kiliman.  We  have  no  information  on 
the  bar  other  than  shown  on  the  chart,  which  gives  a  depth  of  one 
fathom,  at  4  miles  off  shore.  There  is  a  large  estuary  within  the  bar, 
with  several  islands  in  it. 

The  main  branch  called  the  Masanzani,  was  explored  for  30  miles, 
with  variable  depths  to  that  distance.    The  brig  Singapore  in  1822, 

•  Lily  Bank.— Lat.  18°  35'  S.,  long.  36°  40^'  E.,  is  the  position  assigned  to  the  bank 
upon  which  H.M.S.  Lily  struck  in  1843.  This  position  was  crossed  and  recrossed  by 
H.M.S.  Oregtes  in  1851,  without  finding  shoal  water. 

t  See  Admiralty  chart : — River  Zambesi  to  Mozambique  harbour,  No.  1810 ; 
scale  m  =  0*1  of  an  inch. 


218  KILIMlN  RIVER.  [Chap.  VI. 

ascended  the  river  about  16  miles,  and  the  least  water  obtained  was 
2  fathoms.  The  Olinda,  a  stream  on  the  north  side  of  the  estuary 
apparently,  was  examined  by  the  boats  of  H.M.S.  Orecian,  for  a 
distance  of  12  miles ;  the  depths  ranged  from  10  to  5  fathoms. 

Linde  river  may  possibly  be  known  by  a  remarkable  clump  of 
trees  about  IJ  miles  to  the  northward  of  it,  which,  when  bearing  to 
the  westward  of  North,  formerly  assumed  the  form  of  a  camel.  For 
a  short  distance  on  each  side  of  the  entrance  of  the  river  there  are  no 
tall  trees.  The  entrance  of  the  river  shows  well  on  a  N.W.  by  W. 
bearing. 

Tlie  coast  between  Linde  riv^er  and  Kiliman  is  quite  destitute  of 
trees,  but  there  are  several  low  sand  hills  and  reddish  looking  patches, 
and  about  2^  miles  north-east  of  Linde  river  there  is  a  low  but 
remarkable  bluff.    The  soundings  off  this  coast  decreased  regularly. 

KILIMAN  (Quillmane)  RIVER  lies  between  Tangalane  and 
Olinda  (Hippopotamus)  points,  one  mile  apart ;  there  is  a  depth  of 
21  feet  on  the  bar  at  high  water,  spring  tides,  which  depth,  and 
more,  may  be  carried  to  the  town.  The  land  on  both  sides  of  the 
entrance  is  low,  sandy,  and  covered  with  trees  or  jungle,  the  soath- 
west  side  being  rather  the  higher.  The  black  light  structure,  flagstaff 
and  beacon  on  Tangalane  point  are  visible  some  time  before  the  land, 
which  may  be  safely  skirted  at  a  distance  of  5  or  6  miles,  the  outline 
of  the  coast  being  then  clearly  distinguishable,  but  as  the  current  is 
strong  and  uncertain  in  the  neighbourhood,  caution  is  necessary.  The 
entrance  of  the  river  is  conspicuous  when  open  on  a  N.N.W.  bearing, 
the  river  being  wide  and  nearly  straight  for  10  or  12  miles  ;  when 
abreast  of  it  no  land  will  be  visible  from  the  deck  between  the  points 
of  entrance  ;  but  from  aloft,  Pequena  island,  which  is  about  4  miles 
inside  the  entrance,  will  be  seen.* 

LIGHT. — From  a  lantern  placed  over  an  open  truncated  pyramid, 
19  feet  high,  painted  black,  erected  on  Tangalane  point,  is  exhibited, 
at  an  elevation  of  about  50  feet  above  the  sea,  a  fixed  white  light, 
visible  in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  8  miles.  The  lighthouse 
is  in  lat.  18°  1'  24"  S.,  long.  36°  58'  15"  E. 

Signals. — The  lighthouse  keeper  has  the  international  code  of 
signals,  but  his  interpretation  of  the  signals  cannot  be  depended  on.  If 
a  message  is  required  to  be  sent,  it  is  better  to  land  and  see  him, 
when  it  will  be  forwarded  by  telegraph  to  the  town. 

♦  See  Admiralty  plan  :— .Kiliman  river,  with  view,  No.  650  ;  scale  w  =  1*6  inch 
Remarks  from  the  survey  of  H.M.S.  Sylvia,  1884-5.  The  light-house  has  been  shifted 
eastward,  and  form  altered,  since  the  sketch  was  made,  and  is  painted  black. 


Chap.  VI.]        LIGHTS— OUTER  ANCHORAGB— BBACONS.  219 

Outer  anclioragre. — Should  it  be  desirable  to  anchor  outside  the 
bar,  a  good  position  is  in  5  fathoms,  with  the  lighthouse  bearing 
N.  i  E.,  distant  5  miles  ;  a  berth  may  be  taken  up  further  out  on  the 
same  bearing. 

Pilot  and  steam  tug.— The  only  pilot  at  Kiliman  in  1884  was 
the  port  captain,  who  also  commanded  a  small  steamer  which  was 
sometimes  available  for  towing  sailing  vessels.  The  charge  for  the 
tug  was  about  Is.  3rf.  per  gross  ton  register,  and  for  pilotage  in  and 
out,  about  £10. 

Pilotage  dues  are  compulsory,  men  of  war  excepted,  (1887). 

The  RIVER  is  entered  between  Tangalane  point  and  Olinda 
point;  from  thence  there  are  three  channels  to  the  town,  named 
respectively  Olinda,  Militao,  and  East  channel ;  the  Militao  appears 
to  be  the  best. 

The  bar  extended  4^  miles  from  the  lighthouse  in  1884;  it  is 
said  to  vary  a  little  in  different  seasons,  and  especially  after  south- 
west gales.    At  high  water  it  is  generally  smooth. 

The  bar  has  about  21  feet  at  high  water  springs ;  thence  betweien 
Carallos,  Marinhos,  and  Tangalane  banks,  the  channel  is  about  one 
mile  wide  with  much  deeper  water. 

The  channel  formerly  known  as  the  boat  channel,  close  along 
Olinda  point,  is  closed,  but  it  is  possible  that  it  may  again  become 
available  for  boats. 

Beacon. — Buoys. — A  beacon  about  40  feet  high  is  erected  on 
Tangalane  point,  northward  of  the  lighthouse,  which  kept  in  line 
with  the  lighthouse  leads  in  the  best  water  over  the  bar.  The  beacon 
is  moved  to  meet  any  change  in  the  bar  channel. 

A  red  buoy  is  moored  within  the  bar,  near  the  south-west  extreme 
of  Tangalane  banks,  with  the  lighthouse  bearing  N.  |  E.,  distant 
2|  miles.  Two  red  buoys  are  moored  at  the  entrance  to  Olinda 
channel,  with  the  lighthouse  bearing  respectively  E.  ^  S.,  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile,  and  E.  J  S.,  1^^  miles  distant ;  a  red  buoy  is  also 
moored  close  to  the  south-west  edge  of  Militao  bank,  west  end  of 
Olinda  channel.  The  positions  of  these  buoys  are  not  to  be  depended 
on,  as  they  are  moved  when  the  channel  alters. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  about  4h.  20m.; 
springs  rise  12J  feet,  neaps  7^  feet ;  the  tides  are  said  to  be  irregular, 
and  to.  extend  50  miles  up  the  river. 

The  streams  run  about  3  knots  an  hour  in  the  river ;  after  crossing 
the  bar  and  nearing  the  lighthouse,  the  flood  sets  directly  on  to  the 
banks  oflE  Olinda  point,  rendering  great  care  necessary. 


220  kilimAn  rivar.  [Chap.  VI. 

The  ebb  commences  at  Olinda  point  about  half  an  hour  before  it 
does  at  Tangalane  point. 

Ourrent. — The  current  generally  sets  from  one  to  2  miles  an  hour 
to  the  south-westward,  causing  vessels  at  anchor  off  the  bar  to  lie 
broadside  to  the  swell  and  roll  considerably. 

Bap. — Direotions. — The  British  India  steamers,  drawing  15  feet, 
enter  the  river  and  proceed  to  the  town,  the  pilot  boarding  them  off 
the  lighthouse,  but  it  is  not  advisable  for  a  vessel  drawing  over 
10  feet  to  cross  the  bar  without  the  assistance  of  the  pilot. 

To  cross  the  bar  by  Ship  channel,  in  which  there  is  a  depth  of  about 
21  feet  at  high- water  spring  tides,  bring  Tangalane  lighthouse  in 
line  with  the  beacon,  and  steer  for  it,  guarding  against  the  westerly 
set  of  the  flood,  until  about  one  mile  from  the  lighthouse,  when  it 
may  be  brought  a  little  on  the  starboard  bow,  and  passed  at  between  2 
and  3  cables  distant.* 

Anohoragro* — ^There  is  very  good  anchorage  about  one  mile  north- 
westward of  the  lighthouse,  northward  of  the  creek,  in  about 
5  fathoms ;  the  tide  runs  about  3  knots  an  hour.  If  proceeding  to 
the  town,  see  directions  on  next  page. 

Caution. — ^As  before  stated,  the  beacon  in  rear  of  the  lighthouse 
is  shifted  when  any  change  in  the  bar  occurs,  the  two  in  line 
marking  the  best  water ;  and  the  breakers  are  said  to  be  a  better  guide 
than  the  chart.  Much  precaution  is  therefore  necessary,  especially 
in  boats  crossing,  as  the  breakers  are  so  treacherous,  that  a  solitary 
wave  at  times  comes  in  and  breaks  heavily  when  the  water  on  the 
bar  appeared  smooth  immediately  before.  Many  lives  have  been 
lost,  amongst  others  a  native  pilot  of  experience  and  all  his  crew 
perished. 

CHANNELS  TO  THE  TOWN.— Pequena  island,  situated 
in  mid-river,  is  low  and  covered  with  dense  jungle;  extensive  banks 
extend  both  north  and  south  of  this  island,  leaving  a  channel  to  the 
town  close  along  both  shores. 

MilitdO  f)ank  separates  Olinda  and  Militao  channels ;  it  dries 
for  a  distance  of  2  miles  in  a  north-west  and  south-east  direction,  and 
1^  miles  north  and  south. 

MilitdO  channel,  with  an  average  width  of  half  a  mile,  is 
between  Militao  bank  and  the*  bank  extending  southward  from 
Pequena  island,  it  is  straighter,  has  more  water,  and  is  easier  of 
navigation  than  Olinda  channel. 


*  Bar  direotions  for  1885. 


Chap.  VI.]  BAR— DIRECTIONS— TOWN.  221 

Direotions. — From  abreast  Tangalane  lighthouse,  just  open  the 
east  extreme  of  Pequena  island  of  the  extreme  of  the  land  beyond 
it,  N.  by  W.  ^  W.,  and  steer  for  it ;  this  mark  will  lead  eastward  of 
Militao  bank  (and  on  to  the  tail  of  Pequena  bank).  When  the  red  tiled 
house  on  the  west  bank  of  the  river,  and  3  miles  north-west  of 
Olinda  point,  bears  W,  by  N.  ^  N.,  the  course  should  be  altered  to 
N.W.  by  W.,  until  the  red  tiled  house  bears  W.  by  N.,  which  being 
steered  for  leads  through  Militao  channel.  When  the  west  extreme 
of  Pequena  island  bears  North,  steer  N.W.  until  within  2  cables  of 
the  west  bank  of  the  river,  which  may  thence  be  followed  to  the 
town,  off  which  there  is  anchorage  in  from  3  to  4  fathoms,  mud 
bottom. 

The  streams  run  across  both  ends  of  Militao  channel,  but  straight 
through  the  other  parts. 

East  Obannel  runs  close  along  the  eastern  bank  of  the  river, 
and  has  a  depth  of  21  feet  at  high  water ;  from  abreast  the  lighthouse 
the  river  bank  should  be  followed,  at  about  one  cable  distant,  until 
abreast  the  north-west  end  of  Pequena  island,  wh«re  a  shoal  extends 
1^  cables  from  a  rounded  point ;  after  passing  this  shoal  the  shore 
may  again  be  followed  to  the  town. 

Olinda  Ohannel  is  southward  of  Militao  bank,  and  was  almost 
entirely  that  used  previous  to  the  survey  in  1885.  It  is  obstructed 
by  shoals,  a  strong  current  sets  across  it,  and  no  directions  can  be 
given  that  would  be  of  use  to  a  stranger. 

KILIMAN  is  situated  on  the  eastern  or  left  bank  of  the  river, 
at  10  miles  above  Tangalane  point  at  the  entrance.  It  ranks  next 
in  importance  to  Mozambique,  and  is  the  head-quarters  of  the 
Zambesi  trade.  The  church  and  barracks  are  conspicuous  buildings, 
and  the  town  is  surrounded  by  cocoa-nut  trees.  There  is  a  landing 
available  at  all  times  of  tide,  close  to  the  custom  house  and  jetty 
government  offices. 

Moorings  are  laid  for  two  government  steam  vessels  off  the  landing 
place,  and  the  mud  bottom  is  very  soft. 

Trade. — The  African  Lake  Company  have  their  head  quarters  at 
Kiliman,  and  with  other  European  firms  do  a  considerable  export 
trade  in  oil-seeds,  ivory,  rubber,  skins  and  beeswax.  The  imports  are 
fire-arms,  cotton  goods,  knives,  toys,  and  beads.  The  value  of  the 
exports  in  1885  amounted  to  about  £95,000,  nine-tenths  of  which 
were  seeds  and  ivory  ;  the  imports  amounted  to  £103,000. 

The  population  consists  of  a  Portuguese  military  commandant  and 
other  government  officials,  a  few  Europeans,  some  half-caste  soldiers, 
and  about  two  thousand  blacks  (1888). 


222  KILIMlN  TO  MOZAMBIQUB.  [Chap.  YI. 

Supplies. — Fresh  provisions,  beef,  poultry,  vegetables,  and  fruit 
can  be  obtained  in  small  quantities  ;  the  water,  obtained  from  wells 
in  the  sand,  is  scarce  and  bad. 

Except  beef,  provisions  may  be  obtained  cheaper  by  anchoring  on 
the  west  shore  6  or  7  miles  below  the  town,  where  the  natives  bring 
supplies  down.    Stores  are  scarce  and  dear. 

Slight  repairs  to  vessels,  such  as  carpenters\  blacksmiths*,  and 
caulkers'  work,  can  be  effected  at  reasonable  rates.  About  12  vessels 
enter  the  port  annually  besides  mail  steamers  and  coasting  craft. 

MailS.—>S««  page  8. 

Winds. — ^The  prevailing  wind  off  Kiliman  is  from  S.E.  to  South 
during  the  greater  part  of  the  year.  From  January  to  March  probably 
it  is  westward  of  South.  Whilst  lying  off  Kiliman  in  October,  the 
winds  varied  from  S.S.E.  to  E.S.E.,  and  blew  throughout  the  night, 
only  lulling  in  the  morning  ;  but  this  is  unusual,  a  land  wind  gene- 
rally setting  off  at  night.  Off  the  town,  in  July,  the  sea  breeze  from 
about  S.S.E.  was  observed  to  set  in  at  noon  with  a  force  of  1  to  3  ; 
during  the  night  it  was  usually  calm,  with  the  land  breeze  in  the 
morning. 

Climate. — ^The  climate  is  unhealthy,  and  said  to  be  unfit  for 
Europeans.  Temperature  in  the  early  morning  (July)  has  been 
noted  as  low  as  62°.  The  heaviest  rains  occur  in  January  and 
February,  accompanied  by  much  lightning.    See  also  page  19. 

COAST. — ^About  14  miles  north-eastward  of  Kiliman  river  is  the 
first  patch  of  casuarina  trees,  the  lofty  trees  on  the  intervening  space 
being  all  palms  or  cocoa-nut.*  The  coast  is  low  and  sandy,  with 
jungle  in  the  background,  as  far  as  cape  Fitzwilliam. 

Brisk  bank. — The  depths  along  this  coast  decrease  regularly  on 
approaching  the  land,  but  there  is  a  rocky  bank  in  about  lat. 
17°  55'  S.,  long.  37°  17'  E.,  at  about  12  miles  from  the  shore. 
H.M.S.  Brisk  passed  over  this  bank,  obtaining  7  fathoms  least  water. 

Rivers. — There  are  eight  rivers  between  Kilimdn  and  cape 
Fitzwilliam,  namely,  the  Macuse,  Mariangoma,  Likugu  (Mumwodo), 
lugue,  Mwabala,  Raraka  (lumane),  Mraizi  (Mazemba),  and  Monega 
(Kizungu).  The  Macuse  and  Moniga  are  accessible  to  light  draught 
vessels.! 

The  Likugu,  rising  in  the  hills  south-eastward  of  lake  Shirwa,  is 
the  largest  of  these  rivers,  but  its  bar  is  not  passable.  Within  the 
bar  it  is  said  to  be  navigable  for  boats  for  8  or  10  days'  journey. 

*  See  Admiralty  chart,  River  Zambesi  to  Mozambique,  No.  1810  ;  Bcale,  m  =  0*1 
of  an  inch, 
t  Ckmaul  0*Niell,  in  prooeedings  of  Royal  G^eographical  Society,  1882,  page  599. 


Chap.  VI.]  MACUSB  RIVER— MONBGA  RIVER.  223 

Macuse  (Mecusa)  river  is  about  22  miles  north-eastward  of 
Kiliman.  A  patch  of  casnarina  trees  forms  its  western  point  of 
entrance,  and  a  rather  bluff  point  the  eastern  one.  The  bar  of  the 
river,  about  half  a  mile  wide,  is  situated  2^  to  3  miles  from  the  land, 
and  has  a  depth  of  18  feet  at  high  water,  and  fair  anchorage  inside.* 

In  entering,  steer  with  the  west  end  of  the  casuarina  trees  at  the 
mouth  of  the  river  bearing  North,  and  when  distant  half  a  mile  from 
the  entrance,  alter  course  to  pass  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  trees, 
and  thence  up  the  middle  of  the  river  until  the  first  house  is  seen  on 
the  starboard  hand ;  then  anchor.  These  directions  applied  to  the 
year  1879,  and  must  be  used  with  caution,  as  the  bar  probably  shifts. 

Guard  against  the  tide  in  entering  ;  the  flood  sets  to  the  westward, 
the  ebb  to  the  eastward.  No  pilots  are  available.  Presh  water  and 
fruit  may  be  obtained,  but  no  other  supplies. 

It  is  high  water  full  and  change  at  Macuse  river  at  4h.  Om.  ; 
springs  rise  14  feet,  neaps  12  feet. 

Mazemba  (Mrlazi)  river  is  about  10  miles  south-westward  of 
cape  Fitzwilliam,  and  is  tolerably  safe  for  entering  in  a  boat.  The 
boats  of  H.M.S.  Persian^  in  1845,  found  a  depth  of  3  fathoms  on  the 
bar  at  high  water,  and  from  6  to  4  fathoms  for  a  distance  of  30  miles 
up  the  river. 

It  is  probably  barred  in  the  dry  season ;  the  Monega,  to  the 
eastward,  was  reported  (1882)  to  be  the  best  port  in  this  locality. 

There  is  a  channel  from  the  Mazemba  to  the  Tejungo,  with  about 
2  fathoms  at  low  water,  northward  of  the  island  which  separates  the 
two  rivers.  Several  streams  flow  into  the  Mazemba,  with  entrances 
so  wide  that  it  is  not  easy  to  distinguish  which  is  the  main  river. 
The  river  abounds  with  hippopotami. 

Supplies. — Plenty  of  stock  can  be  obtained  by  barter  from  the 
natives,  at  the  entrance  of  the  river. 

MONEGA  (TEJUNGO)  or  KIZUNGU  RIVER  enters 
the  sea  on  the  eastern  side  of  Kizungu  island,  at  about  5  miles 
westward  of  cape  Fitzwilliam,  and  is  connected  with  the  Mazemba 
bv  a  channel  leading  northward  of  Kizungu  island. 

Consul  O'Neill,  1882,  states  that  "the  Tejungo  is  the  only  port 
worthy  of  the  name  between  Kilimdn  and  Angoche,  to  both  of 
which  it  is  in  many  respects  superior " ;  notwithstanding,  the  bar 
is  probably  subject  to  great  changes,  as  the  bar  was  not  passable  by 

*  Captain  F.  Elton  crossed  the  bar  in  a  schooner  of  80  tons  ;  he  states  that  thei 
channel  is  preferable  to  the  £ilim4n,  with  which  river  it  commonicates  in  the 
interior. 


224  KlLIMlN  TO  MOZAMBIQUE.  [Chap.  VI. 

the  boats  of  the  Persian  in  1845  on  account  of  the  surf,  whilst  the 
Mazemba  had  3  fathoms  over  it.  Between  the  Mazemba  and  Tejnngo 
the  land  is  rather  high,  of  a  hummocky  appearance,  with  two 
remarkable  trees  on  its  extreme  decline  eastward  ;  these  trees  stand 
midway  between  the  two  rivers.  The  entrance  of  the  Tejungo  is 
more  perceptible  than  that  of  the  Mazemba  ;  a  low  point  covered  with 
trees  forms  its  south-west  point,  and  cape  Fitzwilliam  stands  out 
boldly  to  the  eastward  of  it.  Shallow  water  extends  a  considerable 
distance  off  the  river,  there  being  but  5  fathoms  at  about  5  miles 
off  shore. 

The  town  of  Monega  is  about  7  miles  up  the  Tejungo.  There 
are  no  European^  here. 

Capt.  Thos.  Le  H.  Ward,  H.M.S.  TheUs,  Aug.  1875,  writes  :— The 
Tejungo  has  a  fine  deep  entrance  running  nearly  north  and  south 
between  two  lines  of  breakers  about  half  a  mile  in  length  and  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  in  breadth,  3  fathoms  was  the  least  water  obtained 
on  the  bar,  which  did  not  break  as  it  was  crossed,  it  being  then 
nearly  low  water.  Inside  the  bar  there  is  a  land-locked  anchorage 
for  vessels  of  any  size  in  8  or  9  fathoms.  The  river,  however,  very 
soon  becomes  shallow,  being  navigable  for  some  20  miles  from  its 
mouth  for  dhows  and  boats  only.  The  river,  like  the  rest  on  this 
coast,  is  lined  with  mangrove  bushes  near  its  mouth,  but  in  proceed- 
ing up  there  is  a  fine  open  country  with  numerous  indications  of 
large  game. 

CAPE  FITZWILLIAM,  about  5  miles  eastward  of  the  Monega, 
.  is  a  remarkable  bluff  composed  of  yellow  earth  cliffs,  with  a  few 
rocks  around  them  on  the  beach.    This  cape  and  cape  Edward  are  the 
most  remarkable  points  along  this  part  of  the  coast. 

Oape  Edward  is  a  remarkable  bluff  formed  of  red  earth  cliffs, 
with  a  sandy  beach  and  a  few  rocks  at  the  base  of  the  cliffs.  This 
cape  is  6  miles  eastward  of  cape  Fitzwilliam,  the  land  between  being 
very  low,  with  Mlai  creek  about  midway. 

OOAST. — From  cape  Edward,  eastward  to  Macalonga  point  (Ras 
Nelide),  distant  about  44  miles,  the  coast  is  nearly  straight.  Between 
these  points  are  the  Namanwe  and  Mlela  streams  entering  the  sea  on 
either  side  of  Yusi  island ;  the  Maravoni  (Mwebazi),  Molugwi,  and 
the  Mwalaka  (formerly  known  as  the  delta  of  the  Quizungo,  but 
found  to  be  three  distinct  rivers),  and  the  Eredni,  situated  about 
10  miles  westward  of  Macalonga  point.*    Between  the  Eredni  and 


*  Vidal  places  this  river  18  miles  westward  of  the  point,  and  north  from  Fogo 


Chap.  VI.]      OAPB  FITZWILLIAM— PRIMBIRA  ISLANDS.  225 

the  point,  the  coast  is  composed  of  low  sand  hills  with  a  few 
scattered  trees.  The  bar  of  the  Eredni  in  1875  was  found  im- 
practicable for  a  gun  boat.  On  the  north  side  of  the  river,  within 
its  mouth,  is  a  red  clijff  which  may  serve  to  distinguish  it. 

PRIMBIRA  ISLANDS  and  SHOALS —The  Primeira  and 
Angoche  (Angoxa)  islands  and  sh6als  are  on  the  outer  edge  of  a  coral 
bank  fronting  the  shore  to  a  distance  varying  from  5  to  25  miles. 
The  channels  between  them  and  the  main  have  from  7  to  11  fathoms, 
the  deepest  water  being  on  the  island's  side. 

Pantaloon  shoal,  the  westernmost  of  these  groups,  is  in  lat. 
17"^  42i'  S.,  long,  about  38^  2'  E.,  its  extent  being  IJ  miles  east  and 
west,  by  three-quarters  of  a  mile  north  and  south,  with  a  least  depth 
of  3^  fathoms.  There  are  several  knolls  with  from  4^  to  5  fathoms 
on  them. 

A  patch  of  6  fathoms  lies  5  miles  E.  ^  S.  of  Pantaloon  shoal ;  these 
shoals  are  steep-to. 

Acorn  patoll,  in  lat.  17°  36'  S.,  long,  about  38°  13'  E.,  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  closely  examined,  and  should  be  approached 
with  caution.  H.M.S.  Acorn  touched  lightly  on  it.*  H.M.S.  Dart 
found  5^  fathoms,  and  the  sea  was  observed  breaking  at  a  short 
distance  from  her.  At  a  mile  distance,  all  round  the  shoal,  soundings 
of  from  20  to  40  fathoms  were  found.f 

David  shoals  consist  of  two  rocky  patches  about  midway  between 
Acorn  patch  and  Silva  island.  The  north-eastern  one  of  3^  fathoms 
lies  with  Silva  island,  bearing  E.N.E.  distant  about  18  miles.  The 
western  patch  of  8  fathoms  lies  about  3^  miles  from  the  eastern  one  ; 
they  are  apparently  steep-to. 

Silva  (Mahiazo)  island,  in  lat.  W  18'  S.,  long.  38°  49'  E.,  is 
the  westernmost  of  the  Primeira  islands,  and  about  13  miles  from 
the  coast.J  It  is  composed  of  bare  sand,  about  10  feet  high,  and 
surrounded  by  reefs  which  extend  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile. 
Vessels  may  pass  between  Silva  and  Fogo  in  14  and  15  fathoms, 
keeping  nearest  to  the  latter. 

Fogo  (Malibono)  island,  5  miles  north-eastward  of  Silva 
island,  is  surrounded  by  reefs  which  extends  about  one  mile,  except 

*  Commander  J.  Adams,  B.N.,  1840. 
t  G.  A.  Stabb,  Master,  B.N.,  1852. 
X  Vidal. 
S.O.  10626.  P 


226  KILIMlN  TO  MOZAMBIQUE.  [Chap.  VI. 

on  the  north  side,  which  is  bolder.  It  has  a  few  trees  on  its  north 
end  ;  the  other  part  is  covered  with  short  green  shrub.* 

A  vessel  may  anchor  in  10  fathoms,  at  3  or  4  cables  from  the  beach, 
with  the  centre  of  the  island  bearing  from  S.  by  E.  to  S.  by  W. 

When  standing  from  the  main  land  towards  the  anchorage,  the 
soundings  suddenly  deepen  from  10  to  20  fathoms,  and  then  quickly 
back  to  10  again,  at  about  5  cables  from  the  island.  There  is  no  fresh 
water  to  be  obtained  on  the  island. 

Grown  island,  20  feet  high,  is  about  4  miles  north-eastward  of 
Pogo,  and  8  miles  westward  of  the  Casuarina  island  reefs.  It  is 
composed  of  sand,  with  a  few  grasses  on  it,  and  surrounded  by 
a  reef  to  the  distance  of  half  a  mile.*  The  channels  between  Fogo 
and  Crown  island,  and  between  the  latter  and  Casuarina,  are  clear, 
with  a  depth  of  14  or  15  fathoms. 

Shoal. — The  British  India  steam -vessel  Sokotra,  when  in 
lat.  17°  16'  S.,  long.  39^00'  E.,  passed  over  shoal  ground  in  8  fathoms  ; 
breakers  at  the  time  being  observed  at  quarter  of  a  mile  distant  to 
the  westward. 

Casuarina  (Tanibi)  island  lies  nearly  10  miles  north-eastward 
of  Crown  island  ;  it  is  covered  with  Casuarina  trees,  which  are  high, 
particularly  on  its  north-east  end.  The  reef  surrounding  the  island, 
extends  from  2  to  3  miles  north-east,  south,  and  south-west  from  its 
leaving  a  clear  passage  about  one  mile  wide  between  it  and  the  reefs 
off  Epidendron.  There  is  no  water  on  this  island.  The  timber, 
although  heavy  when  first  cut,  makes  strong  spars,  but  the  trees  are 
not  permitted  to  be  cut  for  firewood. 

Casuarina  road,  between  the  island  and  the  mainland,  forms 
the  best  anchorage  along  this  coast.  If  going  in  from  the  northward, 
keep  Casuarina  open  northward  of  Epidendron,  to  pass  north-west  of 
Barraco  reef  and  the  reef  to  the  eastward  of  it :  the  soundings  are 
regular.  A  vessel  may  anchor  in  8^  fathoms,  with  Casuarina 
S.S.E.  ^  E.  and  Epidendron  E.S.E.,  but  the  best  anchorage,  to  be  out 
of  the  swell,  is  in  9  or  10  fathoms,  about  equidistant  from  the  two 
islands. 

Tides  — It  is  high  water  at  Casuarina  island,  at  4  h.  15  m.  The 
current  runs  generally  south-westward,  but  occasionally  north- 
eastward. 

Epidendron  (Maloa)  island,  the  easternmost  of  the  Primeira 
group,  lies  about  6  miles  from  Macalonga  point.*    The  northern  part 


*  Vidal.    It  is  probable  that  the  vegetation  on  these  isliands  has  somewhat  altered 
in  appearance  since  these  remarks  were  made. 


Chap.  VI.]  PRIMBIRA  ISLANDS— MONA  RIVER.  227 

of  the  island  has  casuarina  trees  on  it,  but  the  southern  part  is 
covered  with  short  shrubs  only,  though  when  seen  from  the  south* 
ward  the  island  appears  as  if  covered  with  trees.  Similar  to 
Casuarina  island  it  has  an  extensive  reef  on  all  sides  except  the 
north-west.  Epidendron  island  dips  from  a  vessel's  deck  at  ^ 
distance  of  about  15  miles. 

Barraoo  reef  lies  about  E.  by  N.  distant  3  miles  from  Epiden- 
dron. There  is  another  small  rocky  patch,  on  which  the  sea  breaks, 
2  miles  farther  in  the  same  direction.*  These  dangers  do  not  appear 
to  have  been  examined. 

OOAST. — ^Rivers. — North-eastward  of  Macalonga  point,  between 
it  and  Angoche,  are  the  Ligonya,  Moma,  Mwaladi,  Laridi,  Namakuti, 
and  Natiti  rivers,  the  last  mentioned  is  the  southern  mouth  of  the 
Angoche.  The  Moma  is  the  most  important  of  these  rivers,  as  it 
possesses  an  anchorage  within,  but  the  bar  is  bad,  (see  below). 

Mount  Oookbum  (Mlungugi),  in  lat.  about  16°  29'  S.,  long. 
38°  55'  E.,  and  the  only  mountain  seen  on  this  part  of  the  coast,  is  a 
remarkable  cone  of  considerable  elevation. 

Moma  Plver,  in  lat.  16°  45'  S.— H.M.S.  Thetis  anchored  in 
August  with  mount  Cockbum  bearing  N.W.  |  N.,  and  Caldeira  point 
N.E.  by  E.  I  E.  in  9  fathoms,  sand  and  mud,  good  holding  ground. 
The  ship  rolled  heavily,  being  kept  broadside  to  the  swell  by  the 
prevailing  current  which  at  this  season  always  sets  along  the  coast  to 
the  south-westward,  with  more  or  less  strength.  The  heavy  rolling 
sea  from  the  southward,  at  times  had  more  the  character  of  rollers 
on  a  bar  than  that  which  might  be  expected  in  an  open  roadstead. 

The  bar  at  the  entrance  of  the  Moma  river  is  a  long  and  heavy  one  ; 
the  best  time  for  crossing  is  said  to  be  the  early  morning,  if 
the  tide  suits.  The  boats  of  the  Thetis  crossed  soon  after  daylight 
without  difficulty.  In  coming  out  in  the  afternoon  most  of  the 
boats  were  in  tow  of*  a  Portuguese  gunboat,  but  the  galley  and 
steam  cutter  which  went  out  separately  encountered  two  or  three 
heavy  rollers  which  nearly  filled  the  former,  the  latter  was  protected 
by  a  canopy.t  There  is  a  capacious  anchorage  inside,  but  on  account 
of  the  bad  bar,  few  coasters  visit  it.J 

Caldeira  point  (or  Black  rock  point),  about  15  miles  eastward 
of  the  Moma,  is  rather  higher  than  the  adjoining  coast.    It  is  fronted 

♦  Vidal. 

t  Capt.  Thoe.  Le  H.  Ward. 

t  Conflul  O'Neill,  X880. 

S.O.  10626.  P  2 


228  kilimAn  to  Mozambique.  [Chap.  VI. 

by  a  ledge  of  flat  rocks,  dry  at  low  water,  and  a  large  black  rock  lies 
about  half  a  mile  north-eastward  of  the  point. 

AngOOta.e  point  (pronounced  Angosha),  at  about  25  miles 
north-eastward  of  Caldeira  point,  is  low,  and  appears  like  a  number 
of  small  sand  hillocks.  It  is  bordered  by  a  dry  sand  bank  in  the 
form  of  a  crescent  at  the  distance  of  about  half  a  mile.  Southward 
of  Angoche  point  are  several  small  inlets,  which  probably  communi- 
cate with  Angoche  river.  At  3  miles  to  the  northward  of  Angoche 
point,  there  was  in  1823  a  remarkable  tree,  resembling  at  a  distance  a 
ship  under  full  sail,  the  most  conspicuous  object  on  this  part  of  the 
coast,  and  visible  from  a  distance  of  12  miles. 

ANQOGHE   ISLANDS— Moma   island   (Pungu   Kopu), 

lying  8  miles  southward  of  Caldeira  point,  is  a  sand  island  from  15  to 
20  feet  high,  surrounded  by  a  reef  which  extends  southward  more 
than  half  a  mile  from  it.* 

A  bank  with  5  fathoms,  bearing  S.W.  by  W.,  9  miles  from  Moma 
island,  was  reported  by  Captain  Wyvill,  of  H.M.S.  Cleopatra  in  1843 

Another  small  bank  appears  on  the  chart  about  2^  miles  S.W.  by  W. 
of  Moma  island  ;  but  we  have  no  information  about  it. 

Oaution. — The  soundings  between  Moma  and  Caldeira  islands  are 
irregular,  and  with  Caldeira  and  Hurd  island  in  line,  the  water  shoals 
in  one  place  to  7  fathoms  and  the  bottom  is  plainly  visible. 

Caldeira  (Kirubi)  island,  in  lat.  16°  38'  S.,  long.  39°  44'  E., 
lies  12  miles  eastward  of  Caldeira  point.  It  is  a  small  sandy  island 
with  a  few  casuarina  trees,  and  surrounded  by  reefs  extending  off 
about  one  mile,  except  on  its  northern  side.* 

Hurd  island,  lying  nearly  6  miles  north-eastward  of  Caldeira 
island,  is  low,  sandy,  and  covered  with  trees.  On  its  east-north-east, 
south,  and  west- south-west  sides  the  reef  extends  off  about  1^  miles. 

Michael  reef  (Fungru  Namakuti),  lies  5  miles  north-east- 
ward of  Hurd  island,  and  about  the  same  distance  from  the  main. 
It  is  a  dangerous  reef  of  rocks  uncovered  at  low  water,  and  1^  miles 
in  extent.     It  should  be  given  a  berth  of  one  mile. 

Walker  island  (Puge  Puge),  lies  about  5  miles  north-east- 
ward of  Michael  reef,  and  2^  miles  off  Angoche  point.  At  high 
water.  Walker  island  shows  only  as  a  small  sand  cay  6  or  8  feet  above 
the  sea.  It  is  surrounded  with  reefs  which  extend  on  its  east,  south, 
and  south-west  sides,  in  some  places,  1|  miles. 

*   Vidal. 


Chap.  VI.]  ANGOOHB  IBLANDB  AND  RIVBR. 

Maftimede  island  (Kislwa  Sidtani  Hassan),  lying  about 
8^  miles  north-eastward  of  Walker  island,  and  nearly  abreast  the 
mouth  of  Angoche  river,  distant  7  miles,  is  a  low  sandy  island,  about 
a  third  of  a  mile  long,  mostly  covered  with  tall  casuarina  trees,  and 
may  be  seen  12  or  15  miles  distant.  A  coral  reef  extends  from  1^  to 
2  miles  north-eastward,  south,  and  south-westward.  On  the  north-west 
side  of  the  island  the  shore  is  fairly  steep  and  the  landing  good. 

H.M.S.  Brisk  anchored  in  10  fathoms,  with  the  centre  of  the 
island,  S.E.  by  S.  distant  9  cables,  the  extremes  of  ^eef  (dry  at  low 
water)  bearing  E.  by  S.,  and  South  nearly.  This  is  a  good  safe 
anchorage,  but  not  over  smooth  ;  a  berth  nearer  the  island  may  be 
chosen  if  desired.  There  is  no  water  on  Mafamede;  it  is  not 
desirable  that  the  trees  should  be  cut  down  for  firewood  on  this  and 
similar  islands,  because  they  are  so  useful  in  showing  their  position. 

A  Sand  patota.,  half  a  cable  in  extent,  bears  N.  |  W.  1^  miles 
from  the  centre  of  Mafamede.  It  has  a  least  depth  of  3^  fathoms  at 
low  water  springs  ;  another  patch  with  5  fathoms  water,  lies  3  cables 
east  of  it,  with  a  channel  of  7  fathoms  between  these  patches. 

ANGOOHE  (Mluli)  RIVER  (pronounced  Angosha).— This 
river  is  about  3  miles  in  width  at  the  entrance,  in  which  there  are 
three  islands,  and  there  is  reported  to  be  a  depth  of  20  feet  over  the 
bar  at  high,  water  springs.  Vessels  of  14  feet  draught  have  crossed  the 
bar.  The  Angoche  is  wide  and  deep  for  20  hiiles,  and  is  reported  by 
the  natives  to  be  navigable  for  small  vessels  for  about  150  miles. 
Considerable  trade  is  carried  on  by  coasters  with  Mozambique. 

The  land  to  the  northward  of  the  river  is  a  low  sandy  cliflp,  topped 
with  trees.  Southward  of  the  river  the  land  is  lower,  with  some 
large  and  remarkable  trees  on  the  south  point,  between  which  and 
another  clump  3  miles  farther  south,  is  a  village.  The  entrance  to 
the  river  is  about  N.  by  W.  from  Mafamede  island,  and  with  the 
clump  of  casuarina  trees  on  Monkey  or  Busio  (the  north-eastern) 
islet,  will  serve  to  identify  it. 

Anchoragre. — There  is  anchorage  in  4  fathoms,  with  Nepatulah 
point  (east  point  of  river)  bearing  N.  by  W.,  and  the  north-east  point 
of  Busio  island  N.W.  by  W.,  not  far  from  the  edge  of  the  bank. 
Large  vessels  should  anchor  farther  to  the  south-eastward  in  about  7 
fathoms. 

Bar. — The  lower  reach  of  the  river  trends  in  an  easterly  direction 
in  a  straight  line  for  10  or  12  miles,  nearly  one  mile  in  width,  the 
main  body  of  water  passing  between  Busio  (Monkey)  island  and  the 
north  shore,  after  which  it  is  deflected  southward  to  the  bar  by  the 


230  kilimAn  to  Mozambique.  [Chap.  VI. 

north-eastern  shoals,  the  bar  being  about  2  miles  from  the  north 
shore,  the  same  distance  from  Monkey  island,  and  with  a  depth  of 
20  feet  at  high  water  springs. 

Dlreotions. — ^To  approach  the  bar,  bring  Nepatulah,  the  east 
point  of  entrance,  to  bear  N.  by  W.,  or  Mafamede  island  S.  by  E., 
and  keep  them  so,  taking  care  in  steering  to  the  northward  to  allow 
for  the  usual  set  to  the  westward.  These  bearings  will  lead  across 
the  bar,  but  the  eye  is  the  only  guide  for  taking  the  deepest  water,  as 
the  bar  is  liable  to  shift,  and  there  are  no  marks  on  shore.  When 
within  the  bar  keep  along  the  north  shore,  and  anchor  abreast 
Parrapalo  settlement  in  6  or  7  fathoms.  With  a  moderate  swell  only, 
the  entrance  will  show  by  the  breakers  on  each  side,  otherwise  the 
bar  should  not  be  attempted.  At  last  quarter  flood  it  is  generally 
smooth  all  over.  It  has  been  said  that  this  bar  may  be  crossed  in 
almost  any  weather,  and  to  be  safer  than  the  Kiliman  or  Inhamissengo. 

When  outside  the  bar  keep  a  good  look  out  for  any  appearance  of 
breakers,  for  there  are  some  patches  of  shoal  ground,  which  breaks 
nearly  one  mile  outside  the  regular  bar.  These  may  be  seen  at  a 
distance  and  avoided. 

There  is  a  boat  channel  westward  of  Busio  (Monkey),  and  which 
may  be  used  with  advantage  when  leaving  the  river  in  moderate 
weather,  as  the  channel  is  winding  and  protected  by  the  breakers  on 
each  side,  but  it  would  "fye  difficult  to  find  when  entering  the  river. 

Busio,  Mbuzl  op  Monkey  Island  and  two  or  three  others 
lie  within  the  bar  and  to  the  southward  of  the  entrance.  An  extensive 
sand  spit  runs  off  from  the  east-north-east  end  of  Monkey  island, 
which  should  be  left  on  the  port  hand  when  entering  the  river. 

The  inner  end  of  Monkey  island  is  well  adapted  for  a  stopping 
place  for  boats,  being  sheltered  and  smooth  water,  with  a  depth  of 
3  fathoms  alongside  a  steep  sandy  beach.  The  boats'  crews  of  H.M. 
ships  Brisk  and  Lyra  encamped  here,  and  found  good  water  in  the 
midst  of  a  remarkable  clump  of  casuarina  trees  on  the  west  end,  by 
digging  a  couple  of  feet.  There  are  casuarina  trees  also  on  the  east 
side  of  the  island,  but  here  no  water  was  found. 

Settlements. — There  is  a  Portuguese  settlement  and  Custom 
house  on  the  north  point  of  the  river,  named  Parrapalo  (Panapato). 
A  large  quantity  of  india-rubber,  ivory,  ebony,  seeds,  gum  copal, 
cocoa-nut  oil,  coir,  and  ground  nuts  are  collected  here,  and  conveyed 
to  Mozambique  by  coasting  craft. 

Angoclie. — The  town  of  Angoche,  built  partly  of  wood  and 
partly  of  stone,  and  situated  on  a  sandy  plain  near  a  creek,  some 


Chap.  VI.]  ANGOCHB  RIVBR— ANTONIO   BANK.  231 

20  miles  up  the  river  on  the  south  bank,  is  protected  by  a  small  fort ;  it 
is  the  residence  of  a  Portuguese  governor,  garrisoned  by  80  Portuguese 
soldiers,  and  contains  about  1,000  inhabitants.  The  number  of 
inhabitants  varies  much  according  to  the  time  of  year,  as  they  are 
principally  engaged  in  trading  to  Zanzibar  and  other  places.  They 
are  generally  armed  with  spears  and  a  few  muskets,  and  are  not  to 
be  trusted.  The  creek  leading  from  the  river  to  the  town  cannot 
be  reached  by  boats  before  half  flood.  The  Sultan  of  Angoche  lives 
in  the  country,  about  6  miles  from  the  town  ;  the  road  to  his  abode 
being  either  a  swamp,  or  composed  of  dry  caked  mud,  according  to 
the  season. 

Winds. — The  usual  sea  breeze  varies  according  to  the  monsoon 
from  E.N.E.  to  S.W.  In  November  it  was  found  to  blow  fresh  at 
E.N.E.,  falling  light  at  night,  and  hauling  to  the  N.N.E.  in  the  early 
morning.  At  this  time  of  year  strong  south-westerly  winds  with  a 
heavy  swell,  and  rainy  weather  occasionally  occur,  this  being  the 
commencement  of  the  rainy  season. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Angoche  at  4h.  Om. ;  springs  rise  10  or  12  feet. 

COAST. — From  the  Angoche  northward,  the  coast  is  composed  of 
sand  hills,  which  increase  in  height  until  reaching  the  south  side  of 
Antonio  river,  where  they  are  said  to  be  300  or  400  feet  high,  and 
have  several  patches  of  bright  red  sand.  The  land  in  the  vicinity  of 
Antonio  river  is  remarkable,  the  northern  side  of  the  river  being  a 
low  sandy  point,  whilst  the  high  sand  hills  on  the  south  side,  partly 
covered  with  vegetation,  form  a  striking  contrast  to  two  rocky  points 
4  or  5  miles  to  the  southward  of  the  river. 

Nanduma  hills,  from  2,000  to  3,000  feet  high,  are  charted  about 
15  miles  from  the  coast,  and  should  be  conspicuous  objects  from 
seaward. 

Antonio  (Veve  or  Jamaguva)  bank  is  a  coral  bank,  about 

21  miles  long,  north-east  and  south-west,  by  1|^  miles  wide,  with 
some  dry  sandy  patches  on  its  south-west  end,  and  steep-to. 

Its  dry  portion  is  charted  in  lat.  16°  9'  S.,  long.  40^  10'  E.,  or  with 
Buzio  island,  Angoche  river,  bearing  W.  by  S.,  distant  13  miles, 
but  its  position  is  not  correctly  known. 

About  midway  between  Antonio  bank  and  the  shore  is  a  shoal  of 
3  fathoms  or  less,  rendering  it  advisable  to  pass  seaward  of  Antonio 
bank. 

About  5  or  6  miles  off  the  coast,  abreast  Antonio  river,  are  several 
patches  or  ridges  of  5  fathoms,  with  the  bottom  distinctly  visible. 


232  KILIMAN  to  MOZAMBIQUE.  [Chap.  VI. 

Oaution. — ^At  night  it  is  advisable  not  to  stand  into  less  than  20 
fathoms  between  Angoche  and  Mozambique,  as  the  banks  are  mostly 
steep-to,  and  the  coast  is  but  imperfectly  known. 

ANTONIO  RIVER  lies  about  22  miles  northward  of  Angoche. 
Its  south  point  is  in  lat.  15**  57'  S.,  long.  40°  9'  E.» 

Its  entrance  is  fronted  by  a  bar  apparently  about  one  mile  in 
breadth,  with  a  depth  of  3  feet  at  low  water,  or  about  16  feet  at  high 
water  springs.  Within  the  entrance  the  river  turns  sharply  to  the 
southward,  with  depth  of  from  2  to  4  fathoms  at  low  water. 

Settlement. — About  3  miles  within  the  entrance,  on  the  southern 
shore,  is  the  settlement  of  Shangaji,  which  carries  on  a  considerable 
trade  with  Mozambique,  similar,  though  of  less  extent,  to  that  from 
the  Angoche  river. 

Direotions. — The  Tamarisk  trees  on  the  north  point  of  entrance, 
bearing  W.N.W.,  lead  in  the  best  water  over  the  bar.  It  was  formerly 
stated  (1862),  to  be  only  fit  for  boats,  but  many  small  trading  craft 
now  enter  the  river. 

COAST.— Huddart  shoal,  the  centre  of  which,  in  lat.  15°  46^'  S., 
long.  40°  26'  E.,  is  about  7  miles  off  shore,  and  19  miles  north- 
eastward of  Antonio  river.f  Captain  Vidal  passed  over  this  shoal  in 
3^  fathoms,  but  thinks  there  is  less  water  in  places,  as  the  sea  some- 
times breaks.     ' 

MOGINKWALE  POINT  AND  RIVER.  —  Namalungo 
(Moginkwale)  point  at  26  miles  north-eastward  of  Antonio  river, 
is  a  high  sandy  bluff,  well  wooded  ;  a  reef  of  rocks  and  sand  bank 
fringes  it  to  the  distance  of  about  half  a  mile.  From  abreast  the 
point,  the  -  distant  land  behind  is  rather  high,  and  that  close  to  the 
beach  low  and  sandy,  with  casuarina  trees  upon  it.  The  sandy 
beach  is  broken  in  places  with  openings  like  the  mouths  of  small 
rivers.  The  entrance  to  the  river  Moginkwale  lies  about  5  miles 
northward  of  the  point,  and  a  depth  of  2^  fathoms  can  be  carried 
over  the  bar  at  high  water  springs,  but  there  are  often  heavy  rollers 
on  the  bar  without  any  apparent  cause.J 

The  Portuguese  have  a  military  station  here. 

Ohataputa  or  Moginkwale  shoals  lie  off  the  Moginkwale 
river,  about  4^  miles  from  the  line  of  coast.  They  consist  of  several 
rocky  patches,  on  which  the  sea  generally  breaks.  Their  extent 
is  not  known. 

*  See  plan  of  Antonio  river  on  chart  No.  1810. 

t  Vidal. 

X  See  plan  of  Moginkwale  entrance  on  Chart  No.  1810. 


Ohap.  VI.]  ANTONIO  RIVER— NAKIBU  SHOAL.  233 

Barraoouta  point,  about  4  miles  north-eastward  of  Moginkwale 
entrance,  is  extremely  low,  has  a  remarkable  tree  on  it,  and  forms 
the  northern  point  of  Barawa  or  Manamitya  river,  which  appears 
barred  and  shallow.* 

A  horse-shoe  reef  extends  nearly  2  miles  from  the  point.  On 
some  parts  of  the  reef  there  is  but  a  depth  of  7  or  8  feet,  whilst 
within  the  horse-shoe,  which  opens  to  the  north-west,  there  is 
5  fathoms. 

In  January,  1875,  the  Thetis  anchored  about  7  miles  off  this  point 
in  15  fathoms,  hard  sandy  bottom,  with  Bajone  shoal  North,  about 
4  miles  ;  a  shoal  was  observed  about  one  mile  west  of  this  anchor- 
age, and  the  bottom  generally  in  this  locality  is  foul.  The  Thetis 
swung  regularly  with  the  tide,  at  this  anchorage,  the  ebb  running 
northward  and  the  flood  southward. 

MXJITE  RIVER.— The  Infuss^  Bar  is  the  chief  entrance  to 
Muite  river,  and,  from  its  being  the  most  important  one,  it  some- 
times gives  its  name  to  the  lagoon  system  within.  It  is  said  to  have 
a  depth  of  16  feet  on  the  bar  at  high  water.j 

The  Muite  and  other  streams  within  the  bar  are  usually  navigable 
for  dhows  at  high  water,  though  crossing  the  bar  is  attended  with 
some  anxiety.  These  streams  are  intersected  by  creeks  lined  with 
mangrove  bushes,  and  divided  by  large  tracts  of  low  land,  partly 
inundated,  on  which  are  several  villages  surrounded  by  cultivated 
land.  Mokolivolane,  on  one  of  the  southern  streams,  is  apparently 
the  principal  village. 

Bajone  shoal,  in  lat.  15°  28^'  S.,  long.  40^  39'  E.,  lies  about 
3^  miles  off;  Infusse  bar.  It  is  a  patch  of  rocks  having  5  fathoms 
water,  or  less,  with  14  fathoms  close-to.*  A  patch  of  4f  fathoms  is 
charted  between  it  and  Barracouta  point. 

NAKIBU  SHOAL. — From  about  2  miles  northward  of  Infusse 
bar,  the  coast  is  fronted  by  foul  ground,  with  patches  of  one  fathom, 
or  less,  for  a  distance  of  10  miles,  at  which  distance  it  extends  about 
4  miles  off  shore.  Here  at  its  north-eastern  extremity  is  a  cluster  of 
rocks,  named  Nakibu  shoal,  1^  cables  in  extent,  in  parts  uncovered  at 
low  water,  and  generally  breaking  heavily ;  it  lies  with  Namarema 
river  bearing  W.  by  N.,  distant  5  or  6  miles.  Bajone  point  bearing 
N.W.  by  N.,  apparently  leads  well  eastward  of  it. 

•  Vidal. 

t  See  plan  of  Infusse  bar  on  Chart  No.  1810.  Infomlatio^  from  Foreign  Office 
letter,  September,  1886. 


234  KILIMiN  TO  MOZAMBIQUB.  [Chap.  Yl. 

Bajone  point  or  Ras  Mtende  is  low,  sandy,  and  covered  with 
trees  to  the  beach.  It  should  be  given  a  wide  berth.  The  coast 
from  Bajone  point  to  Madge  point,  Mokambo  bay,  is  foul  and 
apparently  shallow. 

MOKAMBO  BAY  is  formed  between  Bajone  and  Sancoul 
points,  9  miles  apart.  This  bay  is  deep  and  unfit  for  anchoring, 
but  there  is  a  spacious  basin,  named  port  Mokambo  at  its  head.  The 
north  shore  of  the  bay  should  be  given  a  berth  of  about  2  miles  to 
clear  Peel  bank,  which  extends  southward  a  considerable  distance 
from  some  remarkable  looking  rocks  on  the  beach.  This  low  shore 
should  not  be  approached  at  night,  as  the  water  is  deep  close  to  the 
reefs.    The  south  shore,  also,  as  before  mentioned,  is  apparently  foul.* 

Mudgre  reef  extends  1|  miles  E.  by  N.  ^  N.  from  Mudge  point 
(Ras  Kisarahondo) ;  the  latter  being  nearly  an  island  connected  to 
the  main  by  a  neck  of  land  which  is  just  awash  at  high  water. 
Mudge  reef  lies  much  in  the  fairway  of  the  entrance  to  port 
Mokambo,  but  having  passed  north-eastward  of  it,  bring  William 
point,  open  of  Mudge  point,  which  will  lead  westward  of  the  reef ;  the 
north-west  face  of  Mudge  point  is  steep-to. 

PORT  MOKAMBO,  or  Kivolani  bay,  is  a  spacious  basin  4  miles 
in  diameter,  comparatively  free  from  shoals,  and  with  depths  in  most 
places  of  from  10  to  15  fathoms. 

Reef^. — The  eastern  side  of  the  port  from  William  point  to 
Kivolani  village,  is  bordered  by  a  flat  with  1^  fathoms  water  on  its 
edge.f  On  the  western  side  of  the  port  are  rocky  shoals  with 
1^  and  2  fathoms  water,  extending  IJ  miles  in  a  north-east  and  south- 
west direction.  Between  these  reefs  and  Kivolani  there  is  anchoring 
space  of  about  2  miles,  with  from  8  to  15  fathoms  water. 

The  entrance  to  the  port,  IJ  miles  in  width,  is  between  Mokambo 
point  or  Ras  Fugu,  and  Mudge  and  William  points ;  the  channel 
between  is  clear,  with  the  exception  of  the  reef  off  William  point. 
William  point  is  conspicuous^  with  a  projecting  reef  dry  at  low  water 
to  the  distance  of  3  cables.  A  detached  reef  with  about  3  feet  at  low 
water,  lies  two-thirds  of  a  mile  nearly  N.W.  by  N.  of  William 
point.J 

Directions. — To  enter  port  Mokambo,  bring  Mokambo  peak,  135 
feet  high,  on  the  north  shore  of  the  port,  to  bear  W.  by  N.  ^  N.,  and 

*  See  Admiralty  plans — Gonducia,  Mozambique,  and  Mokambo  ports.  No.  653; 
scale,  m=  0*8  inch, 
t  Owen. 
t  W.  J.  Wheeler,  Master,  R.N.,  1840. 


Chap.  VI.]  MOKAMBO  BAY  AND  PORT.  235 

then  steer  for  it.  This  line  will  lead  a  long  half  mile  southward  of 
Peel  bank  and  nearly  the  same  distance  northward  of  Mudge  reef. 
When  William  point  is  open  of  Mudge  point,  keep  in  mid-channel. 

If  proceeding  to  the  north  side  of  the  port,  Mokambo  point  may 
be  passed  close  to,  in  deep  water.  A  sand  flat  fills  the  bay  close 
westward  of  Mokambo  point,  partly  dry  at  low  water.  A  vessel 
may  steer  along  the  edge  of  these  flats  by  the  lead  to  the  north  shore, 
or  keep  some  trees  on  Mudge  point  open  of  Mokambo  point,  hauling 
in  and  anchoring  in  8^  fathoms,  with  a  red  house  in  the  village  at 
Lungo  river  bearing  N.  ^  W.,  and  Mokambo  point  S.E.  by  E.  In 
this  position,  a  vessel  will  be  about  4  cables  from  the  beach  where 
the  village  stands,  and  about  2  cables  north-eastward  of  the  rocky 
shoal,  which  extends  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  eastern  shore, 
south-west  of  the  village,  and  which  at  low  water  has  only  one  foot 
on  the  shoalest  part. 

If  proceeding  to  the  southern  side  of  the  port :  from  mid-channel 
between  Mokambo  and  Mudge  points,  steer  about  West,  giving 
William  point  a  berth  of  one  mile,  or  bring  Mokambo  point  to  bear 
eastward  of  N.E.  until  William  point  bears  S.E. ;  a  vessel  may  anchor 
in  14  fathoms,  with  Mokambo  peak  bearing  N.  by  E.  and  William 
point  N.E.  by  E.  i  E. 

Mokambo  is  governed  by  an  independent  chief,  but  there  is  a 
colony  of  Arabs  who  monopolize  the  trade. 

At  a  village  S.S.W.  from  the  southern  anchorage,  there  is  a  small 
well  under  a  tree.  By  digging  the  well  deeper,  and  the  use  of  the 
fire  engine,  6  tons  of  water  per  day  were  obtained. 

Supplies. — Supplies  of  poultry  and  vegetables  were  plentiful,  and 
the  native  chief  of  the  village  at  Lungo  river  filled  our  water  casks^  on 
the  beach,  for  three-quarters  of  a  dollar  a  ton.  This  is  the  best  way  to 
water,  as  the  entrance  of  that  river  is  very  shallow,  only  admitting 
small  boats,  which  makes  watering  tedious,  and  exposes  the  crew,* 

Tumonia  river,  in  the  south-west  comer  of  port  Mokambo,  is 
about  5  or  6  miles  from  the  entrance,  and  has  good  depths  for  small 
craft  ;t  its  mouth  is  fronted  by  shoals,  but  there  are  depths  of  4 
fathoms  between  them  and  the  river. 

It  has  been  reported  that  there  are  hot  springs  about  3  miles  from 
the  mouth  of  the  river. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  port  Mokambo  about 
the  same  time  as  in  Mozambique  harbour,  viz. :  at  4  h.  15  m. ;  and 
the  rise  and  fall  at  springs  12  feet. 

*  Commander  E.  Peel,  R.N.,  1846.  f  Owen. 


236 


CHAPTER  VII. 

MOZAMBIQUE  HARBOUR  TO  CAPE  DELGADO. 
(Lat.  15°  S.  to  lat.  10°  40'  S.) 


VARIATION  IN  1889  :— 

Mozambique 14°    0'  W. 

Pombabay 13°    0' W. 

Ibo  island     -        -        -  -        -  12°  30' W. 

Cape  Delgado  -        -        -        -  11°  30'  W. 


MOZAMBIQUE  HARBOUR.  —  Mozambique  is  the  head 
quarters  of  the  Portuguese  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa.  The  harbour  is 
formed  by  an  inlet  5^  miles  in  length,  and  the  same  in  breadth,  receiv- 
ing the  waters  of  three  small  streams  at  its  head.  At  the  entrance  are 
the  islands  of  St.  George  and  St.  Jago,  and  farther  in  the  island  of 
Mozambique,  which,  together  with  reefs  and  shoals,  render  the 
anchorage  perfectly  safe  (except  perhaps  during  a  hurricane)  for  all 
classes  of  vessels  ;  but  too  much  dependence  must  not  be  placed  on 
the  chart,  as  the  depths  in  places  are  stated  to  have  shoaled  since 
the  original  survey.  The  North  channel  is  buoyed  and  lighted,  and 
should  be  always  taken  by  large  vessels. 

Landmarks. — The  land  is  all  low  about  Mozambique  harbour, 
and  for  about  10  miles  north  and  south  of  it,  but  St.  George  island 
and  lighthouse,  and  fort  St.  Sebastian  with  its  high  flagstaff  and 
Portuguese  flag  on  the  eastern  extreme  of  Mozambique  island,  are 
conspicuous  objects  from  seaward.*- 

Pao  mountain,  situated  about  23  miles  west-north-westward,  and 
Table  mountain,  about  19  miles  northward  of  Mozambique  island, 
are  remarkable  in  clear  weather  ;  Pao  (Matipa)  may  be  likened  to  a 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  of  Mozambique  harbour.  No.  652,  scale  m=2*0  inches  ;  and 
sheet  <Jf  plans,  No.  653.  Also  charts  : — Mozambique  to  Ras  Pekawi,  No.  1,809,  scale 
018  inch  ;  and  Comoro  islands  with  the  adjacent  coasts  of  Africa  and  Madagascar, 
No.  2,762. 


Chap.  YII.]    MOZAMBIQUB  HARBOUR.— ISLANDS  AND  RBBFS.        237 

small  round-topped  hill  on  top  of  a  larger  one  ;  it  is,  however,  not 
often  visible.  Table  (Meza)  mountain,  1,095  feet  above  the  sea,  in 
lat.  W  42|'  S.,  long.  40°  38^  E.,  appears  as  a  long  flat  hill  on  top 
of  a  longer  ridge  of  land,  also  flat-topped.  When  seen  at  a  distance, 
only  the  upper  part  of  the  mountain  is  visible,  and  it  then  makes 
like  a  flat  island. 

When  approaching  Mozambique,  frequent  observations  should  be 
made  for  latitude  if  a  bearing  of  these  mountains  cannot  be  taken,  as 
the  currents  are  uncertain. 

OurrentS. — A.  current  generally  runs  to  the  southward  off  Mozam- 
bique, varying  from  2  to  4  knots,  which  extends  from  near  the  outer 
reefs  of  Mozambique  to  50  or  80  miles  from  land,  being  at  its 
maximum  during  the  strength  of  the  north-east  monsoon,  and 
vice  versa.  In  July  and  August,  southerly  monsoon  period,  on  some 
occasions,  no  current  has  been  experienced ;  also  close  in-shore  a 
counter  current  has  been  met  with  :  therefore,  the  prevailing  monsoon 
should  be  considered  when  attempting  to  allow  for  the  current. 
See  page  24. 

ISLANDS  AND  REEFS  IN  THE  APPROACHES.— 
Sanooul  point,  the  south-west  point  of  Mozambique  inlet,  has  a 
few  huts  on  it.  All  the  land  between  Mokambo,  Sancoul,  and  Calombo, 
at  the  head  of  the  inlet,  is  low. 

Sanooul  sands,  which  cover  at  three-quarters  flood,  and  extend 
from  Sancoul  point  to  Kisumbo  point,  are  in  places  distant  one  mile 
from  the  shore. 

Mozambique  flat  is  a  great  coral  bank  which  fills  the  whole 
space  between  Sancoul  and  Kisumbo  points  on  the  coast,  and  the 
islands  of  St.  Jago  and  Mozambique.  This  flat  has  in  most  places 
from  7  to  9  feet  at  low  water  spring  tides,  and  small  vessels  may  at 
most  times  pass  over  it,  but  the  sea  generally  breaks  heavily  on  the 
south  edge  between  Sancoul  point  and  St.  Jago  island. 

St.  Qeorgre  (Qoa)  island,  lying  immediately  in  the  approach 
to  Mozambique  harbour,  is  a  flat  coral  island  about  half  a  mile  in 
diameter,  2^  miles  south-eastward  of  fort  St.  Sebastian ;  it  is  very 
low,  without  trees,  and  is  not  visible  from  deck  until  within  5  miles  ; 
there  is  a  square  lighthouse  on  the  eastern  side,  and  a  white  conical 
beacon  on  that  extreme  of  the  island.  The  island  is  encircled  by  a 
reef  except  near  its  north-west  extreme.  This  reef  extends  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  off  the  north-east  point,  and  rather  more  from  the  north- 
west point,  in  a  south-west  direction.  In  the  North  channel  the 
flood  tide  sets  towards  St.  George  island  reef.    See  light,  page  240. 


238  MOZAMBIQUE  HARBOUR.  [Chap.  VII. 

St.  JagO  island  (De  Sena)  is  abont  the  same  size  and  descrip- 
tion as  St.  George  island,  but,  being  wooded,  is  visible  at  a  greater 
distance.  It  lies  about  1^  miles  south-westward  of  St.  George,  with 
a  passage  between  of  about  one  mile  in  width,  with  depths  of  7  to  10 
fathoms.  The  island  is  surrounded  by  a  reef  which,  in  places, 
extends  to  a  distance  of  3  cables. 

Ooral  knolls. — There  are  three  coral  knolls,  named  A,  fi,  and 
C,  in  the  outer  bay  of  Mozambique,  within  St.  George  island,  with 
depths  of  2^^  to  2|  fathoms ;  and  a  patch  of  4J  fathoms,  at  3  cables 
northward  of  0,  close  northward  of  which  is  the  fairway  of  North 
channel.    B  and  C  lie  near  the  fairway  of  South  channel.* 

Tree  island  or  Sete  Pans  (fully  described  on  page  243),  to  the 
northward  of  the  entrance  of  the  harbour,  may  be  known  by  its 
having  straggling  trees  on  its  north-east  extreme,  none  elsewhere. 
The  two  islets  southward  of  it  have  no  trees. 

Harpshell  spit  is  the  south-west  extreme  of  the  foul  ground 
which  surrounds  Cabecinha  point,  the  north  point  of  entrance  to  the 
harbour,  the  shallotv  water  extending  nearly  H  miles  from  the  point. 
At  low  water  it  shows  plainly,  and  can  be  traced  at  times  by  the  eye 
even  at  high  water,  but  in  the  absence  of  the  buoys  it  would  be 
dangerous.  The  harbour  authorities  state  that  the  spit  extends 
farther  to  seaward  during  continued  southerly  winds. 

St.  Sebastian  spit  projects  a  quarter  of  a  mile  eastward  of  the 
fort.    At  low  water  this  spit  is  clearly  visible  and  often  dry. 

Leven  bank,  in  Mozambique  harbour,  is  about  7  cables  in  length, 
5  cables  in  width,  and  with  a  least  depth  of  1^  fathoms ;  it  forms  the 
north  side  of  the  harbour,  and  reduces  the  anchorage  limits  for 
moderate  draught  vessels  to  the  width  of  about  one  cable.  Its 
probable  eastern  limit  lies  about  3  cables  N.N.W.  of  fort  St.  Sebastian. 

MOZAMBIQUE  ISLAND  AND  CITY. —Mozambique 
island,  on  which  stands  the  city,  is  formed  of  coral,  low  and  narrow, 
and  about  1^  miles  long.  It  lies  nearly  mid-way  between,  and  just 
within  the  line  connecting  the  headlands  of  Cabeceira  and  Sancoul ; 
but  the  only  ship  channel  to  the  harbour  leads  eastward  of  the  island, 
where,  in  the  narrows,  between  San  Sebastian  and  Harp-shell  spits, 
it  is  less  than  3  cables  wide. 

Mozambique  island  is  covered  with  stone  buildings ;  the  streets  are 
fairly  wide  and  well  kept.  The  Governor  General's  palace  is  an 
extensive  building,  and  in  front  of  it  there  is  a  wharf. 

*  Mr.  Luke,  master  of  H.M.S.  Boseawen,  endeayuored  to  find  G  patch,  but  without 
success,  and  ii  of  opinion  that  it  does  not  exist. 


;i 


Chap.  VII.]  CITY— SUPPLIES— TRADE.  239 

The  population  (1885)  of  Mozambique  may  be  about  8,000,  including 
the  garrison  about  200,  Arabs,  Banians,  and  negroes.  There  are  but 
few  Portuguese  except  those  holding  official  positions,  and  no  British 
merchants.  The  natives  live  outside  the  town  proper ;  their  houses 
are  well  built,  thatched  and  numbered. 

Forts. — St.  Sebastian  fort  is  the  most  prominent  feature  on  the 
island.  It  was  built  in  1508-11  by  the  Portuguese,  and  is  of  a 
quadrangular  form,  nearly  70  feet  high.  None  of  the  guns  exceed 
18-pounders  in  size.  See  lights,  page  240.  Lorenzo  fort  is  built  on  a 
small  isolated  rock  off  the  south-west  extremity  of  the  island,  to 
which  at  low  water  it  is  joined  by  a  coral  flat. 

Position.— St.  Sebastian  fort  flagstaff  is  in  lat.  15°  0'  45"  S., 
long.  40^44' 45"  E. 

Telegrapll. — Mozambique  is  connected  with  Cape  Colony  by 
submarine  cable,  via  Natal,  and  with  Aden  vi^  Zanzibar.  For 
Mails  see  page  8. 

Landing  iiiay  be  effected  in  boats  at  the  wharf  in  front  of  the 
Governor  General's,  except  at  near  low  water  springs.  There  is  a 
small  jetty  in  front  of  the  Custom  house,  with  still  less  water. 

Supplies. — Fresh  beef,  vegetables,  and  bread  are  procurable  in 
moderate  quantities.  Fowls,  oranges  and  other  fruits  are  plentiful. 
There  is  a  good  general  hospital. 

Water. — There  is  a  Government  water  tank,  with  pump,  which 
can  be  borrowed  by  applying  to  the  guardship  ;  the  tank  is  filled 
by  the  prisoners  at  San  Sebastian  fort.  There  are  other  watering 
places  for  the  use  of  the  town  and  merchant  vessels ;  water  is  brought 
alongside  for  about  two  dollars  a  ton. 

Coal. — From  800  to  1,000  tons  of  coal  are  usually  in  stock  at 
Mozambique.  Coal  is  brought  alongside  in  lighters ;  labour  is 
plentiful,  but  delay  may  be  caused  in  loading  the  lighters,  as  they 
cannot  lie  at  the  wharf  at  near  low  water.  The  assistance  of  a  steam 
cutter  to  tow  the  lighters  will  expedite  coaling. 

Repairs. — Coasting  craft  of  small  burthen  are  built  here,  and 
vessels  may  be  repaired,  chiefly  by  negro  workmen,  with  the  timber 
of  the  country  ;  there  is  a  Government  factory  for  repair  of  machinery, 
but  only  those  of  the  smallest  kind  can  be  executed.  There  are  no 
docks. 

Trade. — The  articles  exported  are  : — Ivory,  calomba  root,  oil  seeds, 
india-rubber,  wax,  gold  (from  Sofala)  in  small  quantities,  ambergris, 
amber  and  grain.    The  imports  are  principally  cattle,  rice,  cotton  goods 


240  MOZAMBIQUE   HARBOUR.  [Chap.  Vll. 

of  all  descriptions,  and  powder  for  barter  with  the  natives.  The 
value  of  the  exports  in  1885  amounted  to  £226,000,  and  the  imports 
to  £310,000.  720  vessels  entered  the  port,  of  the  aggregate  tonnage  of 
94,000.  Trade  is  not  brisk,  owing  chiefly  to  the  restrictions  and  heavy 
Custom  house  duties,  and  also  to  the  extreme  unhealthiness  of  the 
port. 

Climate. — The  climate  of  Mozambique  is  unhealthy.  Fevers, 
malarious  and  bilious,  are  prevalent,  against  which  the  best  pre- 
cautions are  temperate  living  and  abstinence  from  alcoholic 
stimulants.    Winds,  see  page  242. 

Rain. — ^The  rainy  season  is  from  November  to  March  ;  see  page  20. 

LIQHTS. — From  a  square  tower,  painted  white,  on  St.  George 
island  is  exhibited,  at  an  elevation  of  66  feet  above  high  water,  a 
fixed  white  light,  visible  in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  15 
miles. 

Leading  ligrhts.— Attached  to  the  flagstaff  of  fort  St.  Sebastian 
is  an  iron  scaffolding,  from  which,  at  an  elevation  of  42  feet  above 
high  water,  is  exhibited  a  fixed  green  light,  visible  in  the  direction 
of  the  bar  from  a  distance  of  4  miles.  At  the  distance  of  605  feet, 
N.  63°  W.,  from  the  light  at  the  flagstaff,  on  the  west  side  of  the  fort, 
is  a  similar  fixed  green  light,  elevated  69  feet,  and  visible  4  miles. 
These  lights  in  line  lead  through  North  channel. 

At  Cabeceira  Grande,  from  a  turret  near  a  white  house,  is  exhibited, 
at  an  elevation  of  35  feet  above  high  water,  a  fixed  red  light,  visible 
5  miles.  A  fixed  red  light  is  exhibited  from  the  red  and  white 
beacon  on  Harpshell  sands,  at  an  elevation  of  11  feet  above  high 
water,  and  is  visible  in  the  direction  of  the  bar  about  5  miles.  It  is 
situated  S.  13°  E.,  distant  1^^  miles  from  Cabeceira  Grande  light. 
These  red  lights  in  line,  bearing  N.  13°  W.,  lead  between  Sebastian 
and  Harpshell  spits. 

Two  green  lights,  19  feet  above  high  water,  are  also  shown  from 
the  custom  house  pier. 

Buoys  and  Beaoons. — Red  buoys  mark  the  extreme  of  the 
north-east  spit  of  St.  George  island,  the  north-east  spit  of  St.  Jago 
and  the  north  extremity  of  St.  Sebastian  spit.  Black  buoys  mark  the 
west  spit  of  St.  George  island,  the  two  Harpshell  spits,  and  the  south 
edges  of  Leven  bank ;  a  small  black  buoy  with  beacon  lies  about 
2  cables  within  the  eastern  edge  of  Leven  bank.  A  red  and  white 
beacon  (see  lights)  stands  near  the  edge  of  Harpshell  sands,  at 
1^  miles  N.  ^  E.  from  fort  Sebastian  flagstaff. 


Cfhap  VII.]  LIGHTS— DIRECTIONS.  241 

On  entering  Mozambique  harbour,  the  black  buoys  should  be  left 
on  the  starboard  hand,  and  the  red  buoys  on  the  port  hand. 

Too  much  reliance  must  not  be  placed  upon  the  buoys  maintaining 
the  positions  shown  on  the  charts. 

Pilots. — ^When  proceeding  into  Mozambique,  a  pilot  may  probably 
board  the  vessel  some  distance  inside  St.  George  island,  but  by 
attention  to  the  directions  the  pilot's  services  may  be  dispensed  with. 

DIRECTIONS.— On  account  of  the  strong  current  oflE  Mozam- 
bique, which  usually  (though  not  always)  sets  to  the  southward  from 
2  to  4  knots  an  hour,  vessels  should  make  the  land  well  to  the  north- 
ward, especially  during  the  northerly  monsoon ;  and  in  the  event  of 
a  sailing  vessel  being  swept  to  the  southward  of  her  port,  she  should 
at  once  stand  to  the  eastward  for  60  miles  or  more,  and  regain  her 
northing  beyond  the  influence  of  the  southerly  current. 

Vessels  of  large  draught  should  use  the  North  channel  only. 

North  channel. — If  approaching  from  the  northward,  keep  the 
south-east  side  of  St.  Jago  open  eastward  of  St.  George  island,  to 
avoid  the  reefs  off  cape  Cabeceira  and  Tree  island,  and  when  fort 
St.  Sebastian  flagstaff  bears  N. W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  steer  for  it,  passing 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  northward  of  the  red  buoy  on  St.  George 
spit,  and  leaving  the  black  buoys  on  the  starboard  hand.  When  the 
red  and  white  beacon  on  the  Harpshell  sands  is  in  line  with  a  large 
white  bouse  on  Cabeceira  Grande,  or  with  Cabeceira  light  structure 
(but  it  is  not  easily  seen)  bearing  N.  by  W  |^  W.,  steer  for  it  until 
the  custom  house  pier  comes  in  sight,  when  the  course  should  be 
gradually  altered  to  the  westward,  steering  for  the  outer  end  of  the 
custom  house  pier  bearing  W.  by  S.  ^  S.,  until  abreast  of  fort 
Sebastian,  thence  about  W.  by  S.  a  short  distance,  anchoring  as  con- 
venient. In  going  through  the  narrows  abreast  the  fort,  be  quick 
with  the  helm,  and  make  due  allowance  for  the  tide,  which  runs 
strong.    The  flood  sets  towards  Leven  bank. 

A  sailing  vessel  becalmed  may  anchor  in  North  channel  in  depths 
of  6  to  12  fathoms,  coral  bottom ;  but  there  are  many  deep  holes 
within  one  mile  of  fort  St.  Sebastian. 

At  night,  when  about  one  mile  seaward  of  St.  George  island 
light,  bring  the  two  green  lights  on  fort  Sebastian  in  line,  bearing 
N.  W.  by  W.  \  W.,  and  steer  for  them  until  Cabeceira  and  Harpshell 
red  lights  are  coming  on,  when  haul  up  for  them.  These  red  lights 
in  line,  N.  by  W^  J  W.,  will  then  lead  between  Sebastian  and  Harp- 
shell spits,  and  when  the  green  lights  on  the  ^lul  of  Ou#toBa  house 

S.O.  10«26.  Q 


242  MOZAMBIQUB  HABBOUB.  [Chap.  YII. 

pier  come  in  sight,  gradually  haul  to  the  westward,  steering  for 
them  when  bearing  W.  by  S.  i  S.  until  abreast  the  fort,  when 
anchor  as  convenient. 

South,  channel  is  only  suitable  for  light  draught  vessels,  on 
account  of  the  2^  and  2 J-f athom  coral  knolls  lying  near  mid-channel, 
which  are  not  buoyed.  When  approaching  from  the  southward, 
avoid  the  indraught  on  the  flood  into  Mokambo  bay,  thence  keep 
Tree  island  open  eastward  of  St.  George  until  St.  Sebastian  light 
or  flagstaff  bears  N.W.  by  N.  northerly,  when  steer  for  it  until 
Cabeceira  light  bears  N.  by  W.  J-  W.;  then  proceed  as  for  North 
channel. 

Pao  mountain  on  with  the  centre  of  fort  St.  Sebastian  is  said  to 
lead  between  the  two  coral  knolls  above  mentioned. 

Anohorages. — The  usual  outer  anchorage  is  south-eastward 
of  fort  St.  Sebastian,  in  7  or  8  fathoms,  with  the  flagstaff  on  fort 
St.  Sebastian  bearing  N.W.,  distant  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile, 
and  Tree  island  just  open  of  cape  Cabeceira.  Here  a  vessel  will  be 
out  of  the  strength  of  the  tide,  which  runs  with  considerable  force 
through  the  narrows  and  North  channel.  There  are  several  deep 
holes  in  the  outer  anchorage,  which  has  not  been  accurately  sounded, 
and  care  is  necessary  when  bringing  up. 

In  taking  up  a  berth  in  the  harbour,  keep  near  Mozambique 
island,  to  avoid  Leven  bank,  the  nearest  part  of  which  is  but  3 
cables  from  the  island. 

Abreast  the  fort,  the  channel  for  large  vessels  is  but  2  cables  wide. 

A  good  position,  in  about  5  fathoms,  and  2  cables  from  the  shore, 
is  with  the  outer  end  of  the  Custom  house  pier  S.W.  ^  W.,  and  fort 
St.  Sebastian  flagstaff  S.E.  ^  E. 

Considerable  alteration  is  said  to  have  been  caused  by  the  rapid 
tides  which  run  in  Mozambique  harbour,  and  there  is  supposed  to 
be  about  3  feet  less  water  than  is  shown  on  the  chart. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Mozambique  at 
4h.  15m.;  springs  rise  12  feet.  The  tides  run  strong  in  the  harbour— 
the  flood  to  the  westward,  the  ebb  to  the  eastward — ^and  with  sufficient 
strength  at  springs  to  turn  the  ship  against  a  strong  sea  breeze. 

Winds.— The  prevailing  winds  on  the  coast  about  Mozambique 
are  northerly  from  October  to  April,  and  from  the  southward  during 
the  rest  of  the  year.  At  Mozambique,  land  and  sea  breezes  prevail ; 
the  latter  coming  in  about  lOh.  or  llh.  a.m.  from  S.E.  to  South,  shifting 
towards  east  in  the  afternoon.  At  daylight,  the  land  wind  blows 
right  out  of  the  harbour. 


Chap.  VII.]  AN0HORAOB—nDB&— WINDS.  243 

Cyclones  are  experienced  occasionally,  but  at  rare  intervals.  About 
the  latter  end  of  January  of  the  years  1841-2-3,  Mozambique  was 
visited  by  cyclones.  At  one  of  these  periods  the  vessels  drove  from 
their  anchors  and  were  stranded.  From  the  description  of  those  who 
witnessed  them,  the  bottom  of  the  sea  was  agitated  to  such  a  degree 
as  to  heave  and  loosen  the  sand,  rendering  it  impossible  for  the 
anchors  to  hold.  Black  impenetrable  clouds  overhead  produced  a 
darkness  as  during  an  eclipse.  Previous  to  those  visitations,  cyclones 
had  been  unknown  for  40  years. 

Another  cyclone  occurred  on  April  1st  and  2nd,  1858,  on  which 
occasion  the  barometer  fell  to  28*7,  and  seven  out  of  ten  vessels  at 
that  time  in  the  port  were  driven  on  shore  ;  much  damage  was  done 
on  the  island  of  Mozambique  and  surrounding  country.  See  cyclones, 
pages  15, 16. 

Mossoril  bay  is  a  fine  harbour,  within  and  north-westward  of 
Mozambique  island,  about  2J  miles  long  by  IJ  wide,  with  depths  of 
from  4  to  7  fathoms,  and  capable  of  containing  a  large  fleet ;  but  it 
has  only  been  partially  sounded. 

The  north-west  part  of  Mossoril  bay  branches  off  into  three  creeks. 
The  northern  one,  Mossoril  creek,  extends  to  the  isthmus  of  Empassa, 
which  only  separates  it  from  port  Conducia  by  the  distance  of  half  a 
mile.  There  is  a  road  of  communication  for  the  convenience  of 
trading  vessels  lying  in  Conducia. 

The  western  creek  branches  into  two,  Calombo  on  the  west,  and 
Lombu  on  the  south.  The  shores  of  all  these  creeks  are  covered  with 
mangrove. 

THE  COAST. — Oape  Cabeoeira,  a  low  bluff  cliff  with  trees 
on  it,  is  the  south-eastern  extremity  of  the  Cabeceira  peninsula ;  an 
extensive  submerged  coral  flat  surrounds  the  cape  and  the  coast 
northward  and  westward  ;  this  flat  extends  in  some  places  nearly  2 
miles  from  shore,  embracing  the  Tree  islands,  and  scarcely  anywhere 
less  than  one  mile  as  far  as  Conducia  bar.  The  coast  gradually  rises 
to  cape  Conducia,  with  a  sandy  beach  the  whole  way. 

Tree  island,  or  Sete  Paus,  is  the  northernmost  and  largest  of  three 
islands,  situated  on  a  sand-bank  two  miles  in  length  in  a  north  and 
south  direction,  and  just  covered  at  high  water,  at  1\  miles  eastward 
of  cape  Cabeceira,  and  about  one-third  of  a  mile  within  the  edge  of 
the  coral  reef  before  mentioned 

This  reef  extends  IJ  miles  southward  of  the  southern  and  smallest 
islet,  there  forming  the  northern  boundary  of  the  north  channel  into 
Mozambique. 

S.O.  10635.  Q  2 


244  MOZAMBIQUB  HARBOUR  TO  IBO.  [Ohap.  VII. 

Tree  island  has  straggling  trees  on  its  north-east  extreme,  none 
elsewhere.    The  other  two  islets  of  the  group  have  no  trees. 

Oape  Conducia,  the  north-east  extremity  of  the  peninsula  of 
Cabeceira,  is  cliflPy,  and  is  about  200  feet  high ;  the  coast  on  either 
side  is  low  and  sandy. 

Between  Tree  island  and  Conducia  bay  the  soundings  shoal 
gradually  on  approaching  the  shore  reef. 

CONDUCIA  BAY  and  the  port  at  its  head  are  separated  from 
Mozambique  harbour,  by  the  peninsula  of  Cabeceira.*  The  entrance 
of  the  bay  is  6  miles  wide  between  Kitangonia  and  Tree  islands,  with 
deep  water  between.  The  inner  part  of  the  bay,  which  is  the  usual 
anchorage,  has  a  navigable  channel  of  about  1^  miles  wide  between 
Sombrero  islet  and  cape  Conducia,  3  miles  apart,  from  whence  the 
bay  extends  about  6  miles  westward  to  Bar  point,  with  irregular  depths 
of  from  20  to  5  fathoms.  The  soundings  are  more  regular  towards 
the  head  of  the  bay,  decreasing  from  11  to  5  fathoms  within  half 
a  mile  from  the  north  shore.  Kissangula  or  Sombrero  is  a  rocky 
islet  with  trees  in  the  centre. 

The  anchoring  ground  in  the  bay  is  much  reduced  by  sand  and 
coral  flats  all  along  its  south  side,  which  extend  more  than  one  mile 
oflE-shore  between  cape  Conducia  and  the  entrance  to  the  port,  leaving 
a  passage  with  about  4  fathoms  water,  between  its  northern  extremity 
and  the  shallow  water  surrounding  Bar  point.  From  Sombrero  islet 
the  shoal  ground  extends  southward  IJ  miles  ;  and  there  is  a 
3^  fathom  patch,  near  mid  channel,  with  Sombrero  islet  bearing 
E.  by  N.,  and  cape  Conducia  S.  f  E.  Along  the  north  shore  the 
rocks  and  shallow  ground  extend  off  about  half  a  mile. 

Port  Conducia,  at  the  head  of  Conducia  bay,  is  a  land-locked 
harbour,  one  mile  long  by  half  a  mile  wide,  within  Bar  point,  with 
about  4  fathoms  of  water.f 

Conducia  river,  of  which  the  port  is  the  estuary,  has  its  source  in 
in  Table  mountain,  and  is  navigable  for  boats  almost  to  the  foot  of 
the  mountain. 

Bar  point  is  a  dry  narrow  spit  of  sand  with  some  shrubs  on  it ; 
there  is  a  narrow  passage  with  10  fathoms  water  between  it  and  the 
south  shore. 

Directions. — Having  made  the  land  to  the  northward  of  Kitan- 
gonia, on  account  of  the  probable  southerly  set  of  the  current,  coast 

*  See  plan  of  Gonduoia  bay,  No.  658 ;  Boale,  m  =  0*8  of  an  inch, 
t  "  Proyince  of  Mozambiqne,**  Lisbon,  1884. 


Chap.  VII.]  CONDUOIA  BAY  AND  PORT.  245 

as  close  as  convenient  and  haul  round  the  south  point  of  Kitangonia 
at  the  distance  of  three-quarters  of  a  mile,  and  steer  W.  by  S.  ^  S.  for 
cape  Conducia,  which  is  the  north-eastern  cliff  of  the  peninsula  of 
Cabeceira ;  when  the  two  little  points  (which  are  the  only  rocks  to 
the  westward  of  Sombrero  islet)  bear  N.  by  W.  J  W.,  and  Table 
mountain  is  open  to  the  westward  of  them,  steer  N.W.  ^  N.  and 
coast  the  northern  shore  if  wishing  to  go  farther  in.  Sombrero  island 
on  with  Kitangonia  point  appears  a  good  mark  for  running  up  the 
bay  until  Arab  islet  on  the  south  shore  bears  about  S.  by  E. 

If  proceeding  into  the  port  without  a  pilot,  proceed  carefully  along 
the  northern  shore,  with  the  boats  ahead  sounding,  until  near  Bar 
point ;  here  the  channel  is  tortuous,  but  there  is  not  less  than  4 
fathoms  in  mid-channel. 

In  entering  Conducia  bay  from  the  southward,  round  Tree  island 
as  close  as  convenient,  and  steer  for  Table  mountain  just  open  to 
westward  of  the  two  little  points  bearing  N.  by  W.  |  W. ;  and  when 
cape  Conducia  bears  W.S.W.  distant  1|  miles,  steer  about  N.W.  ^  N., 
and  proceed  as  before. 

Do  not  approach  Sombrero  islet  within  1^  miles,  as  the  water 
shoals  very  suddenly. 

Anclioragre. — There  is  a  good  anchorage  in  the  entrance,  in  11 
fathoms,  with  cape  Conducia  S.  by  W.  and  Sombrero  Island  E.N.E. ; 
and  farther  up  the  bay,  in  5  fathoms,  mud,  with  Sombrero  island 
bearing  East,  and  cape  Conducia  S.E.  by  E.  J  E. 

Supplies. — ^There  was  in  April  a  running  stream  at  the  rocky 
points  north-westward  of  Sombrero,  but  watering  was  hard  and  slow 
work,  as  the  water  had  to  be  carried  to  the  boat  in  baricoes,  the  shore 
being  shallow  for  a  long  distance  out ;  at  high  water  there  was  less 
difficulty. 

Fowls,  eggs,  and  oysters,  will  probably  be  obtained  from  the 
natives.  Near  Bar  point  salt  works  have  been  constructed  westward 
of  cape  Choca  (Conducia  ?),  from  whence  it  is  shipped  to  various 
places."* 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  port  Conducia  at 
4h.  15m.;  springs  rise  12  feet. 

THE  COAST.— Kitangonia  (Namalunga)  island  is  about 
two  miles  in  length,  north-east  and  south-west,  by  one  mile  in  width. 
It  forms  the  northern  limit  of  Conducia  bay,  and  may  be  approached 
on  its  eastern  side  to  a  prudent  distance. 

♦  Owen* 


246  MOZAMBIQUB  HARB0X7B  TO  IBO.  [Chap,  VII. 

Port  Velhaco,  formed  on  the  west  side  of  the  point  of  that 
.  name,  and  protected  to  the  southward  by  Kitangonia  island,  is 
better  sheltered  than  Conducia  bay  from  the  strong  north-west 
winds,  which  blow  in  the  latter  end  of  the  northerly  monsoon.  The 
port  appears  not  to  have  been  examined,  but  there  is  a  depth 
of  4  fathoms  in  the  entrance,  between  Yelhaco  point  and  the 
island.* 

Krooai  is  a  large  and  populous  village  situated  on  the  mainland, 
between  the  islands  of  Kroosi  and  Napenja.  Coasters  find  perfect 
shelter  within  the  outlying  reef  (which  must  be  crossed  at  high 
water),  abreast  the  town,  lying  aground  on  the  sand. 

The  coast  from  Eroosi  village  takes  a  northerly  direction  for 
about  14  miles  to  Kisima-Julu  harbour,  backed  by  ranges  of  hills  at 
2  miles  distant.  Janga  village,  on  the  point  of  the  same  name,  lies 
about  midway  .f 

Kiaima- Julu  harbour.— About  18  miles  southward  of  Fernando 
Veloso  bay  is  the  harbour  named  Kisima-Julu.  It  is  much  visited  by 
coasters  engaged  in  the  timber  trade,  which  constitutes  the  chief 
wealth  of  the  adjacent  district.  From  the  entrance,  which  is  about 
one  mile  wide,  it  extends  in  a  north-west  and  west  direction  about 
2^  miles,  thence  in  a  south-west  -direction  about  3  miles.  The 
entrance  channel  between  the  reefs  is  about  200  yards  wide,  with 
a  depth  of  from  3  to  4  fathoms,  and  in  the  harbour,  which  is  about 
one  mile  wide,  the  depths  are  from  4  to  8  fathoms.  As  this  harbour 
has  not  been  surveyed,  caution  is  necessary  when  entering. 

Cape  Melamo  (Kulumlomu),  the  southern  headland  of 
Fernando  Veloso  bay,  is  low,  bluflE,  and  rocky,  and  appears  to  be 
steep-to.  About  2  miles  southward  of  the  cape  the  cliff  terminates 
near  some  conspicuous  casuarina  trees,  thence  the  coast,  about 
300  feet  high,  is  fronted  by  a  high  sandy  beach,  nearly  to  the  entrance 
of  Kisima-Julu  river.  Off  this  beach,  shoal  water  appears  to  extend 
about  3  cables. 

FERNANDO  VELOSO  (Mazazima)  BAY  is  a  spacious 
but  little  frequented  bay,  about  40  miles  northward  of  Mozambique, 
with  port  Nakala  at  its  south-west,  and  Belmore  harbour  at  its  north- 
west corner.  The  bay  is  about  6  miles  across,  between  capes  Mocuo 
and  Melamo,  and  about  8  miles  deep.f 

•  Owen. 

t  See  Admiralty  chart  :— Moiambique  harbour  to  Baa  Pekawi,  No.  1,809,  with 
flketoh  of  Fernando  Veloso  bay. 


Chap.  VII.]  PORT  VBLHACO— FERNANDO  VBL080  BAY.        247 

Foul  ground,  reported  by  H.M.S.  Vulture,  1874,  is  charted  for 
about  3  miles  off  cape  Mocuo  ;  on  the  southern  side,  a  ledge,  which 
dries  at  low  water,  extends  about  half  a  mile  from  shore,  with  from 
7  to  8  fathoms  at  a  short  distance.  The  centre  and  head  of  the  bay 
has  no  bottom  at  from  20  to  40  fathoms.  It  is  advisable  to  keep  the 
southern  shore  aboard  when  entering  or  leaving  the  bay. 

The  land  at  the  head  of  the  bay  is  moderately  high,  with  some 
hummocky  hills,  and  north-westward  of  the  bay  are  some  remarkable 
saddle  hills  and  a  sugar-loaf  peak. 

On  the  northern  side  of  the  entrance,  within  cape  Mocuo,  there  is 
a  very  remarkable  high  hill,  with  a  rather  flat  top,  rising  abruptly 
from  the  land  beneath,  which  is  level,  and  of  moderate  elevation. 
This  is  probably  Loguno,  Nrogi,  or  Kobe  peak,  on  the  chart. 

When  seen  from  the  northward  at  a  distance  of  about  15  miles, 
this  hill  resembles  a  vessel  under  sail  so  closely  as  to  deceive  even 
an  experienced  eye,  but,  on  a  nearer  approach  and  different  bearing, 
it  changes  its  form. 

Anchoragre. — H.M.S.  Mutine  (1846)  anchored  in  8  fathoms 
about  4  miles  within  cape  Melamo,  and  one  mile  off  the  southern 
shore,  abreast  of  a  small  stream. 

Water. — The  Mutine  watered  with  her  own  boats  from  the  stream 
abreast  of  her  anchorage,  obtaining  12  tons  per  day,  but  it  was  rather 
difficult  to  procure. 

Supplies. — Fowls,  goats,  ducks,  and  vegetables  are  to  be  obtained 
in  abundance  ;  also  guinea  fowls,  venison,  and  a  species  of  hare,  but 
it  requires  some  little  time  before  the  natives  acquire  confidence  to 
bring  the  supplies  from  a  distance.  Wood  is  plentiful,  and  easily 
obtained  in  any  part  of  the  bay. 

Tides. — ^The  probable  time  of  high  water,  full  and  change,  is  about 
4h. ;  rise  about  15  feet. 

Port  Nakala. — The  result  of  an  exploration  of  the  south-west 
comer  of  Fernando  Velosa  bay,  formerly  known  as  Fernando  Velosa 
river,  by  Lieut.  H.  O'Neill,  H.B.M.  Consul  at  Mozambique,  has  been 
the  discovery  of  a  capacious  and  landlocked  harbour,  named  port 
Nakala.  From  Nahareni,  the  eastern  point  of  entrance,  it  extends  a 
distance  of  about  9  miles  in  a  S.W.  by  S.  direction,  with  an  average 
breadth  of  1^  miles.  The  entrance  is  about  half  a  mile  in  width, 
with  deep  water  on  the  eastern  side,  but  a  shoal  extends  nearly  half 
way  across  from  the  western  point. 

Its  eastern  shore  rises  in  steep  but  well-wooded  slopes  to  100  or  200 
feet)  with  bold  promontories,  suitable  for  settlements,  catching  every 


848  MOZAMBIQUB  HARBOUR  TO*  IBO.  [Chap.  YII. 

proTailing  breeze  oyer  a  clear  sweep  of  several  miles  of  water,  without 
a  trace  of  mangrove  swamps.  There  are  some  remains  of  the  fortress 
of  Don  Miguel,  on  Nahareni  point,  erected  early  in  this  century. 

Off  Namuhasbi  point,  on  the  western  side  of  the  port,  10  miles 
within  the  entrance,  are  the  Shihubidi  rocks,  covered  at  high  water 
springs,  and  connected  to  the  shore  by  a  reef.  The  water  shoals 
gradually  as  the  head  of  the  port  is  approached,  and  foul  ground 
extends  a  considerable  distance  off  Namusu  point.  There  appears  to 
be  no  difficulty  in  entering  this  port. 

This  used  to  be  a  great  rendezvous  for  slavers,  vessels  being  able 
to  lie  perfectly  unseen  from  seaward,  either  here  or  in  Belmore 
harbour  to  the  northward. 

Belmore  (Nlhegehe)  harbour,  at  the  north-west  comer  of 
Fernando  Veloso  bay,  is  said  to  be,  at  times,  difficult  to  enter,  as  the 
discoloured  water,  caused  by  the  fresh  water  from  a  stream  at  the 
head  of  the  harbour  renders  the  reefs  difficult  to  be  seen ;  the 
tides  also  run  strong,  but  there  is  plenty  of  water  in  mid-channel. 

The  harbour  is  about  4  miles  in  length,  by  one  mile  in  breadth 
throughout ;  the  entrance  channel  is  apparently  reduced  by  reefs 
fringing  the  points  to  a  breadth  of  2  or  3  cables,  with  no  bottom  at 
20  fathoms.  Within  the  entrance,  the  depths  decrease  gradually 
from  about  16  fathoms  towards  the  head  of  the  harbour. 

The  east  shore  of  the  harbour  is  mostly  rocky,  with  sandy  patches, 
until  northward  of  West  cove,  when  it  is  mangrove  swamp  to  the 
head.  The  west  side  is  mangrove  swamp  with  the  exception  of  a 
sandy  bight  just  within  the  entrance,  and  is  a  good  seining  ground. 
Shoal  water  extends  from  the  mangrove  points  on  the  west  side 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 

H.M.S.  Vulture  anchored  off  West  cove  in  7  fathoms,  not  quite 
half  a  mile  from  the  west  shore.  Directly  opposite  this  cove  is  a 
village,  where  a  small  supply  of  vegetables  and  fowls  were  obtained  ; 
but  the  inhabitants  appeared  very  poor. 

There  is  no  trade  in  Belmore  harbour,  and  the  locality  does  not 
seem  to  be  healthy. 

COAST. — ^Plnda  shoal. — From  Fernando  Veloso  bay  to  cape 
Loguno,  little  is  known  of  the  coast,  as  it  is  generally  given  a  wide 
berth,  on  account  of  Pinda  shoal,  which  extends  5  miles  from  the 
coast ;  the  sea  generally  breaks  on  all  parts  of  it,  but  we  have  no 
definite  information  as  to  its  extent  north  and  south  ;  the  north-east 
edge  of  the  reef  appears  to  be  about  East  from  cape  Loguno,  and  its 
southern  end  (towards  which  are  several  patches  of  green  water^ 
which  do  not  always  break),  south-east  or  south  of  cape  Mocuo. 


Ohap.  VII.]  BBLMORB  HARBOUR— BOCAGB  HARBOUR.        249 

The  east  point  of  the  entrance  of  Belmore  harbour  bearing  West, 
and  in  line  with  a  high  hummock  or  round-topped  hill,  appears  to 
lead  just  southward  of  Pinda  shoal. 

Cape  Logruno  (Ras  Mwamba  Koma)  is  the  southern  headland  of 
Memba  bay.  It  is  of  moderate  height,  about  80  feet  near  the  sea, 
level  at  the  top,  with  perpendicular  rocky  cliffs.  It  appears  to  be 
bold-to  on  the  north  side,  but  bordered  eastward  by  Rnda  shoal. 

MEMBA  BAY  (Mwendazi)  is  about  6  miles  wide,  between  capes 
Loguno  and  Tapamanda  (Ras  Umlulu),  and  perhaps  7  or  8  miles  deep, 
with  no  bottom  at  50  fathoms,  in  its  outer  part ;  its  north-western 
arm  is  said  to  afford  good  and  sheltered  anchorage,  but  it  has  not 
been  examined.  The  little  we  know  of  Memba  bay  is  principally 
from  H.M.S.  Nerhiidda^  which  vessel  touched  slightly  on  a  coral  reef 
at  high  water,  going  from  60  fathoms  suddenly  into  2^  fathoms,  but 
no  further  particulars  are  given.  This  reef  extends  from  the  north 
side  of  the  bay  apparently  1\  miles,  and  as  the  account  mentions  that 
it  was  high  water,  it  is  probable  that  at  times  the  reef  is  uncovered. 

The  NerJmdda  appears  to  have  anchored  abreast  of  the  mouth  of 
the  river  Tembo  (Mkubure)  in  12  fathoms,  at  about  one  mile  from  the 
north  shore,  and  one  mile  or  more  westward  of  the  reef  she  touched 
on.  From  this  anchorage  to  the  head  of  the  bay,  sand  flats  border 
the  shore,  extending  a  considerable  distance  in  some  places. 

Bocage  harbour  is  an  inlet  about  3  miles  in  length,  by  one 
mile  in  width,  on  the  south  side  of  Memba  bay.  Near  the  entrance 
there  is  no  bottom  at  60  fathoms  ;  the  depths  in  the  harbour  are  said 
to  be  convenient  for  large  vessels.  This  was  formerly  known  as 
TJmkombari  river.* 

Marenje  is  a  port  and  village  of  some  importance  to  the  coasting 
trade,  situated  about  2  miles  northward  of  Memba  bay. 

COAST* — Landmarks. — From  Memba  bay  to  Sorisa  point,  a 
distance  of  about  37  miles,  the  land  is  more  striking  than  any  other 
part  of  the  coast.  It  is  generally  level  and  of  moderate  elevation, 
about  200  feet,  decreasing  towards  the  coast  where  it  is  low.  From 
the  level  land,  between  latitudes  13°  45'  8.,  and  14°  0'  S.,  several  high 
craggy  peaks,  known  as  the  Sorisa  range,  and  which  Owen  justly 
compares  to  the  ruins  of  some  giant  city,  rise  abruptly  to  a  height  of 
2,000  or  3,000  feet ;  these  peaks  assume  every  variety  of  form  of 
sugar-loaf,  cone,  and  round  or  square  topped  pillars,  in  some  cases 
appearing  to  overhang  from  their  bases.    From  Almeida  bay  to  cape 

•  liabon,  1884. 


250  MOZAMBIQUB  HARBOUR  TO  IBO.  [Chap.  YII. 

Tapamanda,  H.M.S.  Brisk  stood  along:  shore  at  a  distance  of  2  or  3 
miles ;  it  appeared  to  be  free  from  reefs  and  tolerably  bold-to. 

Sangrone  (Simuku)  bay,  about  10  miles  northward  of  Memba 
bay,  in  about  lat.  13°  58'  S.,  is  about  one  mile  deep,  with  an  entrance 
half  a  mile  wide.  The  entrance  appears  to  be  free  from  reefs,  but 
though  considered  a  good  port  by  coasters,  a  number  of  reefs  are 
exposed  at  low  water,  greatly  limiting  the  anchorage  space,  and 
rendering  it  probably  unsuitable  for  larger  vessels. 

The  village  of  Simiku  is  scattered  over  a  space  2  miles  in  extent. 
A  considerable  trade  is  carried  on  here  by  Banians,  in  amendoim, 
columba,  wax  and  rubber.  The  port  is  the  principal  outlet  for  the 
trade  of  the  district  under  the  chief  of  the  Makua  tribe. 

ALMEIDA  BAY  is  formed  by  Mancabale  and  Indujo  reefs, 
which  make  it  a  safe  and  commodious  anchorage,  with  from  4  to  7 
fathoms  water.  The  main  channel  to  Almeida  bay  is  southward  of 
Indujo  reef,  between  which  and  the  coast,  the  depths  vary  from  8  to 
10  fathoms.*  There  is  also  a  passage  a  quarter  of  a  mile  wide, 
between  Indujo  and  Mancabale  reefs,  with  a  depth  of  11  fathoms  in 
the  centre,  decreasing  gradually  towards  the  anchorage.  Two  remark- 
able peaks  bearing  W.  |  N.,  and  just  open  southward  of  the  sandy 
hill  on  the  western  shore,  lead  through. 

Mancabale  reef,  dry  in  places  at  low  water  spring  tides,  skirts 
the  eastern  face  of  the  low  and  sandy  point  Sorisa,  at  a  distance  of 
one  mile,  and  projecting  5  miles  to  the  southward,  protects  the 
anchorage  of  Almeida  to  the  westward  of  it.  From  a  position  about 
half  a  mile  outside  the  reef,  a  depth  of  14  fathoms  was  found. 

Indujo  reef,  about  one  mile  in  extent  east  and  west,  and  awash 
at  low  water  springs,  lies  one  mile  southward  of  Mancabale  reef, 
leaving  a  ship  channel  a  quarter  of  a  mile  wide  between  the  two. 

Minsangegy  river  (Chahundi)  lies  in  the  southern  part  of  Almeida 
bay.  The  hill  just  southward  of  the  river  is  a  conspicuous  bluff, 
and  a  useful  mark  for  the  bay. 

LURIO  BAY,  between  Sorisa  and  Pando  points,  a  distance  of 
about  8  miles,  has  from  5  to  15  fathoms  water.  It  affords  sheltered 
anchorage  under  Sorisa  point  during  the  south-west  monsoon  period, 
but  none  during  the  north-east  monsoon  ;  there  is  an  easy  overland 
route  from  Almeida.  The  land  is  all  low  near  the  sea,  with  thick 
jungle,  but  there  are  high  craggy  peaks  in  the  interior. 

*0wen.  See  plan  of  Almeida  bay,  scale  m  =  0'5  inch,  on  Admiralty  chart, 
No.  1809. 


Chap.  VII.]  ALMBIDA  BAY— POMBA  BAY.  251 

Lnrio  river  is  in  the  southern  part  of  the  bay  :  the  sea  at  times  is 
discoloured  by  its  water  for  some  miles.  Lmio  is  the  principal 
settlement  between  Mozambique  and  Ibo.* 

COAST. — Northward  of  Lurio  bay  the  land  is  of  moderate  height 
and  continues  so  from  Badgley  point  to  Maunhane  point,  a  distance 
of  about  25  miles. 

This  part  of  the  coast  is  fronted  in  places  by  a  quicksand  beach, 
and  a  reef  which  extends  in  places  about  1^  miles.  This  reef  is 
steep-to,  there  being  no  bottom  at  15  fathoms  close  to,  in  one  place  at 
least.  Northward  of  Xanga  Mrebwi  there  is  temporary  anchorage  in 
about  11  fathoms,  sand  over  coral,  not  good  holding  ground. 

Mkufl. — ^The  bar  of  the  river  and  port  of  Mkufi,  10  miles  north- 
ward of  Lurio  bay,  may  be  crossed  at  half  tide  by  craft  drawing  from 
5  to  6  feet,  and  close  under  the  southern  shore  there  is  anchorage  for 
such  craft  in  from  2  to  3  fathoms.  The  village  is  clean  and  healthily 
situated  on  elevated  ground  on  the  right  bank,  and  provisions  and 
good  water  are  obtainable. 

Xangra  Mrebwi  (TJslianga)  is  a  village  situated  about  6  miles 
southward  of  Maunhane  point ;  abreast  it  there  appears  to  be  a  gap  in 
the  reef  with  a  deep  water  channel.  The  land  about  Ushanga  is  low, 
with  trees  almost  to  the  water's  edge. 

It  was  about  here  that  H.M.S.  Pantaloon  got  on  shore  in  1862, 
remaining  on  the  reef  7  days,  and  narrowly  escaping  becoming  a 
total  wreck.  She  was  endeavouring  to  pick  up  an  anchorage  after 
dark  on  the  bank  off  Maunhane  point,  but  being  a  few  miles  to  the 
southward  she  went  from  no  bottom  at  15  fathoms,  on  to  the  reef 
without  obtaining  soundings.  There  appears,  therefore,  to  be  a  deep 
spot  outside  the  treef,  just  where  she  unfortunately  grounded,  as 
the  ship,  after  being  floated,  was  anchored  in  5J  fathoms,  and 
subsequently  moved  off  to  11  fathoms. 

Maunliane  point  is  rather  bluff,  but  terminating  in  a  low  rocky 
point,  from  which  the  reef  extends  eastward  two-thirds  of  a  mile. 
The  sea  br^^aks  upon  this  reef,  and  it  is  also  visible  from  the  discolour- 
ation of  the  water. 

POMBA  or  PEMBA  BAY  (Mwambi).— The  entrance  to 
Pomba  bay,  about  5  miles  to  the  westward  of  Maunhane  point,  is 
about  1 J  miles  across  between  North  and  Herbert  points.  The  basin 
inside  these  points  is  one  of  the  finest  harbours  on  this  coast,  being 
about  8  miles  north  and  south,  by  5  miles  deep,  with  sufficient  water 

*  .Consul  O'NeUrs  Beport^  1380. 


352  MOZAMBIQUB  HARBOUR  TO  IBO.  [Ohap.  YII. 

in  most  parts  for  heavy  dranght  vessels,  and  shelter  from  all  winds.* 
The  country  around  is  composed  of  fertile  plains  and  woods,  and  the 
climate  is  said  to  be  good  in  comparison  with  other  places  on  this 
coast.  See  climate  at  Ibo,  page  257.  The  land  wind  generally  blows 
out  of  the  bay  till  7h.  or  8h.  a.m.  There  is  good  fishing  with  the 
seine. 

North  or  Sid- All  point  is  a  moderately  high  bluff,  covered 
with  trees  and  jungle,  and  steep-to,  there  being  a  depth  of  18  fathoms 
within  100  yards  of  it. 

Herbert  or  Miranembo  point,  the  southern  point  of  entrance, 
runs  off  low,  but  with  a  high  hill  at  the  back  :  it  may  be  approached 
within  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  There  was  formerly  a  fort  and  flagstaff 
on  the  point. 

From  Herbert  point  the  shore  trends  westward  1\  miles  to  Mpira 
or  Sandy  point,  off  which  shoal  water  extends  about  4  cables. 

Outlying:  Dangrers. — The  shores  of  Pomba  bay  appear  to  have 
numerous  projecting  rocky  ledges  to  the  distance  of  1^  miles  in 
places,  and  not  to  have  been  fully  examined,  but  the  principal 
dangers  to  vessels  entering  the  bay  are  as  follows  : — 

Mutlne  patcll,  of  coral,  one  cable  in  extent,  with  3  feet  least 
water,  and  from  12  to  14  fathoms  around.  It  lies  with  North  point 
bearing  E.  ^  S.,  and  Herbert  point  S.E.  by  E. 

A  coral  patch,  one  cable  in  extent,  with  6  feet  water,  discovered  by 
H.M.S.  Mutlne^  lies  about  one  mile  southward  of  Mutine  patch,  with 
Mpira  point  bearing  S.E.  \  S.,  1^^  miles. 

Pengruln  shoal,  a  patch  of  coral  about  40  yards  across,  with  4 
fathoms  at  low-water  springs,  lies  about  midway  between  the  Mutine 
patches. 

Pantaloon  patch,  of  5  fathoms,  in  the  northern  anchorage,  lies 
with  Mpira  point  bearing  South,  and  the  beach  near  Mwambi  village 
N.W.  by  W.  i  W. 

Two  detached  patches,  with  about  6  feet  water,  lie  half  a  mile  off- 
shore, eastward  of  Pantaloon  patch. 

Directions.— Anolioragres.— Outside  Pomba  bay  there  is  no 
anchorage,  except  on  Imbo  bank,  hereafter  mentioned.  Between  the 
points  of  entrance  the  depths  are  from  30  to  40  fathoms,  and  not 
less  than  20  fathoms  until  2  miles  within  the  points. 

To  proceed  to  an  anchorage  in  the  northern  part  of  the  bay,  and 

*  See  Admiralty  chart :— Mozambique  harbour  to  Bas  Pekawi,  Nol  1809,"  witi 
plan  of  Pomba  baj. 


.Ohap.  YII.]  .       POMBA  BAY— SUPPIiDBS.  253 

being  abreast  of  North  point,  distant  half  a  mile,  steer  N.W.  by  N. 
for  about  2^  miles,  midway  between  Pantaloon  patch  and  the  shoals 
one  mile  eastward  of  it,  and  anchor  in  9  or  10  fathoms,  black  mud 
and  good  holding  ground,  with  Mpira  point  S.  ^  W.,  and  the  sandy 
beach  near  Mwambi  village  W.N.W.  ;  the  latter  leads  northward  of 
Pantaloon  patch,  with  which  bearing  a  vessel  may  go  nearer  the 
village. 

If  proceeding  to  an  anchorage  in  the  southern  part  of  the  bay, 
give  Mpira  point  a  berth  of  three  quarters  of  a  mile  when  bearing 
about  E.S.E.,  to  avoid  the  reef  extending  from  it.  There  is  anchorage 
in  about  12  fathoms,  with  Mpira  point  bearing  N.E.  distant  1^  miles  ; 
southward  of  this  the  chart  states  that  the  ground  is  reported  foul. 

The  western  side  of  Pomba  bay  is  also  foul,  the  shallow  ground 
extending  off  nearly  2  miles. 

Supplies. — Bullocks  are  to  be  obtained  in  small  numbers,  also 
poultry  and  vegetables  ;  and  wood  may  be  cut  here.  Deer  and  other 
game  are  plentiful  in  the  vicinity.*  The  village  of  Mwambi,  in  the 
north-west  part  of  the  bay,  consists  of  a  few  huts  inhabited  by  Arabs  ; 
another  village  to  the  southward  is  under  the  dominion  of  a  native 
chief.  Besides  Arabs,  the  inhabitants  of  Pomba  bay  are  Banians 
and  natives,  and  a  small  detachment  of  Portuguese  troops.  In  1857, 
some  colonists  were  sent  from  Portugal  to  a  place  called  Munguete, 
about  3  miles  inland. 

Water. — ^Accounts  differ  as  to  the  practicability  of  watering 
vessels  at  Pomba  bay,  but  the  general  opinion  appears  to  be  that 
water  can  only  be  obtained  in  small  quantities.  There  are,  however, 
two  inconsiderable  streams  in  the  north-east  part  of  the  bay,  which 
are  barely  navigable  for  boats,  and  a  larger  one  named  the  Nihegi,  in 
the  south  part  of  the  bay. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Pomba  bay  at 
4h.  15m. ;  springs  rise  15  feet ;  neaps  rise  11  feet ;  neaps  range 
7  feet. 

ImbO  bank,  in  the  approach  to  Pomba  bay,  and  2^  miles  north- 
east of  Maunhane  point,  is  said  to  afford  good  anchorage  in  10  fathoms, 
with  North  point  (Sid  Ali)  bearing  about  W.  by  N. 

Tlie  COAST  from  Pomba  bay  northward  continues  moderately 
high  for  about  15  miles,  when  it  becomes  low  and  thickly  covered 
with  trees  for  8  miles  to  Kiziva  island  ;  there  is,  however,  high  land 
in  the  interior  of  Arimba,  which  may  be  seen  in  clear  weather  from 
a  distance  of  40  miles. 


*  Ck>mmander  Hope,  B.N.,  1845. 


254  MOZAMBIQUH  HABBOUB  TO  IBO.  [Chap.  VIL 

Dedima  bay,  abont  one  mile  in  extent,  with  a  depth  of  3  feet 

only  between  its  entrance  points,  is  situated  in  about  lat.  12^  43'  S. 

It  must  be  approached  with  caution.  Mugarumo  river  entrance  lies 
in  its  north-west  comer. 

ARIMBA  HEAD,  about  4  miles  northward  of  Dedema  bay, 
is  a  peninsula,  and  forms  the  north-east  side  of  Kipao  bay,  an  inlet 
about  2  miles  in  extent,  with  depths  of  from  3  to  5  fathoms  of 
water.  Kipio  island,  on  the  north  side  of  the  entrance,  is  connected 
to  Arimba  head  by  a  reef.  Arimba  head  when  seen  from  the  north- 
eastward is  conspicuous,  having  six  or  seven  hillocks  on  it. 

The  channel  to  Kipao  anchorage  appears  to  be  nearer  to  Eipao 
island  than  to  the  main,  the  reef  extending  some  distance  from  Sito 
point ;  a  detached  patch  of  3  fathoms,  lies  about  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  eastward  of  the  point. 

Port  Arimba,  on  the  north  side  of  Arimba  head,  is  protected  by 
Kiziva  island  and  reef.  Between  the  island  and  Arimba  head  there 
is  a  depth  of  from  5  to  3  fathoms  in  the  channel  leading  to  the 
anchorage. 

Port  Arimba  appears  to  be  a  secure  harbour  for  small  vessels.  It 
is  one  of  the  Portuguese  settlements.  In  1859  it  had  about  400  inhabi- 
tants; exports  grain,  vegetable,  fruit,  and  timber.*  Arimba  fort 
stands  on  the  shore  in  the  south-western  part  of  the  anchorage. 

KERIMBA  ISLANDS.— The  Kerimba  or  Aswatada  islands 
extend  from  Arimba  head  to  cape  Delgado.  These  two  headlands  are 
nearly  in  the  same  meridian,  and  117  miles  apart.  In  this  space  the 
outer  reefs  and  islands  extend  in  some  places  as  much  as  13  miles 
from  the  main  land,  and  in  most  parts  more  than  10  miles,  but  to  the 
southward  of  lat.  12^  S.  they  nowhere  exceed  8  miles. 

The  Kerimba  islands  are  generally  low,  well  wooded  and  easily 
seen  from  seaward  ;  some  have  a  diversified  surface  of  hill  and  dale, 
whilst  many  are  mere  corallets. 

The  main  land  abreast  Kerimba  islands  is  also  generally  low,  and 
will  rarely  be  seen  when  coasting  outside  the  reefs ;  this,  and  the 
fact  that  the  sea  faces  of  the  reefs  are  steep-to,  necessitates  caution 
in  approaching  this  part  of  the  coast,  even  in  the  day  time.  This 
observation  applies  generally  to  the  coast  between  Mozambique  and 
lat.  3°  S.  Convenient  depths  for  anchoring  will  generally  be  found 
between  them.t 

*  StatistioB  of  Portnguefle  Possessions, 
t  Owen. 


Chap.  YII.]  ABIMBA  HBAD— KBBIMBA  ISLAND.  255 

There  are  eighteen  or  nineteen  openings  through  the  outer  islands 
and  reefs  into  a  still  greater  number  of  secure  ports  or  convenient 
anchorages. 

Fumo  island^  situated  about  6  miles  northward  of  Arimba  head, 
is  connected  with  Kiziva  by  a  coral  reef,  and  the  two  islands  together 
form  the  eastern  side  of  a  well-sheltered  but  rather  shallow  anchor- 
age, a  continuation  of  port  Aximba,  from  which  direction  is  the  only 
entrance,  the  passage  between  Fumo  and  the  main  being  only  a  boat 
channel.  Fumo  is  one  of  the  islands  which  the  Portuguese  inhabit ; 
it  had  in  1859  a  population  of  about  100. 

Penguin  island,  to  the  northward  of  Fumo,  is  small,  wooded, 
and  fronted  by  a  reef  to  the  distance  of  half  a  mile. 

There  appears  to  be  temporary  anchorage  off  Penguin  island  reef, 
in  13  fathoms,  coral  bottom,  with  the  south  point  of  the  island 
bearing  N.W.  by  N.  distant  three-quarters  of  a  mile,  and  the  south 
edge  of  Samucan  reef  bearing  East.  There  are  depths  of  about 
14  fathoms  near  Samucan  reef,  but  the  water  deepens  suddenly  at  a 
short  distance  southward  of  it. 

Montepes  bay,  contained  between  Manangoreshi  and  Kisanga 
points,  has  been  but  partially  examined.  There  is  apparently  a  deep 
water  channel  between  the  reefs  of  Fumo  and  Penguin  islands,  but 
a  rock  lies  near  midway  with  a  depth  of  33  fathoms  close-to. 

At  the  head  of  the  bay  is  the  Portuguese  settlement  of  Montepes,  in 
lat.  about  12°  29'  S.,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  that  name.  The 
village  consisted  of  miserable  huts,  and  it  had  a  population  of  about 
650  in  1859. 

Samukan  Island  appears  to  be  connected  with  Kerimba  and 
with  Ibo  by  the  coral  bank  which  fronts  and  protects  Montepes 
bay,  Samukan  being  the  southernmost  of  the  three. 

Kerimba  Island  is  about  3  miles  long  north  and  south  by 
1^  miles  wide ;  it  is  low,  wooded,  has  good  well  water,  and  is  the 
most  fertile  of  the  Archipelago.  Kerimba  was  formerly  the  capital 
of  the  district.  Its  trade  at  the  time  of  Owen's  survey  was  only  in 
slaves.  In  1859  it  had  a  population  of  about  200  of  all  denomi- 
nations.* 

Elsanga  point  is  a  projection  of  the  main  land  towards  Ibo 
island,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  channel  scarcely  navigable  for 
canoes  at  low  water.    Kisanga  is  one  of  the  Portuguese  settlements ; 

*  Staticrtios  of  Portngoese  PossesBions,  1869. 


256  IBO  HARBOUB.  [Chap.  YII. 

it  had  about  200  well-conBtmcted  wooden  houses,  and  was  inhabited  by 
about  2,000  persons. 

IBO  HARBOUR.— Ibo  island  is  about  5  miles  long  in  a 
north-east  and  south-west  direction,  and  nearly  divided  into  two  by 
a  deep  inlet  open  to  the  N.N.W.  The  town  and  fort  of  St.  Joao  are 
on  the  north-eastern  side  of  the  inlet  and  near  the  northern  part  of 
the  island.  This  is  one  of  the  principal  Portuguese  ports. 
The  south-western  half  of  Ibo  island  is  named  Eirambo.* 
Ibo  bluff,  the  north-east  extreme  of  the  island,  is  moderately  high, 
with  a  lighthouse,  and  may  be  seen  from  a  distance  of  14  or  15  miles. 
Ibo  may  also  be  distinguished  from  the  others  of  this  chain  of  low 
islands  by  its  white  fort,  which  when  bearing  about  S.W.  shows  a 
long  front.  The  cocoa-nut  trees  in  the  town  are  easily  distinguished 
at  a  distance  of  several  miles. 

LIGHT.— From  a  light  tower  20  feet  in  height  on  Ibo  bluff 
(Mujaca  point)  is  exhibited  at  an  elevation  of  51  feet  above  high  water, 
'ik  fixed  white  light,  visible  in  clear  weather  between  the  bearings  of 
N.  J  E.  and  S.E.  by  S.,  from  a  distance  of  12  miles.  Reported 
uncertain  in  exhibition. 

The  Main  channel  to  the  anchorage,  southward  of  St.  Gonsalo 
shoal  is  about  one  mile  wide  between  the  buoys,  with  depths  of  6  to 
8  fathoms.  The  channel  northward  of  St.  Gonsalo,  between  it  and 
Matemo  reef,  is  about  half  a  mile  wide,  with  depths  of  from  12  to 
24  fathoms. 

Buoys. — Mujaca  shoal  bordering  the  north  side  of  Ibo  island 
extends  northward  about  1^  miles,  and  is  marked  by  two  red  buoys ; 
one  on  the  extreme  north  of  the  lighthouse,  the  other  on  the  extreme 
north  of  fort  St.  Joao.  Black  buoys  mark  the  east  and  south  extremes 
of  St.  Gonsalo  shoal,  and  there  is  a  mooring  buoy  in  the  anchorage. 
These  buoys  are  not  to  be  depended  on. 

St.  QonsalO  shoal  or  Corea  de  San  Gonsalo,  forms  the  north 
side  of  the  channel  into  Ibo  harbour.  It  is  about  2\  miles  long,  in 
an  east  and  west  direction,  and  at  low  water  shows  as  a  dry  sand 
bank.*  It  may  generally  be  seen  either  by  the  discolouration  of  the 
water  or  by  the  sea  breaking. 

The  Town  of  Ibo  consists  of  stone  houses  and  huts.  The 
population  (1887),  composed  of  Portuguese,  Arabs,  Banians,  and 
natives,  is  between  3,000  and  4,000,  including  the  garrison. 

*  See  plan  of  Ibo  harbour ;  scale,  m  =»  0*6  inoh,  on  Admindty  chart,  No.  1,809. 


<5hap.  Vli.]  LIOHTS— TOWN  — DIRKOTIONS.  25^ 

"  Fort  St.  Jodo,  star-shaped  and  constructed  of  stone,  is  garrisoned  by 
a  company  of  infantry.  The  defence  of  the  town  is  completed  by 
two  other  forts,  called  St.  Jos^  and  St.  Antonio,  both  also  of  stone.   ' 

The  inlet  which  runs  up  to  the  town  forms  a  harbour  for  small 
Ciaft,  having  depths  of  from  1^  to  3  fathoms  ;  but  on  the  bar,  which  is 
about  a  mile  from  the  shore,  there  is  only  three-quarters  of  a  fathom 
at  low  water.  The  upper  part  of  the  inlet,  for  a  mile  or  more  ui 
extent,  is  only  a  shallow  lagoon.    Ibo  was  formerly  a  great  slave  dep6t. 

CUniate. — The  sickly  season  is  from  the  middle  of  January  to 
the  middle  of  March,  during  which  time  there  is  much  rain,  with 
tliunder  and  lightning.  The  fever  at  that  time  of  year  is  fatal,  and 
the  negroes  are  not  exempt  from  it. 

.  Direotions. — Anolioragre.  — The  channel  southward  of  St. 
Oonsalo  shoal  is  the  usual  one  for  proceeding  to  Ibo  road,  between 
the  red  and  black  buoys.  From  about  2  miles  off  Ibo  light,  steer  in 
with  the  south  end  of  Matemo  bearing  N.W.  by  N.,  until  the  extreme 
of  Eorambo  is  well  open  to  the  northward  of  the  fort,  bearing 
S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  then  steer  in  W.  by  N.,  between  the  buoys,  and  anchor 
in  about  5  fathoms,  with  the  fort,  or  the  point  on  which  it  is  situated, 
bearing  from  S.  J  W.  to  S.  ^  E.,  distant  about  2^  miles.  Deeper 
water  will  be  found  at  2  or  3  cables  farther  northward.  Thc^ 
anchorage  is  good,  but  partly  exposed  to  easterly  winds,  and  the 
tides  rim  strong. 

When  entering  Ibo,  it  is  well  to  be  guided  partly  by  the  eye,  as  the 
reefs  show  well  after  half  ebb,  particularly  the  St.  Gonsalo  ;  borrow- 
ing  a  little  on  this  shoal  will  therefore  ensure  safety  from  Mujaca 
reef.  In  case  of  necessity,  vessels  may  anchor  outside  the  reef s,  and 
also  off  the  edge  of  the  reef  joining  Ibo  and  Kerimba.  Soundings 
extend  about  2  miles  seaward  of  Matemo,  Ibo,  and  Kerimba  islands. 

Supplies  of  fresh  provisions  are  obtainable  in  small  quantities  ; 
water  is  dif&cult  to  obtain,  and  of  indifferent  quality.  There  are  no 
facilities  for  repairs.    Communication,  see  page  8. 

..Trade. — The  exports  are  oilseeds,  india-rubber,  ivory  and  wax, 
average  value  for  1887  £20,000 ;  Imports ;  guns,  powder,  beads,  cloths, 
average  value  £18,000.  The  export  duties  are  heavy,  but  imports 
the  reverse.  About  10  or  12  vessels  enter  yearly  besides  the  mail 
steamers  and  coasters.  Pilotage  is  compulsory  except  for  men-of-war. 
Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  4h.  15m, ;  springs 
rise  11  feet.  The  tides  run  strong  through  the  channel  between 
Mujaca  and  Gonsalo  reefs,  the  ebb  setting  rather  towards  the  Mujaca 
side,  and  the  flood  inclining  to- the  northward. 

S.a  10626.  R 


258  IBO  TO  OAPB  DBLGADO.  [Chap.  VII. 

Oramaooma  river  enters  the  sea  westward  of  Ibo  harbour, 
Lumbo,  a  Portuguese  settlement,  with  a  population  of  about  600, 
is  situated  at  the  mouth  of  this  river. 

MATEMO  ISLAND,  next  northward  of  Ibo,  is  about  4^  miles 
long,  north  and  south,  by  2^  miles  broad.  It  is  one  of  the  Portuguese 
settlements,  and  has  a  population  of  about  100  persons.  Of  the  four 
inhabited  islands,,  this  is  the  least  fertile,  and  it  has  no  water.  This 
island  may  be  distinguished  from  Ibo  by  ils  being  low,  with 
straggling  trees  along  its  whole  length ;  by  the  high  white  sand  beach 
on  its  south-east  side,  and  the  rocky  islet  off  the  south-east  point ; 
there  is  a  sandhill  about  one-third  the  length  of  the  island  from  the 
south  end,  which  shows  well  when  the  sun  is  shining  on  it. 

Ibo  is  higher,  has  denser  trees,  and  a  cocoa-nut  grove  on  its 
northern  side.  The  main  land  to  the  northward  of  Matemo  is  level, 
and  high  for  this  part  of  the  coast,  being  visible  at  16  or  18  miles, 
and  will  be  seen  before  Matemo  when  standing  in  from  seaward. 

The  coast  from  abreast  Ibo  island  to  Kirinuzi  point  is  mode- 
rately high,  and  higher  still  from  the  latter  to  Pangane  point.  Inland 
is  a  range  of  hills,  visible  20  miles  from  the  coast ;  the  south  end  of 
the  range  is  bluff,  with  a  conical  hill  just  to  the  southward,  mentioned 
later  as  the  mark  which  leads  southward  of  Das  Rolas  island. 
Thence  northward  to  cape  Delgado  the  main  land  is  seldom  seen 
from  outside  the  islands  and  reefs. 

Das  Rolas. — This  small  island  lies  about  2^  miles  northward  of 
Matemo ;  it  is  low,  and  covered  with  brushwood.  A  reef  extends 
about  one  mile  north-eastward,  and  half  a  mile  south-eastward  of  it. 
The  north-west  point  is  sandy,  and  affords  the  best  landing. 

Anohoragres. — Matemo  island  is  a  convenient  rendezvous  when 
cruising  in  the  vicinity,  on  account  of  there  being  anchorage  under 
it  sheltered  from  either  monsoon,  and  easy  of  access;  the  tides, 
however,  run  strong.  Between  Matemo  and  Envie  shoal,  which 
fronts  the  coast  to  a  distance  of  4  miles,  there  is  a  channel  half  ^ 
mile  broad,  with  depths  of  3  to  5  fathoms. 

There  is  anchorage  in  about  8  fathoms  off  the  north  side  of 
Matemo,  distant  about  1^  miles,  with  north  extreme  of  Das  Rolas 
bearing  N.W.  by  W.,  and  west  extreme  of  Matemo  S.W. 

There  is  more  sheltered  anchorage  farther  in,  under  Das  Rolas,  in 
from  7  to  9  fathoms,  with  Das  Rolas  bearing  N.E.  by  N.,  distant  half 
a  mile  ;  there  is  generally  a  land  breeze  in  the  morning. 

Direotions. — To  proceed  to  this  anchorage,  steer  for  the  north- 
east point  of  Das  Rolas  on  a  W.  by  N.  course,  until  the  peak  on  the 


Chap.  VII.]      MATBMO  ISLAND—PANTALOON  SlHOAL.  259 

mainland  (which  is  some  distance  in  the  interior)  bears  W.  by  S.  J  S., 
then  steer  for  it.  It  is  not  visible  to  a  vessel  approaching  from  the 
northward,  until  it  is  in  line  with  the  north  extreme  of  Das  Rolas 
island.  When  the  small  island  off  the  south-east  part  of  Matemo 
is  shut  in  with  Matemo,  soundings  will  be  obtained  in  11  to  13 
fathoms,  and  the  reefs  on  each  side  are  easily  seen  ;  from  thence  the 
water  will  gradually  shoal  to  4^  fathoms,  when  in  a  line  between 
the  north-east  points  of  Das  Rolas  and  Matemo  ;  after  passing  which 
the  water  gradually  deepens  again  to  8  and  9  fathoms.* 

In  going  in,  do  not  haul  up  to  anchor  under  the  lee  of  Das  Rolas, 
until  Sangane  point  comes  well  open  to  the  westward  of  it,  in  order 
to  avoid  a  reef  which  extends  about  half  a  mile  southward  of  Das 
Rolas.* 

Wood  is  easily  obtained  on  Das  Rolas,  but  no  water,  nor  are  there 
any  inhabitants.  Stock  can  readily  be  procured  from  the  river 
Kirinuzi  on  the  main. 

COAST. — Sangane  point  is  a  low  white  sandy  point,  with  a 
reef  extending  nearly  2  miles  oflE.  In  about  the  latitude  of  Sangane 
point,  and  between  4  and  7  miles  from  land,  is  Sangane  reef,  3  miles 
in  length  by  one  mile  in  breadth. 

For  Lazarus  bank,  50  to  80  miles  eastward  of  Sangane  point  and 
reef,  see  p.  463,  464. 

Pangane  point. — ^A  reef,  in  the  middle  of  which  is  the  small 
island  of  Inhate,  extends  1^  miles  from  Pangane  point,  nearly  joining 
the  south-west  end  of  Mahato  reef.  The  passage  between  Mahato 
reef  and  the  reef  from  the  main,  is  only  adapted  for  dhows,  having 
but  one  fathom  at  low  water.  The  Portuguese  have  a  settlement  at 
Pangane  point,  with  a  population  of  about  300  persons.  Kif  ula  and 
Molandula  islands  lie  between  Sangane  and  Pangane  points. 

Mahato  island,  lying  off  Pangane  point,  has  an  extensive  reef 
all  round  it,  except  on  the  west  side,  where  there  is  a  smooth  anchorage 
for  dhows. 

Pantaloon  shoal,  about  4  miles  northward  of  Mahato  island, 
and  in  lat.  11"^  54'  S.,  long.  40"^  36'  E.,  is  one  mile  in  extent  east  and 
west,  with  a  least  depth  of  2\  fathoms,  coral. 

A  sand -bank  just  awash  at  high  tides,  but  generally  visible,  lies 
about  1^  miles  west-south-westward  of  Pantaloon  shoal.  This  bank  is 
steep-to  on  its  west  side,  but  a  circular  coral  reef,  which  has  6  or  8 

*  See  Admiralty  chart : — ^Mozambique  to  Rae  Pekawi,  No.  1809. 
8.0.  10625»  B2 


260  IBO  TO  CAPB  DBLGADO.         [Chap;  VII. 

feet  water,  extends  from  the  bank  abont  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in 
all  other  directions. 

Another  shoal  patch,  with  one  fathom  water,  lies  W.  by  N.  |  N., 
about  3|  miles  from  Pantaloon  shoal,  with  Bas  Pekawi  bearing 
N.  by  W.,  distant  about  gf  miles. 

Northward  of  Pantaloon  shoal  there  is  good  and  clear  anchorage. 

RAS  PEKAWI,  in  lat.  IV  5V  S„  long.  40°  31'  E.,  is  a  low  sandy 
point,  with  a  clump  of  firs  on  its  extremity,  70  feet  high  ;  half  a  mile 
off,  and  connected  with  the  point  by  a  reef,  is  a  bushy  islet,  17  feet 
high.* 

From  Ras  Pekawi  to  Ras  Nenumba,  the  coast  for  the  first  4  miles 
consists  of  a  sandy  beach,  with  numerous  villages,  but  the  remainder 
is  mangroves,  intersected  by  creeks. 

A  wooded  range  of  hills,  from  250  to  280  feet  high,  extends  parallel 
to  the  coast,  from  2  to  3  miles  inland.  There  is  a  yellow  patch  on 
the  side  of  this  range,  150  feet  above  the  sea,  1^  miles  south  of  Ras 
Nenumba. 

The  shore  reef  extends  2  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Pekawi,  and  1| 
miles  east  of  Ras  Nenumba ;  between  these  points  it  takes  the  direction 
of  the  coast,  but  with  a  varying  distance  of  3  cables  to  1^  miles. 

Supplies, — ^A  few  fowls  may  be  bought  in  the  villages  north  of 
Ras  Pekawi  by  giving  two  days'  notice,  but  the  natives  will  not  come 
off  to  a  vessel  at  anchor  off  Kisanga  or  Mdjumbi. 

Kisanga  Island,  20  feet  high,  is  sandy,  covered  with  brushwood, 
and  situated  3^  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Pekawi,  and  on  the  western 
edge  of  a  reef,  which  is  2  miles  in  extent. 

Mdjumbi  (MattOS)  island  is  low,  thickly  wooded,  about  half  a 
mile  in  length,  and  200  yards  in  breadth  ;  near  its  south-western  end 
are  two  trees  about  77  feet  high  ;  these  are  the  first  objects  seen  when 
approaching  the  island,  and  pesemble  a  two-masted  vessel.  It  is 
surrounded  by  a  rpef  extending  3  miles  north-east,  1^  miles  east,  and 
one  •  mile  in  a  southerly  direction,  with  patches  of  sand  in  places 
dry  from  4  to  6  feet  at  low  water. 

Between  the  reefs  of  Kisanga  and  Mdjumbi  there  is  a  boat  channel 
with  from  one  to  3  fathoms  water, 

Anohorage. — The  anchorage  west  of  Kisanga  may  be  approached 
with  safety  either  from  the  north  or  south,  care  being  taken  if  entering 


*  See  Admiralty  chart :— Bas  Pekawi  to  cape  Delgado,  with  views,  No.  668  ;  scale, 
m  =  0*35  inch.  The  information  relating  to  the  coast  and  anchorages  between  Baa 
Pekawi  andxjape  Deigado,  is  by  Nar.  Lieut.  J.  W.  Dixon,  H.M.  surveying  vessel 
Nassau^  1875.     ■         .. 


Chap.  VIIJ-  RAS  PBKAWI— MDJUMBI  PASS.  261 

by  Mdjumbi  pass  to  avoid  Gray  rock.  A  good  anchorage  may  be 
obtained  in  8  fathoms,  sand  and  shell,  half  a  mile  from  the  reef,  with 
Mdjumbi  tall  trees  in  line  with  Kisangi  island  bearing  East,  and  Has 
Pekawi  S.W.  by  W.  f  W. 

The  ooast  from  Ras  Nenumba  to  Ras  Yamkumbi  is  low  and 
swampy,  fringed  with  mangrove,  with  numerous  creeks ;  the  sudden 
break  in  the  hills  at  the  back  forms  the  most  conspicuous  feature  of 
the  coast. 

MtO  Marari  is  the  only  creek  in  this  locality  that  has  no  bar 
across  the  entrance ;  boats  drawing  2  feet  can  enter  at  low  water, 
and  there  is  deeper  water  inside.  A  large  village  probably  exists  on 
its  banks,  as  a  great  number  of  dhows  were  seen  to  enter  and  leave 
the  creek. 

Mud  and  ^md  fiats  extend  from  half  a  mile  to  1^  miles  off-shore, 
with  boulders  scattered  over  them. 

The  coast  from  Ras  Yamkumbi  to  Ras  Ulu,  about  12^  miles  to  the 
northward,  is  covered  with  mangrove  trees,  and  seldom  seen  from 
outside  the  islands.  The  coast  reef  borders  the  shore  from  three- 
quarters  to  2  miles  distant. 

The  mouths  of  the  creeks  on  this  portion  of  the  coast  are  dry  at 
low  water. 

MDJUMBI  PASS. — The  opening  between  Mdjumbi  reef  and 
Mwamba  Wadiazi,  is  4  miles  wide  and  perfectly  clear,  the  heavy 
surf  on  the  edges  of  the  reefs  marking  the  channel ;  the  mainland 
will  show  very  indistinctly,  but  Mdjumbi  island  will  be  clearly 
visible. 

Gray  rock,  having  1^  feet  at  low- water  springs,  is  steep-to,  and 
lies  in  the  fairway  to  the  anchorage  off  Kisanga  island,  with  Kisanga 
summit  bearing  S.W.  by  S.,  and  Mdjumbi  high  trees  S.  by  E.,  2^^ 
miles. 

Mwamba  Moholi,  a  coral  reef,  dry  at  low  water,  is  circular  in 
form  and  4  cables  broad.  From  its  centre  Kero  Nyuni  bears 
N.E.  I  E.  5J  miles. 

Mwamba  Wadiazi  is  a  square-shaped  reef,  extending  5^  miles 
to  the  eastward,  and  4  miles  to  the  southward  of  Kero  Nyuni.  It  is 
composed  of  coral  with  numerous  sand  cays  on  it,  the  rocks 
uncovering  in  parts  at  low  water,  and  the  cays  at  half  ebb ;  its 
northern,  eastern,  and  southern  faces  are  steep-to,  but  its  western 
side  is  broken  into  a  series  of  gullies  with  detached  masses  of  coral, 
with  one  and  2  fathoms  water  between  them. 


262  IBO  TO  CAPE  DBLGADO.  [Chap.  VII. 

Anohorage. — The  sheet  of  water  enclosed  between  Mdjnmbi 
and  Kero  Nyuni  islands,  and  the  mainland,  with  the  exception  of 
the  dansrers  mentioned  above,  has  anchorage  all  over  it,  in  from  5  to 
15  fathoms. 

The  water  shoals  in  the  northern  part  over  a  bar  with  from  IJ  to 
3  fathoms  water  on  it,  connecting  Seli-Seli  rocks  with  Mwamba 
Wadiazi.  The  bottom  off  the  entrances  of  the  various  creeks  is  mud 
over  coral,  but  in  the  outer  anchorages  it  is  sand  and  coral. 

Crawford  reefs  are  several  patches  of  coral  which  dry  at  half- 
ebb,  lying  3  miles  off  the  shore  between  Ras  Yamkumbi  and  Ras 
Ulu,  with  only  one  to  2  fathoms  between  them  and  the  coast  reef. 

ZERO  NYUNI  PASS  is  3i  miles  wide  between  the  reefs 
Wadiazi  and  Wanuni ;  it  is  deep  and  clear,  with  the  exception  of 
Mwamba  Kizingiti,  near  the  western  end  of  the  pass;  a  channel 
exists  both  northward  and  southward  of  this  danger. 

Eero  Nyuni  or  Zanga,  a  small  island,  20  feet  high,  covered 
with  castor-oil  bushes,  lies  on  the  north-western  extreme  of  Mwamba 
Wadiazi,  south  side  of  Kero  Nyuni  pass. 

Seli-Seli  rocks. — ^At  2  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Yamkumbi,  and 
connected  with  it  by  a  reef,  are  three  flat-topped  coral  rocks,  10  feet 
high. 

Mwamba  Eizingriti,  a  patch  of  coral  drying  only  at  low- water 
springs,  near  the  centre  of  the  pass,  may  be  generally  known  by  the 
sea  breaking  on  it.  From  it,  Kero  Nyuni  and  Seli-Seli  rocks  are 
plainly  visible,  and  distant  from  3  to  3^  miles. 

Mwamba  Wanuni  i^  3  miles  long  in  an  east  and  west  direction, 
and  one  mile  broad ;  a  small  detached  shoal  lies  off  its  western  edge, 
with  a  boat  channel  between.  Mwamba  Wanuni  dries  in  parts  at 
half  ebb,  showing  a  high  sand-bank.  If  approached  with  caution 
from  seaward  the  lead  will  give  timely  notice,  7  to  8  fathoms  being 
found  at  3  cables  distant. 

A  good  anchoragre  during  the  southerly  monsoon  is  in  6 
fathoms,  sand  and  coral,  one  mile  north  of  Kero  Nyuni,  and  for  a 
small  vessel  during  the  northerly  monsoon,  5  cables  S.W.  by  W.  of 
the  same  island. 

Tides  and  current. — It  is  high  water  at  Kero  Nyuni,  full  and 
change,  at  4h.  15m. ;  springs  rise  13  feet.  The  tides  inside  the  islands 
are  weak  and  irregular,  being  greatly  influenced  by  the  winds;  but 
the  usual  southerly  current  is  experienced  at  a  distance  of  10  miles 
outside  the  reefs.    See  page  275. 


Chap.  VII.]  KBRO  NYUNI  PASS— NAMBGUO  PASS.  263 

NAMEQTJO  PASS  to  the  northward  of  Mwamba  Wannni  is 
1}  miles  wide  between  the  reefs,  and  clear  of  danger.  It  is  the  best 
pass  for  a  stranger  to  enter  by;  the  reefs  show  plainly,  and  the 
bottom  is  even,  with  fair  anchoring  ground  over  the  whole  of  it.  If 
the  weather  be  moderately  clear,  Myonji  summit  will  be  seen  to  the 
north-north-westward. 

Fungru  NamegrilO  is  an  extensiye  coral  reef,  4  miles  long  and 
2  miles  broad,  on  the  north  side  of  the  pass,  with  several  sand  cays ; 
the  northernmost  one  is  covered  at  high- water  springs,  when  the  sea 
breaks  heavily  on  it.     Its  north-west  edge  lies  9^  miles  off  Ras  Ulu.. 

Its  seaward  edges  are  steep-to,  and  when  there  is  any  wind  a  cross 
sea  is  generally  experienced  off  it.    There  is  good  anchorage  off  the 

western  side  of  this  reef. 

« 

\  Appearance  of  land. — From  the  eastern  edge  of  Fungu  Name- 
guo,  if  the  weather  be  moderately  clear,  Myonji  summit  and  the 
higher  parts  of  Tambuzi  island  will  be  seen. 

Mwamba  Majiwe  Kubwa  lies  1^  miles  north-westward  of 
Mwamba  Wanuni,  with  a  5-fathom  channel  between  them.  On  the 
north-west  portion  of  the  reef  is  a  sand  cay,  which  is  only  covered 
at  high  water  springs. 

Ei\PlingTl  Lamkunama,  a  coral  reef,  with  a  sand  cay  on  its 
western  end,  uncovers  at  low- water  springs ;  a  2-f athom  patch  lies 
half  a  mile  westward  of  the  cay. 

There  is  a  narrow  but  clear  channel,  with  6  to  9  fathoms  water, 
between  Fungu  Lamkunama  and  Mwamba  Majiwe  Kubwa. 

Chapman  reef,  1^  miles  northward  of  Fungu  Lamkunama,  is 
a  coral  reef,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long  east  and  west ;  it  dries  at 
low-water  springs,  and  has  deep  water  all  around. 

Ras  Ulu  or  Vela,  the  southern  extreme  of  Mazimbwa  bay, 
is  a  mangrove  point,  80  feet  high.    It  makes  as  a  series  of  flat  ridges. 

A  reef  extends  upwards  of  5  miles  south-eastward  of  this  point, 
with  several  detached  patches  on  its  southern  side ;  rocks  and  shoal 
water  extend  one  mile  from  its  north-eastern  edge  into  Myonji  pass. 

Myonji  island. — ^At  2^  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Ulu,  Myonji 
island  rises  66  feet  above  the  reef,  the  summit  being  near  its  north- 
west extreme.  The  island  is  one  mile  long,  2  cables  broad,  and 
thickly  wooded. 

At  one  mile  farther  out  on  the  reef  are  several  mangrove  trees, 
which,  when  seen  clear  of  the  land,  closely  resemble  dark  flat  rocks. 


264  IBO  TO  CAPB  DBLGADO.  [Chap.  VII. 

Water. — Myonji  island  is  much  used  by  fishermen,  who  obtain 
their  drinking  water  from  wells  some  distance  within  Has  Ulu. 

"  Anclioragre. — Within  the  outer  reefs  there  is  excellent  shelter  in 
froni  5  to  12  fathoms,  the  bottom  being  sand  over  coral. 

The  best  position  depends  on  the  monsoon  ;  the  prevailing  strong 
winds  being  from  N.E.  and  S.E. 

•As  there  is  no  trade  on  this  part  of  the  coast,  nothing  is  gained  by 
approaching  the  shore  by  the  passages  between  the  inner  reefs ;  if 
obliged  to  do  so,  the  most  favourable  time  is  at  low  water  with  the 
sun  astern  of  the  vessel ;  the  lead  should  be  kept  constantly 
going. 

Tides. — The  tides  inside  the  outer  reefs  are  irregular  ;  the  flood 
is  stronger  than  the  ebb,  and  enters  by  the  various  openings  between 
the  reefs. 

TAMBTJZI  PASS,  between  the  reefs  of  Tambuzi  island  and 
Fungu  Nameguo,  is  3  miles  wide,  with  Bower  shoal  in  the  fairway. 

Bower  shoal  consists  of  patches  of  coral,  the  shoalest  water, 
9  feet,  being  near  its  eastern  edge.  Taking  the  depth  of  5  fathoms  as 
a  limit,  the  shoal  is  one  mile  long  and  half  a  mile  broad. 

To  avoid  this  shoal,  do  not  bring  the  south  extreme  of  Myonjt 
between  the  bearings  of  W.  ^  N.  and  W.  by  N.  J  N. 

Tambuzi  island  is  1^  miles  in  length,  east  and  west,  and  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  in  breadth  ;  it  may  be  easily  distinguished  by 
being  higher  than  the  surrounding  islands,  and  by  groups  of  tall 
fir  trees  near  its  extremes.  The  reef  on  which  this  island  stands 
extends  for  2  miles  on  all  sides,  with  the  exception  of  the  western. 

Anchoragre. — ^There  is  good  anchorage  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
west  of  Tambuzi,  in  9  fathoms,  sand  and  coral,  Myonji  summit 
bearing  S.W.  by  W.  i  W. 

No  Water, — Fresh  water  cannot  be  obtained  from  any  of  the 
islands  between  Ras  Pekawi  and  cape  Delgado  ;  and  it  is  for  this 
reason  that  the  islands  remain  uninhabited. 

Masasari  rook  is  3  feet  high,  with  a  sand  cay  which  uncovers 
at  a  quarter  ebb,  at  one  cable  to  the  north-westward. 

Msiianga  island,  54  feet  high,  is  of  coAl,  wooded,  and  with  a 
reef  extending  one  mile  eastward  and  southward. 

Myonji  pass,  between  Mshanga  and  Myonji  reei^  is  1|  miles 
wide,  but  narrowed    to   one-  mile  by  the  rocks  and  shoal  water 


Chap.  VII.]  TAMBUZI  PASS— MAZIMBWA  BAY.  365 

extending  northward  from  the  reefs  surrounding  Myonji  and  Ras  Ulu  ; 
it  is  the  only  ship  channel  to  Mazimbwa  bay,  and  carries  from 
13  to  30  fathoms  water. 

MAZIMBWA  BAY,  situated  to  the  northward  of  Ras  Ulu,  is  a 
capacious  and  well-sheltered  anchorage,  with  depths  of  5  to  9  fathoms. 

The  southern  shore  of  the  bay  is  covered  with  mangroves,  backed 
by  a  wooded  range  200  feet  high.  Ras  Niguro,  the  north  point  of 
entrance  to  Mazimbwa  river,  is  a  bold  cliffy  point,  the  highest  on  this 
part  of  the  coast ;  the  cliffs  continue  along  the  northern  shore  of  the 
bay  for  2  miles,  thence  the  coast  to  Ras  Msangi  is  low  and  sandy, 
occasionally  fringed  with  mangroves. 

Mud  flats  extend  one  mile  off  the  south  shore  of  Mazimbwa 
bay. 

Mwamba  Msaro. — At  one  mile  off  these  mud  flats  is  Mwamba 
Msaro,  a  narrow  coral  reef  2  miles  long,  extending  parallel  to  the 
shore,  with  shoal  water  between  it  and  the  shore  reef.  It  dries  at 
low-water  springs. 

Mwamba  Eisoclia  may  be  considered  the  northern  limit  of 
Mazimbwa  bay  ;  this  reef  projects  2|  miles  from  the  mainland,  with 
several  detached  pieces  of  coral  to  the  southward,  and  shoal  water* 
reaching  3|  miles  from  the  shore. 

Ras  Niguro  bearing  W.  by  N.  J  N.  leads  clear  of  the  southern  limit 
of  the  shoal  water ;  and  Ras  Msangi  tall  trees  bearing  N.N.E,  leads 
eastward  of  it. 

Directions. — To  proceed  to  Mazimbwa  bay,  having  entered  by 
Tambuzi  pass,  and  observed  the  clearing  mark  for  Bower  shoal 
(page  264),  vessels  should  then  pass  southward  of  Masasari  rock 
(3  feet  high)  at  a  half  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile  distant,  and  bring 
it  to  bear  E.  by  S.  |  S.  ;  this  bearing  qn  astern  and  steering 
W.  by  N.  ^  N.,  will  lead  through  Myonji  pass  ;  when  Myonji  summit 
bears  S.  by  E.  ^  E.  or  the  western  extreme  of  Mshanga  N.E.  J  E., 
steer  N.W.  ^  N.,  avoiding  the  spit  extending  from  Mwamba 
Msaro,  until  Ras  Niguro,  the  north  point,  of  Mazimbwa  river  bears 
W.N.W.,  when  it  can  be  steered  fpr  on  that  bearing,  anchoring  as 
convenient  in  Mazimbwa  bay.  There  is  an  intricate  channel  from  the 
northward  along  the  shore,  for  which  see  Ras  Msangi,  p.  267,  268. 

Ancliorage. — ^When  inside  Myonji  pass,  a  vessel  can  always 
anchor,  the  depths  varying  from  5  to  10  fathoms,  muddy  bottom.  A 
good  berth  is  in  8  fathoms,  with  Ras  Niguro  bearing  W.by  N.  |  N., 
and  Ras  Ulu  S.S,E. ;  a  small  vessel  may  proceed  nearer  the  river  and 
anchor  in  about  4  fathoms. 


266  IBO  TO  CAPE  DBLGADO.  [Chap.  VII- 

Tides. — The  flood  sets  to  the  westward,  and  is  scarcely  felt,  but 
the  ebb  sets  to  the  eastward  at  the  rate  of  from  2  to  3  knots  an  hour 
at  springs. 

Mazimbwa  river  or  oreek. — In  the  western  part  of  Mazimbwa 
bay  is  a  creek  with  numerous  bends,  that  trends  north-west  for  4 
miles,  and  is  then  lost  in  a  mangrove  swamp.  Boats  can  only 
ascend  it  on  a  rising  tide  ;  extensive  mud  and  sand  banks  narrow  the 
channels  to  a  few  yards  in  width. 

Lupululu  island,  in  the  entrance  to  the  river,  is  low,  sandy,  and 
covered  with  large  baobab  trees  ;  patches  of  large  black  rocks  extend 
from  its  eastern  end,  leaving  a  narrow  boat  channel  close  to  Has 
Niguro. 

Port  Mazimbwa,  within  the  river,  has  a  general  depth  of  1^ 
fathoms.  Holes  of  6  and  3  &thoms  exist,  but  are  surrounded  by 
shallow  water.  The  narrow  and  circuitous  passage  with  1^  Mhoms 
water,  south-west  of  Lupululu  island,  leads  from  the  bay  to  the  port. 

The  town  of  Mazimbwa,  on  the  north  side  of  the  port,  has  a  popula- 
tion of  about  400,  under  Portuguese  jurisdiction.  The  fort  is  a  ruin 
overgrown  with  weeds  and  not  distinguishable  from  seaweed. 

On  the  western  side  is  Mtamba  village,  consisting  of  about  100  huts. 

Supplies. — ^Fowls,  goats,  sweet  potatoes,  cassava,  and  sweet  lemons, 
can  be  obtained  by  giving  two  days  notice.  Water  may  be  obtained 
from  a  well  in  Mtamba  village  ;  it  has  a  pleasant  taste,  but  is  of  a 
milky- white  colour. 

Several  Banians  reside  at  Mazimbwa,  exporting  india-rubber  in  a 
raw  state,  and  importing  American  cloth,  arms,  &c.  A  dhow  runs 
monthly  to  Ibo. 

SUNA  PASS,  between  Tambuzi  island  reef  and  Mwamba 
Tambula,  is  2J  miles  wide  and  clear  of  danger.  Vessels  from  the 
northward  may  enter  Mazimbwa  bay  by  this  pass,  on  either  side 
of  Masasari  rock,  and  thence  as  before  directed  (p.  265) ;  the  shoalest 
water  is  5^  fathoms  nearly  in  mid-channel. 

Slina  island  is  small  and  of  coral  formation,  with  its  summit 
crowned  with  trees  58  feet  above  the  sea ;  it  is  free  from  danger  on 
its  western  side,  but  a  reef  extends  about  one  mile  in  an  east  and 
south  direction. 

Luwinza  rook,  6  feet  above  high  water,  and  about  2^  miles 
south-west  of  Suna  island,  bears  a  strong  resemblance  to  the  black 
hull  of  an  unmasted  vessel. 


Chap.  VII.]  SUNA  PASS— RAS  MSANGI.  267 

OongO  island  is  small  and  circular,  35  feet  high,  having,  in  1875, 
a  tall  dead  baobab  tree  in  its  centre.  The  surrounding  reef  extends 
1^  miles  south-east  of  the  island,  and  on  it  are  several  boulders, 
uncovering  at  quarter  ebb.  Shoal  patches  of  coral  also  extend 
2^  miles  in  northerly  and  westerly  direction  from  the  island. 

Mwamba  Kisangra  MungrU-  embraces  the  whole  of  the  numerous 
coral  patches  and  rocks  lying  between  Mshanga  and  Congo  islands  in 
one  direction,  and  Suna  island  and  the  round  coral  islet  in  the  other. 

It  consists  of  extensive  coral  reefs,  with  sevenil  sand  cays  and 
detached  rocks,  with  one  and  2  fathoms  water  between  them.  These 
coral  patches  and  shallow  water  extend  north  and  south  over  a  space 
of  about  10  miles. 

A  narrow  channel,  with  IJ  fathoms  water,  lies  between  Luwinza 
r^ef  and  the  shoal  north  of  it,  fit  only  for  dhows  and  boats. 

NYUNI  PASSy  between  Mwamba  Tambula  and  the  reefs  ex- 
tending southward  from  Eif uki  and  Mtundo  islands,  is  3^  miles  wide 
at  the  entrance,  but  narrowed  to  |  of  a  mile  by  Gray  patches  and  a 
3-fathoms  shoal  off  the  south  side  of  Kifuki  island. 

Mwamba  Tambula,  forming  the  south  side  of  Nyuni  pass,  is 
4  miles  in  length  by  2  miles  in  breadth,  with  sand  cays  and  boulders 
drying  from  5  to  9  feet.  It  is  steep-to  on  the  northern  and  eastern 
faces,  and  the  heavy  surf  plainly  marks  the  edge  of  the  reef. 

Nyuni  island,  17  feet  high,  at  the  north-west  extreme  of  the 
reef,  is  small,  flat,  and  covered  with  short  grass. 

Gray  patches  extend  2^  miles  N.  by  W.  J  W.  from  Nyuni  island; 
they  consist  of  one  16  feet  patch  and  several  18  feet  patches,  with 
i  and  5  fathoms  water  between  them. 

Directions. — To  enter  Nyuni  pass,  steer  for  Nyuni  island  on  a 
S.W.  by  W.  I  W.  bearing,  until  a  square  black  clump  of  trees  on  Ras 
Msangi  (probably  the  only  portion  of  the  main  land  visible)  bears 
N.  W.  by  W.  J  W.,  when  the  trees  can  be  steered  for ;  this  course 
will  lead  a  vessel  in  mid  channel  with  not  less  than  10  fathoms. 

RAS  MSANGI,  the  northern  extreme  of  Mazimbwa  bay,  is  a 
well  marked  point  47  feet  high  ;  it  may  be  recognized  by  a  square 
black  clump  of  tall  fir  trees,  94  feet  high,  on  its  northern  side,  the 
most  conspicuous  object  on  this  part  of  the  mainland. 

The  coast  reef  extends  J^  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Msangi,  and 
shallow  water  borders  the  point  to  a  distance  of  2}  miles,  and  thence 
the  coast  to  the  south-westward  to  Mwamba  Kisocha. 


268  IBO  TO  OAPB  DELGADO.  [Ohap.  VII. 

Ohannel. — ^A  3-fathom  channel  to  Mazimbwa  bay  exists  south- 
ward between  the  shallow  ground  extending  from  the  shore  of  Ras 
Msangi,  and  the  shallow  ground  to  the  north  and  west  of  Congo 
island,  but  it  is  so  circuitous  and  narrow,  with  no  leading  marks,  that 
it  is  impracticable  for  vessels. 

JeflCreys  rook,  a  pinnacle  having  less  than  6  feet  water,  with 
4  to  6  fathoms  around,  is  the  southern  danger  in  this  channel ;  it 
lies  with  Msangi  high  clump  bearing  N.E.  |  N.  and  Congo  island 
S.E.  i  E. 

KIFUKI  and  MTUNDO  ISLANDS  are  on  one  reef,  and 
being  almost  joined  together,  may  be  considered  as  one  island.  Both 
are  about  80  feet  high  and  thickly  wooded ;  when  made  from  the 
south-eastward  the  various  elevations  appear  as  detached  hills,  the 
highest  on  Kifuki  being  a  cone-shaped  clump  of  trees.  On  the  reef, 
at  the  north-east  end  of  Mtundo,  is  Sandcay  islet,  23  feet  high,  and 
Makunga  islet,  8  feet  high ;  the  latter  is  not  easily  recognised. 

A  reef  skirts  the  south  coast  of  Kifuki  and  Mtundo  at  the  distance 
of  half  a  mile  ;  at  the  south-east  extreme  of  Mtundo  the  reef  becomes 
more  extensive,  and  curves  round  to  the  southward  and  westward  at 
the  distance  of  IJ  and  1|  miles  from  the  shore,  leaving  a  lane  of 
water  from  one  to  2  fathoms  deep  between  the  outer  and  inner  portion 
of  the  reef. 

The  reef  on  the  eastern  side  of  Mtundo  extends  about  half  a  mile 
from  the  shore  ;  it  is  steep-to,  and  trends  to  the  northward  IJ  miles 
beyond  Mtundo. 

The  shoal,  with  3  fathoms  water,  previously  referred  to,  off  the 
south  point  of  Kifuki,  fofms  the  north  limit  of  Nyuni  pass. 

Klfukl  pass,  between  Ras  Msangi  and  Kifuki  island,  has  a  coral 
shoal  of  4J  fathoms,  and  3  cables  in  extent,  in  mid-channel,  with  its 
centre  bearing  W.  |  N.  distant  1^  miles  from  the  western  point  of 
Kifuki.  The  western  point  of  Kifuki  may  be  rounded  at  a  distance 
of  4  cables,  but  shallow  ground,  with  a  depth  of  1|  fathoms, 
extends  2  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Msangi. 

Anohoragre. — Good  anchorage  will  be  found  in  5  and  6  fathoms, 
sand  and  coral,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  north  or  south  of  the  west 
point  of  Kifuki,  according  to  the  monsoon. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  in  Kifuki  pass,  full  and  change,  at 
4h,  10m. ;  springs  rise  14  feet,  and  neaps  9  feet,  the  flood  setting 
north- westward  from  2  to  3  knots  at  springs,  but  scarcely  perceptible 
at  neaps. 


Ctap,  yiL]  KIFUKI  AND  MTUNDO  ISI^ANDS.  269i 

MTUNDO  PASS  is  the  opening  between  the  reefs  of  Mttindo 
and  Wamizi  islands  ;  there  is  a  deep  and  clear  channel  3^  miles  wide 
between  Fungu  Makunga  and  Wamizi  reef.  The  best  chahnelto  the 
inner  anchorage  is  the  one  northward  of  Penguin  shoal. 

That  to  the  southward  of  Penguin  shoal  has  depths  of  4  to  6 
fathoms  between  the  various  reefs,  but  the  water  shoals  to  3|  fathoms 
between  Vumba  and  Kisingura  islands  with  several  patches  of  from 
2  to  3  fathoms. 

Appearance  of  Land. — Wamizi  island  is  the  highest  of  the 
islands  in  this  district,  and  may  be  known  by  the  large  number  of 
wooded  eminences  making  as  detached  hillocks  from  seaward  ;  on  a 
nearer  approach  the  reef  will  be  seen  breaking  heavily  with  a  white 
sandy  beach  at  the  back.  The  wooded  islet  Mkunga,  30  feet  high, 
and  a  sand  cay,  are  on  the  reef  off  the  northern  extreme  of  Wamizi. 
The  mainland  is  not  visible  outside  these  islands. 

Fungu  Makunga  are  detached  shoals  of  2|  and  3  fathoms  on  a 
bank,  the  5-fathom  limit  of  which  is  3^  miles  north-east  from  the 
north-east  point  of  Mtundo.  There  is  generally  a  swell  in  Mtundo 
pass,  causing  the  sea  to  break  heavily  on  these  patches  at  low  water. 

Mwamba  Mtundo  are  coral  and  sand  patches,  drying  at  ihree- 
quarters  ebb,  situated  2  miles  northward  of  Mtundo  ;  detached 
patchos  of  coral  with  deep  water  between,  connect  it  with  Mtundo 
island. 

Gulnare  reef  lies  one  mile  west-north-west  of  Mwamba  Mtundo, 
with  4  to  6  fathoms  water  around  it.  Small  craft  should  not  use  the 
channel  on  either  side  of  Gulnare  reef,  except  at  low  water,  when 
the  reefe  show  plainly  ;  the  eye  and  lead  are  the  best  guides. 

Penguin  shoal,  one  mile  northward  of  Gulnare  reef,  is  1^  miles 
in  extent,  with  a  least  depth  of  6  feet. 

Vumba  and  Xlslngura  Islands  are  both  wooded,  and  64  and 
44  feet  high  respectively. 

At  1^  miles  north-eastward  of  Vumba  island  is  a  miishroom-shaped 
coral  islet  4  feet  above  high  water,  standing  in  the  centre  of  a  coral 
flat  1^  miles  in  extent. 

Directions  for  Mtundo  pass. — The  channel  northward  of 
Penguin  shoal,  narrowed  by  a  spit  with  2|  fathoms  on  it,  extending 
li^  miles  from  the  south  extreme  of  Wamizi,  is  8  cables  wide,  with; 
depths  of  8  to  10  fathoms. 

To  pr()6eed  to  an  anchorage  within  the  islets ;  iifter  passing  Funga 
Makungu,  bring  Ras  Nondo  to  bear  N.W.  |  W.,  and  steerfoiriit  until 


270  IBO  TO  CAPE  DBLGADO.  [Chap.  VII. 

the  west  extreme  of  Vumba  bears  S.W.  ^  S.,  when  a  course  can  be 
steered  to  the  southward,  anchoring  when  convenient. 

A  good  position  is  in  7  fathoms,  sand,  with  Ras  Nondo  bearing 
N.W.  by  N.,  and  the  west  extreme  of  Vumba  S.W.  The  passage 
inside  Vumba,  between  it  and  the  shore  flats,  is  only  3  cables  wide, 
with  a  depth  of  4  fathoms,  and  only  practicable  for  handy  vessels  of 
light  draught. 

If  entering  Mtundo  pass  from  the  southward,  do  not  bring  the 
eastern  extreme  of  Wamizi  to  bear  eastward  of  North,  until  Vumba 
island  bears  W.  by  S.  ;  the  latter  will  show  as  two  small  distinct 
black  lumps. 

COAST. — Ras  Nondo,  on  the  mainland,  lies  abreast  of  Wamizi 
island  ;  the  shore  immediately  north  of  Ras  Msangi  forms  a  bay 
about  two  miles  deep  ;  sand  flats,  dry  at  low  water,  extend  all  along 
shore  to  the  northward  at  a  distance  of  2  miles,  rendering  landing 
impracticable  except  at  high  water ;  these  sand  fiats  are  again 
bordered  by  shallow  water  which  extends  3f  miles  from  the  shore. 
The  land  is  low  and  wooded,  and  there  are  villages  consisting  of  a 
few  huts  on  the  coast,  from  the  inhabitants  of  which  a  few  fowls 
may  be  obtained ;  these  villages  will  be  found  in  the  cocoa-nut 
groves. 

Ras  Nondo  may  be  easily  recognised  from  the  southward  by  a 
group  of  tall  fir  trees.  The  coast  sand  bank  extends  nearly  2 
miles  north-east  of  this  point,  leaving  a  boat  passage  between  it  and 
the  west  end  of  Wamizi  island. 

WAMIZI  PASS. — The  opening  between  the  reefs  of  Rongwi 
and  Wamizi  islands  is  5^  miles  across,  and  between  the  reefs  of 
Keramimbi  and  Wamizi  3|  miles.  The  passage  is  deep  and  clear, 
with  the  exception  of  Mwamba  Mpanga-panga. 

Wamizi  island  is  nearly  8  miles  long,  east  and  west,  and  rather 
less  than  one  mile  broad ;  it  is  63  feet  high  at  its  west  end,  and 
92  feet  high  at  its  east  end,  and  wooded  ;  several  of  the  high  clumps 
of  trees  bear  a  certain  resemblance  to  hills  when  at  a  distance.  The 
island  is  fringed  by  a  reef  to  a  distance  of  IJ  miles  in  places. 

The  Portuguese  formerly  had  an  establishment  here,  but  the 
scarcity  of  water  caused  its  removal.  ^ 

Mwamba  Mpanga-panga. — The  south  end  of  this  danger  lies 
about  2J  miles  north-east  of  the  west  extreme  of  Wamizi ;  the  reef 
is  1^  miles  in  extent,  composed  of  coral  and  sand,  with  2  feet  least 
water,  and  steep-to  on  all  sides  ;  it  is  usually  difficult  to  recognise 
except  at  low  water^ 


Ghap.VII.]  WAMIZI  PAS&— MAIYAPA  BAT.  271 

Eeramimbi  Island,  40  feet  high,  on  the  northern  side  of 
Wamizi  pass  is  nearly  one  mile  long,  by  half  a  mile  broad,  and 
thickly  wooded.  Shoal  water  and  coral  patches,  some  dry  at  low 
water,  surround  this  island  at  a  distance  of  1^  miles  to  the  south- 
ward and  eastward  ;  the  whole  space  within  the  island  as  fer  north- 
ward as  Has  Afunji,  is  shallow  ground. 

Pollard  shoal,  half  a  mile  in  extent,  with  1^  fathoms  water, 
and  steep-to,  lies  S.  by  E.  J  E.,  distant  2|  miles  from  the  east  extreme 
of  Rongwi  island. 

Directions. — ^When  entering  Wamizi  pass,  borrow  a  little  on 
Wamizi  island,  but  taking  care  not  to  close  it  within  2  miles,  until 
Mkunga  islet  off  the  north  end  of  Wamizi  bears  S.E.  by  E, ;  it  will 
then  show  clear  of  the  island,  and  if  kept  on  this  bearing  astern, 
will  lead  to  an  anchorage  in  10  fathoms,  sand  and  coral,  with  the 
east  point  of  Keramimbi  bearing  N.N.E. 

MAIYAPA  BAY. — ^The  shores  of  this  bay,  between  Ras  Nondo 
and  Ras  Afunji,  12  miles  apart,  are  bordered  with  extensive  sand 
banks  and  shallow  ground,  which  with  Mwamba  Mpanga-panga, 
Keramimbi  and  its  surrounding  reefs,  together  with  numerous  deep 
holes  of  30  and  20  fathoms,  limit  any  anchoring  ground  to  a 
comparative  small  area.* 

The  western  part  of  the  bay  near  port  Mluri  is  mangrove,  but  the 
north  and  south  portions  are  sand.  The  only  prominent  features  in 
Maiyapa  bay  are  three  tall  fir  trees,  the  centre  and  largest  is  2^  miles 
north-west  of  Ras  Nondo.  In  the  south-west  part  of  the  bay  at  4  and 
5  miles  respectively,  north-west  of  Ras  Nondo  are  the  rivers  Mluri 
and  Maiyapa.  The  principal  village  in  the  bay  is  that  of  Marongo, 
consisting  of  70  huts  ;  a  few  fowls,  goats,  and  sweet  potatoes  may  be 
obtained.  A  range  of  wooded  hills,  200  feet  high,  extends  from 
about  Ras  Niguro  northward  to  cape  Delgado.  Several  villages  are 
situated  in  the  cocoa-nut  groves. 

Directions. — ^Vessels  proceeding  to  Maiyapa  bay,  may  use  the 
channel  either  northward  or  southward  of  Mwamba  Mpanga-panga, 
but  the  northern  is  recommended  on  account  of  the  more  gradual 
shoaling  of  the  water. 

To  enter  by  the  north  channel,  follow  the  directions  laid  down  for 
Wamizi  pass  above,  but  instead  of  anchoring  as  there  directed,  steer 
W.S.W.  for  the  south-eastern  of  three  remarkable  firs,  until  the  single 
tree   on  west  end  of  Wamizi  bears  S.  ^  E.,  then  alter  course  to 

*  See  Admiralty  chart,  Ras  Pekawi  to  cape  Delgado,  No.  M8. 


272  IBO  TO  OAPE  DBLOADO.        '  [Chap.  Vll. 

W.  by  W.'l  W.,  and  anchor  as  convenient  in  from  6  to  10  fethoms, 
sand  and  coral.       ' 

The  south  channel,  between  Mwamba  Mpanga-panga  and  that  of 
Watiiizi  is  three-quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  the  shoals  on  both  sides 
being  steep-to.  To  proceed  through  this  channel,  borrow  a  little  on 
Wamizi  island  until  the  single  tree  on  its  western  end  bears  W.S.W.  ; 
steer  for.it.  on  that  bearing  until  a  conspicuous  rise  (the  second  clump 
of  trees  80  feet  high,  1|  miles  from  the  eastern  extreme  of  Wamizi) 
bears  S.E.  by  E.  |  E. ;  keep  this  bearing  on  astern  until  Wamizi  single 
tree  bears  S.  by  W.  ^  W.,  thence  a  N.  by  W.  |  W.  course  will  lead  to 
an  anchorage  in  the  northern  portion  of  Maiyapa  bay. 

AnolloragrO. — The  anchorage  ground  in  Maiyapa  bay  off  the 
passage  leading  to  port  Mluri  is  composed  of  mud,  but  in  other  parts 
sand  Hud  coral.  Good  anchorage,  but  rather  exposed  to  the  ocean 
swell,  may  be  found  in  7  ^thorns,  with  the  extremes  of  Wamizi 
bearing  S.  ^  E.  and  S.E.  by  E.,  and  Keramimbi  south  point  E.  J  N. 

H.M.S.  Nassau  rode  out  a  strong  south-easterly  gale  in  smooth 
water,  5  cables  south-west  of  Mwamba  Mpanga-panga  in  6  fathom^, 
sand  and  coral. 

Tides. — In  Maiyapa  bay,  the  flood  sets  south-westward,  and  the 
ebb  south-eastward  at  the  rate  of  2  to  4  knots  at  springs. 

Port  Mluri. — ^A  tongue  of  sand,  dry  at  half  ebb,  projects  2  miles 
northward  from  the  southern  shore  of  Maiyapa  bay,  and  shallow 
water  extends  for  a  further  distance  of  2  miles,  westward  of  which 
is  the  channel  to  port  Mluri.  This  channel  is  narrow,  with  a  9-feet 
shoal  in  the  fairway  ;  the  anchoring  ground  in  the  port  has  depths  of 
7  to  10  fathoms,  mud  ;  but  is  adapted  for  small  vessels  only.  The 
Portuguese  have  a  settlement  here. 

COAST.— Ras  Afanjl,  15  feet  high,  the  southern  point  of  Tunghi 
bay,  is  bold  and  sandy,  with  sand  banks  projecting  one  mile  from  it. 
The  channel  between  the  point  and  Rongwi  island,  is  one  mile  wide 
at  low  water,  but  so  obstructed  by  coral  reefs  as  to  be  only  navigable  by 
Ijoats. 

Dhows  trading  to  Kiuya,  however,  frequently  pass  through  at, 
high- water  springs. 

Rongwi  and  Tekomaji  Islands  may  be  considered  as  standing 
on  one  continuous  coral  reef,  upwards  of  9  miles  long  in  a  north  and 
south  direction,  the  seaward  face  of  which  is  steep-to,  as  is  also. 
Pollard  shoal  already  described.  The  reef  skirts  the  islands  generaUly^ 
at  a  distance  of  6n^  mile,  and  on  the  south-east  part,  where  it  extends 


Ckap*  Vll.]  PORT  MliURI— TUNOHI  BAY,  273 

farther  off,  there  are  several  detached  black  rocks  uncovering  at  half 
ebb. 

Rongwi  island  is  2  miles  from  Ras  Afnnji,  and  1^  miles  from 
Tekomaji ;  off  its  north-west  point  is  the  well- wooded  islet  of 
Kamesi,  40  feet  high.  Tekomaji  island  is  of  a  triangular  shape,  2  miles 
long,  and  as  its  name  implies,  there  is  no  water  on  this  island. 

When  approaching  these  islands  from  seaward,  the  only  distin- 
guishing features  are  two  rounded  lumps  of  trees  94  feet  high  on  the 
eastern  part  of  Rongwi,  and  when  within  6  miles,  three  fir  trees  on 
the  eastern  shore  of  Tekomaji  will  be  seen  ;  there  is  also  a  remarkable 
single  fir  tree  on  the  north-western  point  of  Tekomaji.  Both  islands 
are  low  and  flat,  but  densely  wooded  ;  the  outer  coast  of  Tekomaji 
is  rocky,  but  that  of  Rongwi  is  principally  sandy  beach. 

TUNQHI  BAY,  formed  by  cape  Delgado  on  the  north  and  Ras 
Afunji  on  the  south,  is  semi-circular,  having  a  sandy  beach  around 
its  shores  with  the  exception  of  the  portion  between  Kiuya  or  Tunghi 
village  and  cape  Delgado,  which  is  rocky.  The  land  between  cape 
Delgado  and  Mto  Mnangani  is  from  80  to  200  feet  high,  thence  to 
Ras  Afunji  it  is  low  and  flat.  On  the  wooded  ridge,  west  of  Mto 
Mnangani  is  a  single  baobab  tree,  also  a  compact  group,  250  and  228 
feet  high  respectively,  the  former  is  the  highest  ground  in  the 
vicinity  of  cape  Delgado.  There  is  also  a  conspicuous  single  palm 
tree  75  feet  high,  half  a  mile  from  cape  Delgado,  which  shows 
distinctly  all  over  Tunghi  bay.* 

From  Ras  Afunji  round  the  head  of  the  bay  to  Kiuya  village  are 
sand  and  coral  flats  stretching  one  mile  from  off  shore ;  shallow 
water  extends  a  considerable  distance  beyond. 

The  entrance  to  Tunghi  bay  between  the  reefs  of  cape  Delgado 
and  Tekomaji  is  2^  miles  wide,  and  the  only  channel  into  Tunghi 
bay.  The  reef  extends  IJ  miles  off  the  northern  and  north-eastern 
ends  of  Tekomaji,  and  is  steep-to  with  no  off -lying  patches  ;  the  reef 
qff  cape  Delgado  projects  one  mile  south-eastward  and  is  similar,  in 
character  to  Tekomaji  reef ;  a  heavy  surf  marks  the  edges  of  these 
dangers. 

Mto  Mnangani,  in  the  western  part  of  Tunghi  bay,  is  3  cables 
wide  at  the  entrance,  but  banks  which  dry  at  low  water,  narrow  it  to 
less  than  one  cable  ;  canoes  can  only  ascend  1^  miles  from  the 
mouth.  The  village  of  the  same  name,  consisting  of  a  few  well-built 
huts,  is  on  the  western  bank  of  the  river.  Fowls  and  excellent  fish 
can  be  obtained. 

*  See  Admiralty  chart,  Ras  Pekawi  to  cape  Delgado.  No.  658. 
S.O..  10626.  S 


274  ^   IBO  TO  CAPE  DBLGADO.  [Cliap..YU. 

Sliuya  vUlagrey  also  called  Tunghi,  is  concealed  from  view  by  a 
belt  of  thick  mangrove  bashes  which  front  the  shore,  but  the  position 
of  the  Tillage  may  be  readily  identified  by  an  unusually  thick  and 
tall  grove  of  cocoa-nut  trees.  The  old  fort  is  a  small  square  building 
in  a  dilapidated  state  with  three  guns,  probably  6-pounder8,  only  one 
of  which  is  mounted  and  occasionally  fired.  The  natives  were  civil, 
although  many  of  them  were  armed  with  knives  and  spears  ;  but 
they  have  a  bad  name  with  former  cruisers. 

Dhows  trading  to.  this  place  anchor  off  the  village  until  high 
water,  when  they  proceed  into  narrow  lanes  cut  in  the  mangroves  ; 
with  their  mast  down  they  are  completely  hidden  from  view  of  a 
boat  passing  immediately  outside. 

Supplies. — ^A  few  fowls  were  obtained  here  in  exchange  for 
calico,  money  was  also  taken,  but  the  best  articles  for  barter  are 
powder,  calico,  tobacco,  and  beads. 

Firewood  may  be  cut  on  any  part  of  the  coast  between  Ras 
Pekawi  and  cape  Delgado ;  it  is  generally  ill  adapted  for  steaming 
purposes,  but  by  a  careful  selection  of  trees,  many  of  them  might 
advantageously  be  used  with  coal. 

Climate. — ^Disease. — Small-pox  of  a  virulent  character  existed 
in  October,  1875,  amongst  the  villagers  northward  of  Ras  Pekawi, 
communication  between  many  of  the  villages  had  been  broken  off  to 
stop  the  contagion  ;  the  disease  had  been  imported  from  Madagascar. 
The  fever  months  were  coincident  with  the  principal  rainy  ones, 
viz.,  February  to  May. 

Directions. — ^When  entering  Tunghi  bay,  if  in  the  morning,  the 
single  palm  near  cape  Delgado,  and  the  baobab  trees  mentioned 
above,  will  probably  be  seen ;  approaching  from  the  northward, 
the  single  fir  on  the  north-western  point  of  Tekomaji  will  show  as 
an  extreme ;  during  the  afternoon  the  main  land  is  covered  with 
haze,  and  a  stranger  would  experience  difficulty  in  recognising  these 
points. 

The  group  of  baobab  trees  bearing  W.  ^  N.  leads  in  mid-channel ; 
soundings  will  not  be  obtained  with  the  hand  lead  until  Ras  Af unji 
is  well  open  westward  of  Tekomaji.  The  channel  leading  to  the 
anchorage  in  the  western  part  of  Tunghi  bay  is  only  5  cables  wide 
between  the  5-fathom  lines  of  soundings,  with  a  least  depth  of 
8  fathoms.  To  proceed  through,  keep  the  group  of  baobab  trees  as 
mentioned  before,  W.  ^  N.  until  Ras  Afunji  bears  S.  J  W.,  then  steer 
S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  until  Tekomaji  tree  bears  E.S.E.,  or  group  of 


Chap.  711.]  TUNGHI  BAT— WINDS,  CURRENTS.  275 

baobab  trees  W.  by  N.  J  N.,  when  if  the  latter  is  steered  for  it  will 
lead  to  an  anchorage,  which  must  be  chosen  with  caution. 

Anchorage. — The  best  anchorage  is  in  9  fathoms,  mud,  with 
Ras  Afunji  bearing  S.8.E.  ^  E.,  the  extreme  of  cape  Delgado  E.N.E., 
and  the  group  of  baobab  trees  W.  by  N. ;  the  bay  is  exposed  to  the 
ocean  swell. 

For  a  passing  vessel  the  best  anchorage  in  either  monsoon, 
sheltered  from  the  swell,  is  westward  of  the  north-west  point  of 
Tekomaji. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Tunghi  bay,  at 
4h,  5m.  ;  springs  rise  14  feet  and  neaps  9  feet. 

Winds. — From  information  received  from  the' natives  and  old 
residents  on  this  coast,  the  time  of  the  change  of  the  monsoon  as  well 
as  its  strength  is  rarely  the  same  for  two  consecutive  years  ;  but  the 
general  experience  gained  in  H.M.S.  Nassau,  whilst  surveying  the 
coast  was  as  follows  ;  north-easterly  winds  from  December  to  March, 
getting  lighter  as  the  season  progresses,  varied  occasionally  by  heavy 
squalls  of  wind  and  rain  from  N.W.,  accompanied  by  vivid  lightnings 
and  heavy  thunder. 

The  change  of  monsoons  occurs  in  April,  heavy  squalls  then 
frequently  blow  from  South  and  S.W.  By  the  beginning  of  May 
the  steady  southerly  monsoon  has  set  in,  generally  freshening  in  the 
afternoon  to  a  strong  breeze  ;  from  this  month  the  force  gradually 
lessens,  and  the  wind  veers  to  the  eastward  ;  by  October  very  light 
easterly  winds  prevail,  the  change  to  N.E.  taking  place  in  the  early 
part  of  November  in  a  gradual  manner  with  a  few  light  showers. 

Between  the  islands  and  the  main,  land  and  sea  breezes  prevail, 
the  latter  during  the  months  of  May  and  June  blow  very  fresh. 

CURRENT. — As  previously  stated  at  page  21,  the  separation  of 
the  equatorial  current  takes  place  between  the  parallels  of  about 
lat.  1(P  to  IP  0'  S.,  or  in  the  vicinity  of  cape  Delgado.  During  the 
height  of  the  north-east  monsoon,  the  separation  is  at  its  maximum 
northern  limit,  and  vice  versa. 

As  an  instance. — H.M.S.  Diamond  in  January  1877,  from  Mafia 
island  to  cape  Delgado,  experienced  the  usual  northerly  current 
about  2  miles  an  hour  until  within  40  miles  of  the  cape,  when  the 
cuiTent  was  found  setting  to  the  southward  at  the  same  rate. 


S.O    10626.  8  2 


276 


CHAPTER  VIIL 

CAPE   DELGADO  TO   RAS   KIMBIJI,  APPROACH  TO 
ZANZIBAR  CHANNEL. 

(Lat.  10"  40'  S.  to  lat.  7°  S.) 


Variation  in  1889. 

CapeDelgado ir  30' W. 

PortKilwa IP  10' W. 

Mafia,  Ras  Mknmbi  (Moresby  point)  10°  15'  W. 

OAPE  DELGADOy  known  by  the  natives  as  Ras  Kongo,  is  low, 
covered  with  trees,  and  not  easily  distinguished  from  the  other  low 
land  and  islands  when  coming  from  the  southward,  but  from  the 
northward  it  makes  like  an  island.  A  palm  tree,  75  feet  high,  stands 
on  the  south  side  of  the  cape  half  a  mile  from  its  extremity.  A  coral 
flat,  dry  at  half  tide,  fringes  the  cape,  extending  in  places  to  the 
distance  of  one  mile.*    For  currents,  see  preceding  page. 

LIGHT. — From  a  wooden  lighthouse,  painted  black,  erected  on 
cape  Delgado,  is  exhibited,  at  an  elevation  of  59  feet  above  high  water, 
a,  fixed  white  light,  visible  seaward  between  the  bearings  of  N.  25°  E. 
and  S.  25°  E.,  from  a  distance  of  10  miles  in  clear  weather. 

Cape  Roviima  or  Ras  Swafo  is  about  14  miles  N.  by  W.  ^  W.  of 
cape  Delgado.  From  cape  Delgado  the  coast  is  low  and  thickly 
wooded  as  far  as  cape  Roviima  or  Swafo,  a  distance  of  14  miles ; 
between  are  the  bays  of  Mbwezi  and  Keonga,  which  are  separated  by 
Ras  Nasunga.  The  shore  for  the  whole  distance  is  skirted  by  exten- 
sive reefs  and  shallow  water. 

The  long  ocean  swell  generally  breaks  heavily  on  these  reefs, 
which  are  visible  some  distance  off. 

*  See  Admiralty  charts  : — Cape  Delgado  to  Kilwa,  No.  1808,  scale  m  =  0*2  inch ; 
and  cape  Delgado  to  Mikindani  bay,  with  views,  No.  690^  scale,  m  =  1*0  inch.  The 
inf ormatloii  relating  to  the  coast  between  cape  Delgado  and  Mto  Porwe  is  by 
Lieutenant  F.  J.  Gray,  R.N.,  commanding  H.M:  suryeying  vessel  Nattau,  1874. 


Chap.  VIIL]  OAPB  DKLOADO— KEONGA  BAY,  277 

Mbwezl  bay,  between  cape  Delgado  and  Ras  Nasunga,  is  about 
5^  miles  across,  and  forms  a  bight  2  miles  deep,  with  a  long  white 
sandy  beach  in  its  north-western  part.  There  is,  however,  no 
anchorage  in  this  bay,  the  reefs  which  skirt  the  coast  being  steep-to, 
and  as  there  are  no  creeks,  landing  is  seldom  practicable. 

Mbwezi  village  stands  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  near  the  south 
end  of  the  sandy  beach,  in  a  groove  of  cocoa-nut  trees  ;  on  the  coast 
fronting  it  are  the  white  ruins  of  a  tomb. 

Ras  Nasunga,  the  northern  point  erf  Mbwezi  bay,  is  low,  and 
may  be  easily  recognised  by  the  number  of  detached  rocks  off  it. 
A  dangerous  reef,  with  rocks  and  boulders  on  its  outer  edge  extends 
in  a  south-east  direction  1^  miles  from  the  point,  diminishing  to 
about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  near  the  village  of  Mbwezi,  and  thence 
round  cape  Delgado.  The  sea,  which  generally  breaks  on  the  edge  of 
the  reef  off  Nasunga,  was  probably  mistaken  for  a  supposed  detached 
reef  named  Manbaquitana,  referred  to  in  an  old  memoir ;  but  con- 
stantly while  at  anchor  near  it  in  the  Nassau^  the  sea  was  observed 
breaking  heavily  on  the  outer  edge,  while  inside  it  the  water  was 
comparatively  smooth. 

KEONQA  BAY,  4  miles  across  between  Ras  Nasunga  and  Rsa 
Samadudu,  is  shallow  for  2  miles  from  its  head,  where  there  are  a 
number  of  sand-banks  that  dry  at  low  water  spring  tides. 

The  water  deepens  rapidly  outside  the  5-fathoms  line,  which  is 
one  mile  or  more  off  shore,  affording  little  or  no  anchorage,  and  the 
bottom  is  rocky.  Within  that  depth  numerous  heads  of  coral  and 
boulders  uncover  at  low  water  spring  tides. 

MtO  Keonga  and  MtO  Mpambl,  at  the  head  of  Eeonga  bay, 
are  arms  of  the  sea  ;  the  water  from  Mto  Mpambi  is  reported  to  join 
Mto  Decomba  to  the  north-west  at  spring  tides,  when  it  is  available 
for  canoes. 

Keonga,  a  village  about  2  miles  up  the  creek  of  that  name  on  the 

south  side,  stands  in  a  grove  of  cocoa-nut  trees,  on  a  small  ridge  70 

'  feet  high,  and  is  the  resort  of  many  of  the  dhows  trading  on  the 

coast.     It  contained  (in  1874)  about  1,000  huts,  and  had  an  estimated 

population  of  3,000;  the  entire  place  and  people  belonged  to  an  Arab. 

Water. — The  people  are  very  poor  and  no  stock  is  to  be  procured, 
but  good  water  may  be  obtained  at  a  well  in  the  creek  fronting  the 
village,  in  which  creek  the  dhows  usually  lay  screened  from 
observation. 

The  channel  leading  to  Keonga  is  shallow  and  tortuous,  boats  should 
only- ascend  it  with  a  rising  tide. 


278  CAPB   DBLGADO  TO  LINDI  RIVER.  [Chap.  VIII. 

Mwamba  Riooma  Ib  the  soathem  termination  of  the  coast  reef 
which  extends  off  Ras  Samadndu  for  a  distance  of  1^  miles,  forming 
the  northern  boundary  of  Keonga  bay.  Its  outer  edge,  dry  in  places 
at  low  water,  is  composed  of  rock  and  coral,  but  inside  it  is  white 
sand  over  coral. 

Directions. — ^Anclioragre- — "^^^  ^^  anchorage  is  in  7^  fathoms, 
sand,  with  the  extveme  north  point  seen  bearing  N.N.W.,  Mto  Keonga 
south  point  W.  by  N.  J  N.,  and  Ras  Nasunga  S.S.W. 

To  pick  up  this  anchorage,  bring  the  extreme  of  Ras  Nasunga  to 
bear  S.S.W.,  and  steer  for  it,  until  in  10  fathoms  water,  when  the 
anchor  should  be  immediately  let  go. 

ROVTJMA  BAY  is  contained  between  Ras  Swafo  and  Ras 
Matunda,  the  distance  between  being  about  9  miles,  and  the  depth 
of  the  bay  to  the  river  entrance  about  4  miles. 

Ras  Swafo  (Cape  Roviima),  the  south-east  point  of  Rovuma 
bay,  is  low  and  thickly  wooded,  with  a  small  conical  hill,  77  feet 
high,  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  coast ;  this,  hill  is  conspicuous 
when  near  the  land.  The  coast  of  Swafo  from  Ras  Samadudu  is  low 
and  thickly  wooded,  and  fronted  by  a  reef  to  the  distance  of  1^  miles. 

From  Ras  Swafo  to  the  south  poiiit  of  Mto  Letokoto  the  land  is 
low,  covered  with  mangrove  trees,  and  nearly  all  swamp  at  high 
water,  spring  tides.  About  2  miles  northward  of  the  Roviima,  on 
the  coast,  is  a  conspicuous  square  clump  of  trees,  and  at  1^  miles 
farther  north  is  a  group  of  three  remarkable  tall  trees,  which  from 
seaward  form  one  of  the  most  prominent  features  in  Rovuma  bay. 

Kilima  MundO  is  a  rather  sharp  well- wooded  peak,  350  feet  high, 
on  the  south  side  of  Rovuma  river.  Being  the  highest  land  in  the 
vicinity  it  is  seen  over  the  trees  near  the  coast  from  a  few  miles  off- 
shore, and  as  the  elevated  plateau  northward  of  the  river  has  no 
conspicuous  peak,  Kilima  Mundo  cannot  well  be  mistaken  from 
seaward. 

Kilima  Maclieriukay  north  of  Roviima  river,  is  the  south-east 
shoulder  of  a  long  flat  range  extending  to  the  north-westward.  From 
seaward  this  shoulder  may  be  readily  identified  by  three  lai^e  baobab 
trees  near  the  summit  of  its  eastern  face,  one  of  which  is  340  feet 
above  the  sea. 

Mwamba  Swafo  is  the  continuation  of  the  reef  fronting  the 
coast  from  the  southward.  To  the  northward  of  Ras  Swafo  it  dries 
in  patches  at  low  water,  springs,  nearly  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from 
the  shore,  and  to  the  eastward  for  1^  miles,  with  deptha  of  one  to  2- 


Chap.  VIII.]  ROVUMA   BAY.  279 

fathoms,  at  the  distance  of  1^  miles.  The  edge  of  this  bank  is 
Bteep-to,  and  the  tides  are  strong,  so  that  as  the  lead  would  give  but 
little  warning,  a  vessel  should  not  on  any  account  close  the  land 
within  2^  miles. 

MtO  Deoomba  is  a  creek  three-quarters  of  a  mile  westward  of 
Ras  Swafo,  with  a  bar  at  the  entrance  on  which  the  sea  generally 
breaks  heavily,  but  it  is  at  times  possible  for  a  boat  to  get  in  at  half 
flood.  Within  the  bar  depths  of  2  to  3  fathoms  water  can  be  carried 
for  one  mile  to  the  south-westward.  This  creek  is  reported  to  be 
navigable  at  high  water  for  canoes  to  Eeonga  bay. 

Mto  Mquango  is  a  small  creek  or  inlet  eastward  of  Roviima  river 
into  which  boats  can  enter  at  high  water,  springs,  but  some  little 
distance  up  it  is  almost  impassable  for  canoes.  The  sea  generally 
breaks  heavily  off  the  entrance  of  this  creek. 

Mto  LetokotO,  a  creek  north  of  Roviima  river,  is  about  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  reported  to  be  navigable 
by  canoes  for  a  distance  of  15  miles  to  Roviima  river,  but  it  is 
rendered  useless  for  navigable  purposes  by  a  reef  and  sand-bank 
which  dry  across  the  mouth,  making  it  impossible  to  effect  an 
entrance  from  seaward. 

Ras  Matimda,  the  north  point  of  Rovuma  bay,  may  be  easily 
recognised  by  a  series  of  white  sand-hills,  80  feet  high,  about  one 
mile  in  extent,  near  the  coast,  with  a  single  tall  tree  on  their 
eastern  extreme,  which  is  conspicuous  from  the  northward  or  south- 
ward. 

The  coast  reef  dries  nearly  one  mile  off  Ras  Matunda,  whence  it 
trends  south-westward  to  the  remarkable  trees  southward  of  Mto 
Letokoto,  where  its  distance  decreases  to  1^^  cables,  but  with  shallow 
water  some  distance  beyond. 

Anohorages. — There  is  good  anchorage  on  the  south  side  of 
Rovuma  bay  in  7  fathoms,  mud,  with  Ras  Matunda  bearing  N.  by  W. ; 
Kilima  Mundo,  S.W.  by  W. ;  and  extreme  of  Ras  Swafo,  S.E. 

This  was  found  the  most  convenient  anchorage,  as  less  swell  was 
experienced  than  in  other  parts  of  the  bay.  Good  anchorage  may 
also  be  obtained  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay,  in  10  fathoms,  mud, 
with  Ras  Matunda  bearing  N.  by  E. ;  and  the  remarkable  trees, 
W.  I  N. 

There  is  no  anchorage  immediately  off  the  river  entrance,  as  the 
bank  is  very  steep,  and  the  depth  decreases  from  90  fathoms  to 
5  fathoms  within  a  distance  of  2  cables. 


280  CAPE  DBLGADO  TO  LINDI  RIVER.         [Chap.  VIII 

Landlngr. — ^Westward  of  Mto  Decomba  is  a  long  flat  sandy  beach, 
on  which  it  is  possible  to  land  occaaionally,  but  between  Rovuma 
river  and  Ras  Matunda  it  is  seldom  possible  to  effect  a  landing,  the 
bay  being  quite  open  to  the  ocean  swell,  and  heavy  rollers  are  at  all 
times  breaking. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  in  Rovuma  bay,  full  and  change,  at 
4h.  10m. ;  springs  rise  12  feet ;  the  ebb  running  to  the  northward 
and  flood  to  the  south-eastward.  When  the  river  is  high  the  current 
runs  out  without  ceasing,  overcoming  the  flood  tide. 

ROVUMA  RIVER  is  at  the  head  of  Rovuma  bay,  and  5  miles 
westward  of  Ras  Swafo.  Its  width  at  the  mouth  between  the  trees 
is  about  8  cables,  but  at  low  water  this  is  reduced  by  a  sand  bank 
that  dries  from  the  west  shore  to  less  than  4  cables.  From  thence, 
the  direction  of  the  river  is  south-west,  but  at  about  2  miles  within 
the  entrance  the  channel  is  obstructed  by  sand  banks  in  places  nearly 
dry  at  low  water  springs.  (This  was  in  September,  during  the  dry 
season,  when  the  river  was  very  low.) 

Although  there  is  no  bar,  the  great  depth  of  water  immediately 
outside  the  mouth  of  the  river,  changes  suddenly  to  3  fathoms, 
causes  dangerous  overfalls,  especiallj^  when  the  wind  is  blowing  from 
the  eastward,  rendering  it  at  such  times  unsafe  for  a  boat  to  attempt 
to  enter,  the  sea  breaking  right  across.  The  ebb  runs  stronger  near 
the  mouth  of  the  river  than  a  row  boat  could  stem. 

The  entrance  is  not  easily  made  out  until  abreast  of  it,  and  there 
are  several  smaller  openings  both  north  and  south.  The  muddy 
water  from  the  river  extends  into  deep  water,  and  the  clearly  defined 
line  where  it  meets  the  blue  water  is  very  noticeable. 

Inland  Navigation.— About  2  miles  within  the  mouth  of  the 
river  sand  banks  commence,  which  obstruct  the  navigation,  rendering 
it  intricate,  the  channel  being  narrow,  with  a  depth  of  only 
5  or  6  feet  in  places,  and  here  and  there  running  abruptly  from  one 
side  of  the  river  to  the  other.  The  navigation  of  the  Rovuma 
depends  much  upon  the  season,  it  being  highest  in  March  and  lowest 
in  about  October.  Mr.  May  ascended  the  river  30  miles  in  H.M.S. 
Pioneer  in  March ;  the  water  subsided  in  the  middle  of  the  month, 
but  rose  again  nearly  to  its  former  height  at  its  end.  Mr.  May's 
examination  of  the  river  was  made  between  these  periods,  and  at  his 
turning  point  there  appeared  to  be  no  impediment  to  further  progress, 
but  the  water  beginning  to  fall  rapidly  induced  him  to  return  to  the 


Chap.  VIII.]     ROVUMA  RIVBR,  INLAND  NAVIGATION.  281 

entrance,  in  doing  which  a  depth  of  5  feet  only  was  carried  over  the 
shoal  patches.    The  stream  ran  3  knots.* 

Dr.  Livingstone  ascended  the  river  in  boats  156  miles,  in  September 
1862,  and  proceeded  to  just  below  Nyamatolo  island,  lat.  IP  53'  S., 
long.  38°  36'  E.,  about  114  miles  as  the  crow  flies  from  the  coast. 
The  river  was  unusually  low,  entailing  frequent  dragging  of  the 
boats  at  the  shallow  parts.  The  ascent  of  the  river  occupied  15  days, 
and  its  descent  10  days.t 

The  bed  of  the  river  is  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  flanked 
by  well  wooded  table  land,  apparently  ranges  of  hills  500  feet  high  ; 
sometimes  the  spurs  of  the  hills  come  close  to  the  river,  but  there  is 
generally  about  one  mile  of  alluvial  soil  between  the  high  land  and 

the  bank. 

About  60  miles  up  the  river  the  table  land  recedes,  and  there  is  an 
immense  plain  with  detached  granite  rocks  and  hills  dotted  about  it ; 
here  some  rocks  appear  in  the  river.  At  Nyamatolo  island,  the 
farthest  point  reached  by  the  expedition,  the  bed  of  the  river  is  all 
rocky,  the  water  rushing  through  numerous  channels  between  rocky 
masses  4  or  5  feet  out  of  water.  Canoes  go  through  these  channels 
with  ease,  and  the  expedition  might  have  taken  their  boats  up,  but 
they  were  informed  that  the  channels  were  much  narrower  farther 
up,  and  that  it  was  likely  they  would  get  them  smashed  in  coming 

down.t  ,     .  ,     J 

The  distance  from  Ngomano,  30  miles  above  Nyamatolo  island,  to 
the  Arab  crossing  places  of  lake  Nyassa  Tsenga  or  Kotokota,  was  said 
to  be  12  days'  journey.  The  Liendi  enters  the  Rovuma  at  Ngomano  ; 
it  rises  in  the  mountains  on  the  east  side  of  lake  Nyassa.  The  great 
slave  route  to  Kilwa  is  or  was  along  the  banks  of  this  stream,  which 
is  only  ankle  deep  in  the  dry  season. 

Natives.— There  are  but  few  people  near  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
and  they  are  shy  and  timid,  but  farther  up  there  are  numerous 
villages,  some  on  sand  banks  in  the  river.  The  natives  fired  with 
muskets  and  bows  and  arrows  at  the  expedition,  taking  advantage  of 
their  having  to  pass  a  narrow  passage  under  a  high  bank,  but  upon 
the  fire  being  returned  they  desisted.f 

The  Tsetse  fly  is  met  with  along  the  Rovuma,  and  the  people  in 
consequence  have  no  cattle. 

Supplies.— Only  a  scanty  supply  of  provisions  is  to  be  obtained 
from  the  natives.    The  water  of  the  river  affects  people  at  first,  but 

*  D.  May,  Master,  R.N.,  1861. 
t  Dr.  Livingstone,  1862. 


282  CAPB  DBLGADO  TO  LINDI  RIVER.  [Chap.  VIII. 

not  after  being  accufltomed  to  it.     Wood  for  steamers  may  be  easily 
procured. 

MSIMBATI  CHANNEL.— From  Ras  Matunda  the  coast  and 
reef  take  a  north-north-west  direction  for  4  miles,  to  Ras  Ruvura  ; 
the  reef,  which  is  steep-to,  extends  from  one-half  to  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  from  the  shore.  The  reef  at  Ras  Ruvura  is  broken  by 
Msimbati  channel,  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  with  depths 
of  about  30  fathoms,  and  leading  into  Mnazi  bay.* 

From  the  west  side  of  entrance  to  this  channel,  a  reef  nearly 
2  miles  in  width  protects  Mnazi  bay,  extending  10  miles  to  the 
north-westward,  to  a  point  If  miles  north-eastward  of  Ras  Sangamku, 
where  it  turns  westward  to  Mikindani  bay. 

There  are  two  islands  on  this  reef.  Mongo,  the  larger  of  the  two,  is 
low,  thickly  wooded,  and  has  a  number  of  tall  trees  near  its  north-west 
extreme  that  show  well  from  the  northward.  Ah  island  named 
Nakitumbi  is  connected  to  it  by  a  bank  of  sand  which  dries  at  a 
quarter  ebb.  Mana  Hawanja,  the  eastern  islet,  is  also  low  and 
covered  with  trees. 

MNAZI  BAY  is  a  large  sheet  of  water  within  the  coral  reef 
which  surrounds  the  islands  of  Mana  Hawanja  and  Mongo,  the 
entrance  to  which  is  by  Msimbati  channel.  This  bay  is  about  8  miles 
long  in  a  south-east  and  north-west  direction,  and  about  5  miles 
wide  from  the  entrance  to  Mnazi  village ;  its  extremes  are  shallow 
but  the  middle  is  clear,  with  depths  of  from  7  to  16  fathoms,  sand 
and  coral.  A  bank  of  sand  and  coral,  extending  from  a  half  to 
1^  miles  off  shore,  fringes  the  bay  from  Ras  Msimbati  to  Ras 
Sangamku,  which  makes  landing  difficult,  unless  at  high  water,  when 
it  is  practicable  at  Mnazi  village. 

Pungru  Acliumbu  is  a  coral  reef,  1 J  miles  in  length,  dry  in  patches 
at  low  water  ;  its  north  end  lies  W.  by  N.,  about  one  mile  from  the 
conspicuous  tree  on  Ras  Msimbati.  At  3  cables  eastward  of  the  north 
end  of  Achumbu  is  a  small  patch,  awash  at  low  water,  with  deep 
water  between.  A  small  coral  patch,  dry  at  low  water,  lies  nearly 
one  mile  N.W.  of  the  conspicuous  tree  ;  this  patch  is  on  a  bank  of 
sand  and  coral,  8  cables  in  extent,  nearly  in  mid-channel,  and  upon 
which  the  depths  vary  from  1|  to  5  fathoms. 

There  are  several  other  shoals  in  Mnazi  bay,  but  the  seaman  must 
be  guided  by  the  eye,  the  lead,  and  the  chart,  if  intending  to  thread 
his  way  to  an  anchorage  off  the  village  of  Mnazi. 

^  See  enlarged  plan  of  channel  and  anchorage  of  Msimbati,  on  coast  sheet  No.  690. 


Chap.  VIII.]  MNAZi  BAY.  283 

Mnazi  is  a  small  village  in  the  south-west  bight,  from  which  the 
bay  derives  its  name  ;  the  population  in  1875  was  about  300,  but  there 
are  more  people  in  the  neighbouring  plantations,  who  bring  the 
produce  of  their  fields,  &c.  to  Mnazi  for  barter  with  traders  from 
Mikindani. 

Supplies. — ^A  few  fowls,  eggs,  and  goats  are  to  be  obtained  from 
the  villages  between  cape  Delgado  and  Kiswere  harbour. 

Mangrove  wood  for  steaming  purposes  can  be  procured  on  any  part 
of  the  coast,  but  if  native  labour  cannot  be  obtained,  it  is  as  well,  if 
possible,  to  shun  the  fever  breeding  swamps  in  which  the  mangrove 
generally  thrives. 

Water  for  boats  employed  cruising  may  be  obtained  from  the  well 
at  Keonga  (p.  277),  and  also  from  a  well  near  the  coast  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  northward  of  Ras  Msimbati  in  Mnazi  bay,  but  there  is  no 
place  between  cape  Delgado  and  Mikindani  bay  where  a  vessel  could 
obtain  water  with  facility. 

Directions. — In  entering  Mnazi  bay  do  not  close  the  Msimbati  or 
south-eastern  shore  nearer  than  1^  miles  until  a  conspicuous  tree 
standing  alone  on  Ras  Msimbati,  bears  S.S.W.  ^  W. ;  this  bearing 
kept  on  leads  in  until  the  south  extreme  of  Mana  Hawanja  island 
bears  N.W.  ;  then  steer  S.W.  |  W.  (to  avoid  a  coral  patch  of 
If  fathoms,  which  extends  2^  cables  off  shore,  northward  of  Ras 
Msimbati),  until  the  tree  bears  South,  when  it  can  be  steered  for, 
anchoring  as  convenient  in  from  10  to  15  fathoms,  sand. 

Should  the  wind  be  blowing  fresh  from  the  northward,  a  better 
anchorage  will  be  found  southward  of  Mana  Hawanja  island ;  to 
reach  this  anchorage  steer  in  S.S.W.  ^  W.,  as  before,  for  the  con- 
spicuous tree  on  Ras  Msimbati  until  the  south-west  point  of  Mana 
Hawanja  island  bears  N.N.W.,  then  steer  N.W.,  and  anchor  in  from 
10  to  13  fathoms  as  convenient. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Mnazi  bay,  at  4h.  Om.; 
springs  rise  11  feet.  The  stream  in  Msimbati  channel  runs  from 
4  to  5  knots  at  springs,  with  heavy  overfalls  off  the  point  of  the  reef 
extending  south-eastward  of  Mana  Hawanja  island. 

There  is  very  little  tidal  stream  felt  in  Mnazi  bay;  outside,  however, 
the  stream  takes  the  direction  of  the  coast,  the  ebb  running  to  the 
north-westward  and  the  flood  south-eastward,  with  a  velocity  of  from 
2  to  3  knots  an  hour  at  springs,  and  strongest  near  the  reefs. 

MIKINDANI  BAY  lies  between  Ras  Sangamku  and  cape 
Paman,  and  is  about  4^  miles  wide  between  the  reefs.    The  shores 


284  OAPB  DBLGADO  TO  LINDI  RIVBR.  [Chap.  YIII. 

of  the  bay  are  fronted  by  coral  flats,  which  extend  from  a  half  to 
1^  miles  off,  and  dry  in  patches  at  low  water  springs.  Abreast  Ras 
Sangamku,  the  eastern  point  of  the  bay,  the  flat  extends  off  1|  miles. 
The  only  anchorage  is  on  the  east  side,  between  Shangani  shoal  and 
the  coast  reef.  Mikindani  bay  may  be  readily  identified  from  seaward 
by  Mlima  Mjoho,  a  remarkable  conical  hill  617  feet  high,  covered 
with  trees,  and  also,  if  within  seven  miles  of  the  entrance,  by  Hull 
rocks,  62  feet  high,  at  the  north  point,  a  curious  mass  of  conglomerate 
coral,  covered  with  brushwood.  Both  sides  of  the  bay  are  low,  and 
thickly  wooded,  while  at  the  head,  over  Mikindani  harbour,  the  hills 
rise  to  a  height  of  from  400  to  550  feet.* 

Sliangani  shoal  is  a  small  patch  of  coral  and  sand,  lying  in  the 
Mrway  of  the  entrance  to  Mto  Mtwara,  with  deep  water  all  round 
it ;  on  the  shoalest  part  the  depth  is  3  fathoms,  from  which  Ras 
Richemerero  bears  S.  ^  W.  distant  2  miles  nearly. 

MTO  MTWARA. — This  spacious  and  well  sheltered-harbour, 
3^  miles  in  length,  by  1^  miles  in  breadth,  with  good  anchorage  in 
from  6  to  14  fathoms  nearly  all  over  it,  lies  on  the  south-east  side  of 
Mikindani  bay,  the  entrance  being  from  one  to  2  cables  wide,  between 
Mwamba  Ribunda  and  Mwamba  Shangani,  the  coral  flats  fronting 
the  coast  on  either  side.  The  channel  is  not  so  tortuous  as  that  into 
Mikindani  harbour.f 

Messemo  sand  spit  on  the  east  side  of  the  channel,  and  about  1^ 
miles  within  the  edge  of  the  reefs,  is  steep-to;  having  rounded  this 
spit,  the  full  extent  of  the  harbour  is  seen.  On  the  south  side  of  the 
harbour  is  Mto  Pwazie,  a  creek  extending  about  2  miles  to  the  south- 
ward, when  it  becomes  lost  in  the  mangrove. 

Ancll0ragr6. — ^The  best  berth  for  a  short  time  is  near  Messemo 
spit,  in  14  fathoms,  sand,  with  the  end  of  the  spit  bearing 
N.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  and  the  small  cliff  S.W.  If  intending  to  make  any 
stay,  there  is  better  anchorage  farther  up  the  harbotir,  in  from  7  to  10 
fathoms,  mud. 

There  are  several  patches  of  coral  and  sand  in  the  harbour  with 
from  1|  to  5  fathoms  water  on  them,  for  which,  see  the  plan. 

Directions. — To  enter  Mto  Mtwara,  keep  Hull  high  rock,  bearing 
S.E.  I  S.,  astern,  until  Ras  Sangamku  bears  E.  by  N.  or  the  highest 
tree  (129)  bears  E.S.E.,  to  avoid  Shangani  shoal ;  then  bring  the 
remarkable  tree  (Finger  tree),  .from  which  the  lower  branches  were 


*-8ee  Admiralty  chart : — ^Mikindani  bay,  with  views,  No.  684,  scale,  m  =  2*0  inches. 
1 8e$  plan  of  Mto  Mtwara  entrance  and  yiew,  on  sLeet  No.  684;  scale,  m  =  3*0  inches. 


Chap.  VIII.]  MIKINDANI  BAY  AND  HARBOUR.  285 

cut  off  in  1874,  to  bear  S.  by  E.  and  steer  for  it  on  that  bearing, 
between  the  reefs,  until  Messemo  sand  spit  bears  S.S.W.  J  W.,  or 
Mjoho  shoulder  (with  high  trees  on  its  summit)  is  in  line  with 
Button  rock,  then  steer  for  Messemo  village,  borrowing  a  little  on 
the  eastern  shore  ;  thence  as  requisite  to  the  anchorage. 

Ras  Richemerero,  the  west  point  of  entrance,  kept  bearing  eastward 
of  South,  until  the  highest  tree,  before-mentioned,  bears  E.S.E.  also 
leads  westward  of  Shangani  shoal. 

When  past  Ras  Richemerero,  if  entering  on  the  flood  tide,  keep 
well  over  on  the  eastern  side,  and  if  with  the  ebb  running  out,  keep 
towards  Mtwara  village  to  allow  for  turning,  as  the  stream  runs 
sharply  round  Messemo  sand  spit  from  2^  to  3  knots  an  hour. 

With  a  good  look  out  aloft  there  is  no  difficulty  in  entering  the 
harbour  with  the  sun  astern,  the  eye  and  colour  of  the  water  being 
the  best  guides,  as  the  marks  given  are  none  of  the  best. 

Supplies. — There  are"three  villages  on  the  shores  of  the  harbour, 
but  neither  food  nor  water  can  be  obtained  in  any  quantity. 

'  Tides.— It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Mto  Mtwara  harbour, 
at  3h.  45m. :  springs  rise  12  feet ;  the  tides  run  strong  at  the  western 
anchorage,  and  also  in  the  channel. 

Misete  Creek  lies  between  Mto  Mtwara  and  Mikindani  harbour ; 
its  entrance  is  about  1^  cables  in  breadth  between  Mwamba  Dadi. 
and  Mwamba  Shangani,  with  depths  of  4  to  10  fathoms. 

From  the  entrance,  the  creek  extends  southward  for  If  miles, 
expanding  into  a  basin  nearly  half  a  mile  across,  with  depths  of 
1|  to  2}  fathoms,  sand  and  pebbles.  A  small  vessel  would  be  well 
sheltered  here,  but  with  the  harbours  of  Mikindani  and  Mto  Mtwara 
so  near,  the  seaman  would  have  no  object  in  pushing  into  such  a 
confined  space.  About  half  a  mile  from  the  head  of  Misete  creek  is 
a.  large  sandy  plain,  which  probably  covers  at  high  water  spring 
tides. 

MIKANDANI  HARBOUR,  generally  known  as  Pimlea 
harbour,  lies  at  the  head  of  Mikindaiii  bay  ;  it  affords  secure  anchorage 
in  from  6  to  8  fathoms,  mud.  It  may  be  recognised  by  a  group  of 
light  coloured  trees  on  the  east  side  of  the  entrance,  with  a  dark  tree 
in  the  middle  of  them,  which  is  conspicuous  at  all  times.  The 
observation  s})ot  on  the  south  shore  of  the  harbour  is  in 
lat.  10''  16'  31*  S.,  long.  40°  V  33"  E.» 

*  See  plan  of  Mikindani  harbour  entrance,  and  view  on  sheet  No.  684  ;^  scale, 
m  =  4*0  inches. 


286  CAPB  DBLGADO  TO  LINDX  RIVBB.  [Chap.  VIII. 

DangrePS.— At  2|  cables  S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.  from  Pemba  point  is  a 
rock  with  lesH  than  6  feet  at  low  water  springs  ;  and  in  the  south 
part  of  the  harbour,  3  cables  N.N.E.  of  the  custom  house,  are  two 
rocks  awash  at  low  water,  with  4^  fathoms  between  them  ;  a  third 
rock  lies  nearly  2  cables  fcom  the  custom  house  on  the  latter 
bearing. 

Directions. — ^To  enter  Mikindani  harbour  from  the  northward, 
after  passing  Hull  rocks  at  the  distance  of  half  mile,  a  S.  by  W.  ^  W. 
course  leads  up  to  about  one  mile  east  of  Ras  Managumba,  a  sharp 
rocky  point  with  two  villages  northward  of  it,  on  the  west  side  of 
the  bay.  Thence  steer  S.W.  until  the  clump  of  large  trees  on  the 
east  point  is  in  line  with  the  high  trees  on  a  conical  peak  inside  the 
harbour,  bearing  S.W.  |  S.,  southerly.  This  bearing  should  be  kept 
on  until  the  fort  (a  low  white  building  with  a  large  door  in  the 
middle  facing  the  harbour  entrance)  is  open  of  Pemba  point ;  then 
steer  S.W.  ^  W.,  which  leads  to  the  centre  of  the  harbour. 

The  above  remarks  are  offered  only  to  assist  in  piloting  a  vessel 
into  the  harbour,  but  the  channel  is  so  narrow  that  a  vessel  is  more 
easily  conned  by  eye  when  the  sun  is  in  a  favourable  position  ;  the 
reefs  on  either  side  show  at  low  water.  When  within  Gunia  point, 
the  narrow  entrance  opens  out  into  a  spacious  bay,  the  greater  part 
of  which  is  shallow. 

Anclioragre. — The  best  anchorage  is  in  6^  fathoms,  mud,  with  the 
fort  bearing  W.  ^  S.,  and  the  custom  house  S.W.  by  S. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  3h.  50m. ;  springs 
rise  12  feet.    The  tidal  stream  in  the  harbour  is  scarcely  perceptible. 

Supplies. — Although  there  are  several  villages  upon  the  shores 
of  the  harbour,  no  supplies  were  to  be  obtained,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few  fowls,  (1875);  there  were  neither  cattle  nor  sheep  in  the 
vicinity  ;    fresh  water  is  both  scarce  and  bad. 

Trade. — There  are  a  few  Banians  at  Mikindani,  who  trade  with 
the  tribes  three  or  four  days'  journey  into  the  interior,  sending  cloth, 
brass  wire,  muskets,  beads,  &c.,  and  receiving  in  exchange,  gum-copal, 
ivory,  seeds,  and  rice. 

COAST. — From  cape  Paman,  the  north-west  point  of  Mikindani 
bay,  the  coast  to  Mgau  Mwania  10  miles  to  the  north-westward  is 
low  and  bordered  by  a  reef  extending  from  three-quarters  to  1^  miles 
off  \  the  only  remarkable  feature  is  a  black  clump  of  trees  80  feet 
high,  3i  miles  beyond  cape  Paman.  When  off  Mgau  Wania,  Mlima 
Mjoho,  617  feet  high  will  show  as  the  southern  extreme  of  the  hilly 
range. 


Chap.  VIII J    MIKINDA5I  HABBOUR— MGUA  MWANIA.  287 

From  Mgau  Mwania  to  Lindi  river,  about  16  miles  farther  to  the 
north-west,  the  coast  continues  low,  with  a  reef  extending  from  a 
half  to  1^  miles  off. 

The  coast  from  Ras  Kera,  8  miles  northward  of  Lindi,  to  Machinga 
bay,  is  low,  with  a  few  off-lying  mangrove  islets  on  the  reef,  which 
extends  about  one  mile  off,  but  the  land  at  the  back  is  bold  near  Ras 
Kera.    A  similar  reef  fronts  the  coast  southward  of  Ras  Kera. 

The  coast  from  Mchinga  to  Mzungu  is  also  low,  with  numerous 
off-lying  mangrove  islets  on  the  reef.  Inland,  2  or  3  miles  distant, 
a  wooded  range  400  feet  high  extends  parallel  to  the  coast.  From 
Mzungu  to  Kiswere  harbour  the  coast  is  rocky. 

MQAIJ  MWANIA  (Mungulho  river).— The  entrance  to  this 
river  may  be  easily  distinguished  by  the  break  in  the  land,  when  the 
river  comes  open  on  a  south-westerly  bearing,  and  also  by  the  Mad- 
jovi  or  Mushroom  rocks,  on  the  western  reef,  4  cables  from  the  shore. 
These  rocks  are  three  in  number,  the  southern  and  largest  of  which 
is  15  feet  above  high  water,  and  shaped  like  a  mushroom ;  at  low 
water  the  reef  dries  around,  and  for  2  cables  outside  them.* 

Off  the  eastern  side  of  the  entrance  to  Mgau  Mwania,  Fungu 
Chosan  extends  l^^^  miles;  off  the  western  side  of  the  entrance, 
Fungu  Gomani  extends  If  miles,  and  dries  in  patches  at  low  water. 
With  the  exception  of  Nymphe  shoal,  the  approach  to  the  river  is 
clear  between  these  reefs,  with  a  nearly  straight  channel  of  from  6 
to  12  fathoms  depth,  and  2  cables  width. 

Position. — Madjovi  rock,  on  the  west  side  of  entrance,  is  in 
lat.  10°  6'  43''  S.,  long.  39°  59'  14"  E. 

Nyiliplie  shoal,  about  half  a  mile  in  extent,  with  a  least  depth 
of  2^  fathoms,  lies  in  the  fairway  of  the  river,  with  the  high  Madjovi 
rock  bearing  S.W.  ^  W.,  distant  1|  miles. 

A  rocky  patch,  one  cable  in  extent,  lies  S.W.  by  W.  4  cables 
from  Ras  Swa-Swa,  its  eastern  edge  being  2  cables  from  the  western 
bank.  Another  patch  lies  E.  by  S.  ^  S.  distant  about  half  a  mile 
from  Ras  Mgambera,  near  Sudi  village ;  it  is  about  three-quarters  of 
a  cable  in  extent,  and  its  north-eastern  extreme  is  nearly  in  the 
middle  of  the  river. 

Kisiwa  Jamadayah.. — At  about  one  mile  above  Sudi  village  is 
the  small  island  Kisiwa  Jamadayah,  south  of  which  the  river  is  not 
navigable  for  vessels. 

Anolioragrc  may  be  had  in  9  fathoms,  sand  and  coral,  within 
Nymphe  shoal,  with  the  high  Madjovi  rock  bearing  S.W.  J  W.,  and 
the  south-west  extreme  of  Mkiya  village  S.  by  W.  ^  W.,  but  in  the 

*See  plan  of  Mgau  Mwania,  with  views,  on  sheet  No.  681 ;  scale,  vi  =s  3*0  inohes. 


288  CAPB  DBL6ADO  TO  LINDl  RIVBR.  [Ghap.  VIII. 

north-east  monsoon  period,  this  anchorage  is  much  exposed  to  wind 
and  sea. 

There  is  good  anchorage  off  the  sonth  end  of  Mwania  village,  about 
mid-river,  in  9  fathoms,  mud,  and  also  at  a  quarter  of  a  mile  S.S.W. 
of  Ras  Swa-Swa,  in  6  fathoms,  mud. 

DireotiOIlS. — Proceeding  for  the  river,  do  not  close  the  coast 
within  2^  miles,  until  the  custom-house,  a  large  white  building  in 
Sudi,  is  open,  soon  after  a  small  sand  beach  to  the  right  of  it  should 
be  seen.  The  west  extreme  of  this  sand  beach  in  line  with  the  gap 
in  the  distant  hills  (see  view  on  sheet  No.  681),  bearing  S.W.  by  S., 
clears  the  west  end  of  Nymphe  shoal,  and  leads  up  to  the  entrance  of 
the  river.  When  Madjovi  high  rock  bears  S.W.  by  W.,  edge  to  the 
eastward  until  the  custom  house  is  its  own  width  open  of  the  sand 
spit  extending  from  Ras  Swa-Swa,*  which  will  lead  up  in  mid- 
channel  to  the  anchorage  off  Mwania. 

If  bound  to  the  anchorage  southward  of  Ras  Swa-Swa,  keep  as 
nearly  as  possible  in  mid-channel,  to  avoid  the  spit  which  extends 
nearly  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  that  point,  and  also  the  rocky  patch 
lying  S.W.  by  W.  of  it,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  channel. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  at  Mgau  Mwania  at 
3h.  45m. ;  springs  rise  12  feet;  off  the  entrance  the  flood  runs  to  the 
northward,  and  the  ebb  to  the  south-eastward,  with  a  force  of  from 
2  to  3  knots,  the  flood  being  stronger  during  the  south-west  monsoon. 

VlUagres. — There  are  several  villages  on  the  banks  of  Mgau 
Mwania ;  on  the  east  point  of  entrance  is  Mkiya,  and  about  a  third 
of  a  mile  farther  in  is  the  larger  village  of  Mwania.  Sudi,  where 
the  governor  of  the  district  resides,  is  on  the  west  bank  of  the  river, 
within  Ras  Swa-Swa,  or  about  3  miles  from  the  entrance.  The 
people  are  poor  but  civil  and  well  disposed. 

Supplies. — No  supplies  are  obtainable  in  the  river ;  Sudi  is  the 
only  village  with  good  water. 

LINDI  BAY,  the  entrance  to  which  is  between  Ras  Shuka 
(Clarkson  point)  and  Ras  Banura  (Kiremba  point),  is  5^  miles  deep, 
and  at  the  entrance  between  the  reefs  nearly  3  miles  wide.  The 
depths  in  the  outer  part  of  the  bay  vary  from  50  to  250  fathoms,  the 
coast  reefs  being  steep-to,  while  in  the  inner  part,  westward  of  a  line 
drawn  between  Ras  Ekapapa  and  Ras  Rungi  (Esmanti  point),  the 
water  shoals  rapidly.f 

*  The  extreme  of  this  sand  spit  is  not  to  be  relied  on ;  probably  the  gap  in  the 
distant  hills  in  line  with  custom  house  is  a  better  mark. 

"^See  plan  of  Lindi  river,  and  Magau  Mwania,  with  views,  No.  681 ;  scale,  m  sr  8«0 
inches. 


Chap.  VIII.]  MNDI  BAY.  289 

On  the  north  side  of  the  bay  the  coast  reef  in  places  extends 
a  quarter  of  a  mile,  and  at  Ras  Shuka  on  the  south  side,  it  extends 
nearly  half  a  mile,  but  thence  westward  to  Ras  Rungi,  it  does  not 
exceed  3  cables.from  the  shore. 

The  outer  edge  of  Fungu  Myangi  north  of  Ras  Shuka,  is  composed 
of  dead  coral  and  boulders,  forming  a  ridge,  the  top  of  which  is 
covered  at  three-quarters  flood,  and  on  it  the  sea  at  times  breaks 
heavily.' 

Approaching  from  the  eastward,  the  land  about  Lindi  bay  cannot 
be  mistaken  as  it  is  the  highest  on  the  coast  between  Zanzibar  and 
Mikindani  ;  the  hills  over  the  western  shore,  rising  to  a  height  of 
976  feet,  are  well  wooded,  and  cultivated  in  patches.  Mlima  Mdemba, 
947  feet  high,  has  a  grove  of  cocoa-nut  trees  on  its  summit. 

Approaching  from  the  northward  or  southward  the  great  indenta- 
tion in  the  coast,  together  with  the  high  hills  over  the  western  shore, 
is  sufficient  to  indicate  its  position. 

Utamar  shoal,  the  outer  extremity  of  the  shoal  water  extending 
northward  of  Ras  Nando,  the  west  point  of  Lindi  river,  lies 
N.  by  W.  i  W.,  1^  miles  from  Ras  Rungi.  It  is  1^  cables  long,  two- 
thirds  of  a  cable  wide,  with  a  least  depth  of  1^  fathoms  at  low-water 
spring  tides.  The  water  deepens  rapidly  at  half  a  mile  eastward 
of  the  shoal. 

Anchorages. — Fair  anchorage  may  be  had  in  Lindi  bay  during 
the  north-east  monsoon  between  Ras  Ekapapa  and  Ras  Mungu  on 
the  north  side  of  the  bay,  in  8  fathoms,  mud,  with  the  south  extreme 
of  land  to  the  eastward  bearing  E.  |  N.,  and  Ras  Rungi,  S.W.  by  S.  }  S. 
If  intending  only  to  remain  a  short  time,  good  anchorage  may 
be  obtained  in  5  fathoms,  mud,  off  Ras  Rungi,  with  centre  of 
Mwentengi  village  bearing  S.S.E.  i  E.,  and  Ras  Rungi  S.S.W. 

The  best  anchorage,  however,  as  regards  holding  ground,  shelter,  and 
convenience  for  vessels  of  moderate  draught  visiting  Lindi,  is 
half  a  mile  north-eastward  of  the  town,  with  Ras  Rungh  bearing 
S.  by  W.  I  W.,  and  Lindi  fort.,  West,  in  9  fathoms,  sand  and  mud. 

Tides.— It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Lindi  river,  at 
4h.  5m. ;  springs  rise  11  feet.  The  tidal  streams  in  the  bay,  outside 
the  bank  of  soundings  are  not  strong,  but  within  Ras  Rungi  they 
run  from  2  to  3  knots,  the  ebb  being  very  strong  during  the  rainy 
season,  when  a  vessel  seldom  swings  to  the  flood. 

Directions.— Bound  to   Lindi  from  the  northward,  the   coast 
should  be  given  a  berth  of  one  mile,  until  abreast  of  Ras  Banura,  a 
A.  10625.  T 


290  LINDI  BIVBR.  [Chap.  VIII. 

small  cliflfy  point  25  feet  high,  the  north-east  point  of  the  bay.  From 
this  position,  Lindi  fort,*  a  stone  building,  under  the  cocoa-nut  trees 
of  the  town,  with  a  white  house  to  the  eastward  of  it,  will  be  seen 
bearing  W.S.W.    See  view  on  plan  No.  681. 

Steer  for  the  fort,  keeping  it  well  open  of  Ras  Rungi,  which  clears 
the  reef  off  Ras  Nongerungo  (Putuani  point).  Soundings  will  not  be 
obtained  with  the  hand  lead  until  the  centre  of  Mwentengi  village,  bears 
eastward  of  South,  when  anchorage  may  be  taken  as  before  directed. ' 

If  intending  to  enter  the  river  steer  to  pass  within  half  a  cable  of 
Rafe  Rungi,  which  is  bold  to.f  When  Ras  Rungi  is  abeam,  steer 
W.  by  N.  to  clear  the  bank  extending  westward  of  it,  taking  care 
not  to  shut  in  the  last  extreme  of  Mwentengi  village  with  Ras  Rungi, 
until  Ras  Rungh  (Entrance  point)  bears  S.S.W.  \  W.,  or  Mlima  Atu 
appears  in  the  middle  of  the  river,  when  steer  in  mid-river,  and 
anchor  as  convenient. 

If  wishing  to  proceed  farther  up,  Ras  Rungh  may  be  rounded  at  one 
cable  distance,  and  keeping  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  a  vessel  may 
anchor  a  little  northward  of  the  watering  place,  but  the  holding 
ground  is  not  good. 

LINDI  RIVER. — ^The  entrance  to  the  river  is  between  Ras 
Nando  and  Ras  Rungh  whence  it  trends  about  S.W.  by  S.  for  Similes 
to  Gala  island,  the  width  varying  from  7  to  3  cables.  From  Gala 
island  (the  farthest  point  reached  in  the  survey  made  by  H.M.S. 
Nassau  in  1874:),  the  river  takes  a  south-westerly  direction  for  three 
miles,  when  it  branches  into  several  reaches.  The  principal  one, 
named  M'Tali  river,  takes  a  south-easterly  direction  for  3  miles, 
thence,  about  south-west,  with  many  bends,  for  a  distance  of  10  miles, 
beyond  v/hich  the  boat  could  not  proceed. 

The  M*Tali  river  terminates  at  this  point  in  a  sandy  plain,  across 
which  slave  caravans  travelled  upon  the  road  to  Lindi.  At  six  miles 
above  Gala  island,  upon  the  eastern  bank,  is  the  village  of  Nyandi ; 
the  river  is  stated  to  be  navigable  at  half  tide  for  vessels  drawing 
6  feet. 

For  entering  the  river,  see  above. 

Sand  Bank. — Off  Ras  Nando,  the  west  point  of  entrance  to  Lindi 
river,  is  a  sand  bank  which  dries  4  feet  at  low  water,  extending 
E.N.E.  A\  cables  from  the  point.  The  eastern  edge  of  this  bank  takes 
the  direction  of  the  stream,  forming  a  narrow  spit,  between  which 

*  The  fort  is  partly  hidden  by  the  trees ;  the  white  house  must  not  be  mistaken  for  it. 

t  The  depth  abreast  Bas  Rungi  should  be  ascertained  before  attempting  to  proceed 
to  the  town  ;  as  in  1888,  a  bar,  with  from  13  to  15  feet  at  low  water,  apparently 
extended  right  across. — Berlin,  Heft  1,  1889. 


Chap.  VIII.]  LINDI  TOWN,  SUPPLIES.  '  291 

and  the  shore  the  depths  are  from  1^  to  2  fathoms.    A  cask  buoy 
marks  the  eastern  edge  of  this  spit,  with  the  fort  bearing  W.  by  S. 

Fungru  Mbaohlwoiiaki  is  a  bank  of  coral  and  sand  5  cables 
long,  on  the  western  side  of  the  river,  dry  at  half  tide.  Its  north 
extreme  lies  abreast  of  Ras  Rungh,  distant  2f  cables.  There  is  a 
channel  for  dhows  to  the  westward  of  the  bank. 

Kisiwa  Nunyl  is  a  mangrove  island  half  a  mile  in  length,  on  the 
west  side  of  the  river ;  between  it  and  the  west  bank  is  a  boat 
channel  three-quarters  of  cable  wide.  Shallow  water,  3  fathoms  and 
less  extends  about  3  cables  from  its  east  side,  and  mud  spits  extend 
some  distance  from  its  north-east  and  south-west  extremes. 

Lindl. — ^The  town  of  Lindi  consists  of  about  500  wood  and  straw 
huts,  built  under  a  grove  of  cocoa-nut  trees,  the  old  fort,  which  is  in 
a  very  dilapidated  condition  and  has  no  guns  mounted,  being  on  the 
north-west  side  of  it.  The  population  in  1874  was  about  2,000.  The 
observation  spot  at  the  fort  is  in  lat.  9^  59'  30"  S.,  long.  39^  43'  41''  E. 

Imports. — European  goods,  hardware,  &c.,  are  imported,  sent  into 
the  interior,  and  exchanged  for  gum-copal,  rice,  mtama  seed,  skins, 
vory,  &c.  Nearly  all  trade  is  conducted  by  the  Banians,  who  are  to 
be  found  at  most  of  the  places  on  the  coast.  For  some  miles  round 
Lindi  the  country  is  well  cultivated,  rice,  mtama  seed,  manioc,  &c., 
being  grown  in  abundance. 

Supplies. — ^About  Lindi  there  are  a  small  number  of  cattle 
belonging  to  the  Banians,  but  they  will  not  sell ;  there  are  no  sheep  ; 
fowls,  eggs,  and  goats,  are  to  be  obtained  in  small  quantities,  though 
not  sufficient  to  replenish  the  stock  of  a  moderate-sized  vessel.  All 
vegetables  are  scarce,  and  as  the  natives  principally  subsist  on  them, 
they  also  are  difficult  to  obtain. 

Water. — There  are  several  wells  in  Lindi,  but  the  water  is 
brackish.  Good  water  may,  however,  be  obtained  at  the  watering 
place  "on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  from  a  spring  which  passes  under 
a  turreted  stone  house  just  inside  the  mangroves,  but  it  would  be 
difficult  to  get  in  large  quantities,  except  at  high  water,  when  boats 
could  go  up  the  creek. 

THE  COAST.— MtO  Mbanja  is  situated  3  miles  northward  of 
Lindi  bay,  and  may  be  known  by  a  large  gap  in  the  hills  ;  inside  the 
mouth,  the  water  shoals  to  3  feet.  Dhows  can  enter  the  river  at  all 
times  of  tide.    There  is  no  anchorage  off  the  river.* 

Ras  Kibungwe,  at  2  miles  northward  of  Mbanja,  is  a  wooded  point 

*  See  Admiralty  chart :— Gape  Delgado  to  Kilwa,  No.  1808. 
A.  10626.  T  2 


292  LINDI  BIVAB  TO  KILWA  KIVINJB.  [Chap.  VIII. 

50  feet  high  ;  at  half  a  mile  to  the  northward  of  the  point  is  an  islet 
closely  resembling  it. 

MtO  Kera  is  a  small  river  immediately  south  of  the  point  of  that 
name.  Between  the  reefs  at  the  entrance  there  is  a  depth  of 
4  fathoms  ;  but  the  mouth  is  so  narrow  that  a  heavy  swell  caused  by 
the  surf  on  either  side,  rolls  in  and  makes  it  dangerous  even  for 
boats  to  enter.    Ras  Kera  is  a  bold  looking  mangrove  point. 

MGHINQA  BAY  (port  Nungwa),  lying  between  Ras  Mzinga 
and  Ras  Rokumbi  (Nungwa  point)  is  about  one  mile  wide,  with 
depths  near  its  head  of  from  3  to  8  fathoms  ;  it  may  be  known  by 
the  gap  shown  by  the  Mto  Namgaru,  at  its  head,  and  the  mangrove 
islets  on  the  coast  reefs  extending  from  the  two  points  of  entrance. 
These  reefs  surround  the  points  and  both  the  north  and  south  sides 
of  the  bay,  to  the  distance  of  3.  half  to  three-quarters  of  a  mile.* 

The  town  of  Mchinga  is  in  the  north-west  comer  of  the  bay,  and 
stands  in  a  cocoa-nut  grove.  The  chief  resides  at  Mchinga  village 
on  the  south  shore.    No  supplies  or  water  are  obtainable. 

Position. — The  observation  spot,  north  of  Mchinga  village,  is  in 
lat.  9°  44'  22"  S.,  long.  39°  44'  7"  E. 

Mto  Namgaru. — The  entrance  to  this  stream,  at  the  head  of 
Mchinga  bay,  is  blocked  by  the  Fungu  Namtamwa  which  only 
admits  boats  at  high  water.  It  was  not  explored,  but  the  chief 
stated  that  its  waters  were  salt,  and  that  a  canoe  could  ascend  it  in 
three  days  journey. 

Anchoragre. — There  is  anchorage  near  the  head  of  Mchinga  bay,  in 
3  fathoms,  sand,  with  Ras  Mzinga  S.E.  ^  E.,  and  Ras  Rokumbi 
N.E  J  N. ;  in  this  position  a  vessel  is  partly  sheltered  by  the 
Mwamba  Mahazamu,  from  the  swell  which  is  thrown  into  the  bay  at  all 
seasons.  There  is  deeper  water  to  the  north-eastward  of  this  position. 
Directions. — In  entering  Mchinga  bay,  keep  the  gap  made  by 
the  Mto  Namgaru,  bearing  West ;  no  soundings  will  be  obtained 
with  the  hand  lead,  until  the  tall  mangroves  on  the  south  shore  bear 
S.  by  W.,  when  the  depth  suddenly  decreases  from  50  to  10  fathoms, 
after  which,  anchor  as  convenient. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  in  Mchinga  bay,  full  and  change,  at 
4h.  Om. ;  springs  rise  12  feet. 

THE  COAST.— Nondo  and  Ruvu  bays  are  both  shallow 
indentations  of  the  coast.  There  is  no  anchorage  in  these  bays,  as 
the  water  is  deep  close  to  the  reef  which  borders  the  coast  at  a 
distance  of  3  or  4  cables.     There  are  no  dangers  outside  the  reef  .f 

*  iSfetf  Admiralty  plan  : — ^Mchinga  bay,  with  view,  No.  677,  scale,  m  =  4*0  inohes. 
t  Sefi  Admiralty  chart :— Gape  Pelgado  to  Kilwa,  No.  1808. 


Chap.  VIII.]      MCHINGA  BAY— KISWBRB  HARBOUR.  293 

Mzungni  bay. — Mto  Bwamkuro  discharges  itself  in  the  north 
part  of  Mzungu  bay  ;  during  the  rainy  season  the  water  is  dis- 
coloured one  mile  seaward.  A  sand  bank  bars  the  entrance  of  the 
river  to  boats  at  low  water,  and  on  a  rising  tide  there  are  heavy  over- 
falls. 

Fair  anchorage  may  be  obtained  in  the  southern  part  of  Mzungu 
bay  in  9  fathoms,  sand  and  coral,  with  Ras  Bwamkuro  bearing 
N.  by  W.  I  W.,  and  centre  of  village  S.W.  ^  S. 

KISWERE  BAY,  between  Ras  Bwamkuro  (Masongo)  and  Ras 
Fughio  (cape  Nourse),  is  clear  of  danger  with  the  exception  of  the 
coast  reefs.  Ras  Bwamkuro,  the  south  point  of  the  bay,  is  20  feet 
high  ;  the  reef  extends  from  it  2  cables,  and  thence  along  the  coast 
round  Grant  point,  and  the  swampy  shore  within  it  at  nearly  the 
same  distance  to  Ras  Bobare.  The  shore  facing  eastward  is  backed 
at  three-quarters  of  a  mile  inland  by  a  flat  range  of  hills  300  feet 
high.» 

Ras  Fughio,  the  north  point  of  the  bay,  is  29  feet  high  ;  the  reef 
here  closes  within  one  cable  of  the  point,  and  then  with  several  islands 
on  it  skirts  the  coast  at  a  distance  of  3  to  1^  cables  southward  of  Ras 
Berikiti.  The  coast  hills  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  within  Ras 
Fughio  range  about  150  feet  high. 

The  water  will  be  found  slightly  discoloured  on  approaching  the  bay. 

Anchorage. — There  is  no  anchorage  until  within  half  a  mile  of 
the  harbour,  when  the  soundings  rapidly  decrease  from  25  to  13 
fathoms. 

MUma  Mamba. — The  most  remarkable  features  on  approaching, 
are,  Mlima  Mamba  (Piccolomini  hill),  a  conical  hill  419  feet  high, 
1^  miles  inland  ;  and  Pandawi,  a  conspicuous  square  cliff,  on  the  coast 
at  the  head  of  the  harbour,  which  bears  W.  ^  N.  when  the  entrance 
is  open. 

At  a  short  distance  from  the  coast  the  hills  are  of  moderate 
elevation,  the  table  land  to  the  northward  rising  to  a  height  of  from 
200  to  350  feet. 

KISWERE  HARBOUR  is  quite  clear  at  the  entrance,  which 
lies  between  Ras  Berikiti  (Harbour  rocks)  and  Ras  Bobare  ;  a  coiul 
reef,  dry  at  half  tide,  extends  1^  cables  off  Ras  Berikiti,  having 
4  fathoms  water  close-to.  Ras  Bobare,  on  the  extreme  of  which  is  a 
clump  of  mangroves,  has  a  reef  extending  about  1^  cables  off  .f 

*  See  Admiralty  plan  : — Kiswere  harbour,  with  view,  No.  687,  scale,  m  =  8*0 
inches, 
t  See  Admiralty  plan  : — Kiswere  harbour,  with  view,  No.  687  scale,  m  =  3*0  inches. 


294  LINDI  RIVBB  TO  KILWA  KIVINJB.         [Chap.  VIII. 

Within  the  5-fathom  line,  the  soundings  decrease  gradually  to  the 
bar  of  the  river  which  stretches  across  the  north-west  corner  of  the 
harbour ;  the  sea  occasionally  breaks  heavily  on  the  bar. 

Position. — ^The  observation  spot  at  Rushungi  village,  is  in 
lat.  9°  25'  36''  S.,  long.  39°  36'  31"  E. 

Directions. — ^Anchoragre. — ^When  approaching  Kiswere  harbour, 
if  towards  low  water,  the  sea  will  probably  be  observed  breaking  on 
the  bank  inside,  and  on  the  coral  reef  off  Ras  Berikiti,  which,  when 
recognised,  may  be  rounded  as  close  as  convenient.  A  good  mark 
for  entering  about  mid-channel,  is  the  small  red  cliff  on  the  south  side 
of  the  harbour,  in  line  with  a  distant  peak  bearing  W.  by  S.  ^  S.  (see 
view  on  plan),  until  Milima  Ruhaha,  a  remarkable  hill  to  the  north- 
westward, with  a  large  tree  on  its  summit,  is  nearly  touching  the  west 
point  of  the  inlet,  or  the  conspicuous  sandy  beach  on  the  north  shore 
bears  N.  by  E.,  when  a  vessel  may  anchor  in  4  fathoms,  stiff  mud.  The 
holding  ground  here  is  good,  and  this  would  probably  be  the  best 
anchorage  in  either  nionsoon. 

Supplies. — In  the  south-west  comer  of  the  harbour  is  a  small 
fresh  water  stream,  up  which  a  boat  can  go  at  half  tide  to  the  large 
village  of  Kiswere,  where  a  few  supplies,  such  as  goats,  fowls,  eggs, 
&c.,  may  be  obtained,  but  there  are  no  cattle  or  sheep  in  the  vicinity. 
The  natives  are  civil  and  well  disposed,  but  indolent,  and  only 
cultivate  ground  sufficient  for  bare  subsistence. 

Water. — There  are  wells  of  water  at  the  village  of  Mtumbo,  in 
the  inlet,  but  it  is  brackish  and  unfit  for  use  by  Europeans. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  in  Kiswere  harbour,  full  and  change,  at 
4h.  25m. ;  springs  rise  12  feet. 

The  inlet  or  arm  of  the  sea,  in  the  north-west  corner  of  Kiswere 
harbour,  trends  north-west  for  about  2  miles,  and  then  divides  into 
two  branches,  the  southern  one  being  shallow  ;  the  other  branch 
runs  generally  about  N.N.W.  for  2^  miles,  to  the  fork,  in  the  western 
arm  of  which  is  the  landing  place.  From  the  western  point  of  the 
entrance  nearly  up  to  the  fork,  a  distance  of  4^  miles,  3  fathoms 
water  may  be  carried,  but  above  it  the  inlet  becomes  insignificant, 
and  there  is  a  patch  of  rocks  in  mid-channel  a  mile  below  the  fork. 
The  banks  are  mostly  mangrove  swamps,  with  higher,  well  wooded, 
and  partially  cultivated  land  in  the  background  to  the  eastward,  but 
to  the  westward  the  country  for  about  a  mile  inland  is  inundated  at 
high  water  spring  tides. 

The  anchorage  off  the  village  of  Mtumbo  is  only  fit  for  small 
vessels,  as  the  bar  across  the  entrance  of  the  inlet  has  only  6  feet  at 
low  water  springs. 


Chap.  VIII.]  KISWBRK  HARBOUR— MTO  PAWI.  295 

A  bank  about  2  cables  in  extent,  awash  at  low  water  springs,  lies 
on  the  eastern  part  of  the  bar,  one  mile  W.  ^  N.  from  Ras  Berikiti. 

A  good  mark  for  entering,  is  Mlima  Ruhaha  in  line  with  the  west 
point  of  the  inlet,  until  Pandawi  cliff  bears  S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  then 
edge  to  the  eastward,  which  is  the  deeper  side,  and  anchor  as  con- 
venient off  the  village. 

COAST.— From  Ras  Fughio,  29  feet  high,  the  north  point  of 
Kiswere  bay,  the  coast  trends  nearly  in  a  straight  line,  with  sandy 
beaches  and  small  off -lying  mangrove  islets  on  the  reef,  to  Ras  Mombi, 
the  southern  point  of  Roango  bay.* 

Roangro  bay  is  about  9  miles  northward  of  Kiswere  bay  ;  it  is 
a  shallow  indentation  of  the  coast,  not  distinguishable  3  miles  off. 
There  is  no  anchorage  for  vessels,  but  a  narrow  boat  channel,  having 
3  feet  at  low  water,  leads  through  the  reef  to  a  creek  in  the  centre  of 
the  bay,  which  creek  affords  shelter  to  dhows.  There  is  a  small 
village  on  the  sandy  beach  in  the  south-west  corner  of  the  bay, 
unapproachable  by  boats  except  at  high  water.  A  few  fowls  may  be 
obtained. 

The  coast  from  Roango  bay  is  rocky  with  sandy  bights  to  Ras. 
Ngumbe  Sukani,  the  latter  being  the  highest  point  on  this  part  of 
the  coast ;  it  may  be  known  by  being  immediately  southward  of 
two  rocky  islets,  20  feet  in  height,  and  if  approached  during  the 
morning  a  white  patch  will  be  seen  on  its  upper  part.  From  Ras 
Ngumbe  Sukani  to  Mto  Pawi,  the  coast  consists  of  a  mangrove 
swamp  with  several  creeks,  leading  to  Pawi  creek ;  the  mouths  of 
these  creeks  are  not  distinguishable  from  seaward.  The  reef  between 
Kiswere  bay  and  Mto  Pawi  is  steep-to  bordering  the  coast  at  a 
distance  of  3  to  4  cables. 

Mto  Pawl,  which  separates  the  south  end  of  Songa  Manara 
island  from  the  main,  is  a  boat  channel  available  only  at  high  tide 
with  smooth  water,  and  communicates  with  Pawi  or  Mkurulengamunyu 
creek  the  southern  arm  of  Sangarungu  harbour.  It  is  not  distin 
guishable  from  seaward,  being  overhung  with  mangroves  ;  but  the 
south  point  of  Songa  Manara  may  be  known  by  a  remarkable  break 
in  one  of  the  projecting  cliffs,  which,  when  seen  from  the  southward, 
appears  like  an  island.  The  sea,  when  there  is  much  swell,  breaks 
through  this  cleft  with  great  violence,  throwing  the  spray  to  a 
considerable  height,  and  giving  the  appearance  of  white  smoke  rising 
from  the  land. 

*  See  Admiraltj  chart : — Cape  Delgado  to  Kilwa,  No.  1808 


296  LINDI  RIVER  TO  KILWA  KIVINJE.       [Chap.  VIII. 

Songa  Manara  island  is  low,  with  an  indented  rocky  coast 
line  trending  north  for  3^  miles  from  Mto  Pawi  to  Ras  Kivurugn, 
its  eastern  point ;  thence  the  coast  trends  north-westward  4^  miles 
to  the  entrance  of  Sangarungu  harbour.  There  are  many  groves  of 
cocoa-nut  trees  on  the  island,  and  a  particularly  tall  clump  on  Ras 
Kivurugu  assists  in  recognising  it.  The  island  is  skirted  by  a  reef 
which  off  Ras  Kivirugu  extends  for  nearly  one  mile,  and  the  edge  is 
everywhere  steep-to.* 

There  are  several  villages  on  Songa  Manara  island,  of  which 
Sanji-ya-Majoma  is  the  principal ;  also  the  remains  of  Portuguese 
and  Shirazi  stone  houses  and  towers. 

Kivurugu  islets  are  three  low  bushy  islets,  situated  on  the  reef  off 
Ras  Kivurugu  ;  the  outer  one  lies  close  to  the  edge.f 

SANQARUNaU  HARBOUR  represents  a  large  sheet  of 
water,  but  is  of  little  use  as  an  anchorage.  The  harbour  is  sur- 
rounded by  mangroves,  encumbered  by  many  reefs,  with  violent 
tidal  streams,  and  the  swell  reaches  far  into  the  interior,  so  that  a 
vessel  having  to  go  some  distance  in  for  a  secure  berth,  renders  it 
inconvenient.  It  has  no  proper  rivers  discharging  into  it,  though 
many  ramifications  in  the  shape  of  mangrove  creeks  are  used  by  the 
natives  for  local  trade  ;  but  Kilwa  being  so  near,  any  trade  from  a 
distance  finds  an  exit  there. 

The  Channel  into  Sangarungu  harbour  is  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  across  from  reef  to  reef,  deep,  perfectly  clear,  and  open  to  the 
north-east.  The  reefs  dry  at  low  water,  and  off  Songa  Manara 
island  are  some  mangrove  bushes  close  to  the  edge  of  the  reef 
and  distant  three-quarters  of  a  mile  E.  by  N.  of  Ras  Sangarungu, 
which  can  always  be  seen.  On  this  side  the  reef  is  very  steep,  but 
the  other  shoals  off  for  about  one  cable.  Ras  Sangarungu,  the 
northern  point  of  Songa  Manara,  is  sandy,  crowned  with  high  cocoa- 
nut  trees  and  faced  with  mangroves.  Ras  Mchangamra  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  channel  is  low,  and  composed  of  mangroves.  At 
springs  the  tides  in  this  channel  are  very  strong. 

Caution. — The  water  in  Sangarungu  harbour  is  very  thick  and 
muddy,  and  the  dangers  cannot  be  seen. 

Port  NlSUS. — Sanji-ya-Kati,  with  a  village  on  it,  is  a  mangrove 
island  nearly  in  the  centre  of  the  southern  branch  of  the  harbour 

*  The  Directions  from  Songa  Manara  island  northward  to  Ras  Kimbiji 
(in  lat.  7°  0'  S.),  including  Mafia  island  and  channel,  are  by  Commander  Wharton, 
H.M.S.  FawnylS77j  adapted  to  the  survey  of  that  year. 

t  See  Admiralty  plan  :— Kilwa  Kisiwani,  No.  661 ;  scale  ?»  =  09  of  an  inch. 


Chap.  VIII.]  SANGURUNGU— KILWA  KISIWANl.  297 

(Owen's  port  Nisus),  with  an  extensive  reef  stretching  northward  from 
it.  Between  Songa  Manara  and  Sanji-ya-Kati,  the  harbour  is  very 
deep  and  it  is  not  until  southward  of  the  latter  island  that  any 
convenient  anchorage  will  be  found. 

Port  Pactolus. — The  portion  of  the  harbour  northward  of 
Sanji-ya-Kati  (Owen's  port  Pactolus),  is  nearly  barred  to  a  large 
vessel  by  a  sand  bank  with  three  fathoms  water,  extending  north 
8  cables  from  the  north-east  extremity  of  Fungu-ya-Kati,  towards 
Kilwa  island,  beyond  which  is  good  anchorage  in  8  to  12  fathoms 
mud,  but  exposed  to  the  swell  that  rolls  in  through  the  wide*  open 
entrance. 

From  this  harbour  there  is  boat  communication  at  all  times  with 
Kilwa  harbour  by  Mlango  Mugongo,  a  wide  passage  westward  of 
Kilwa  island.  A  narrow  deep  channel  up  this  passage  terminates 
without  effecting  a  junction  with  Kilwa  harbour,  but  it  has  not  been 
closely  sounded. 

KILWA  KISIWA,  the  island  which  separates  the  harbours  of 
Sangarungu  and  Kilwa  Kisiwani,  has  a  sea  face  of  4  miles,  with  a 
general  northerly  trend  from  Ras  Mchangamra  the  south-east  extreme, 
to  Ras  Kipakoni,  where  it  turns  to  Kilwa  Kisiwani.  The  shore  is 
sinuous  and  for  the  first  mile,  to  Watiro  island,  is  broken  into 
mangrove  creeks ;  it  then  becomes  cliffy,  forming  a  deep  bay,  on 
the  shore  of  which  is  the  village  of  Msokole.  The  shore  in  the 
bight  of  the  bay  is  sand,  but  as  it  sweeps  round  to  Ras  Mvinja  again 
becomes  cliffy.  Kilwa  is  low  and  covered  with  trees  ;  the  northern 
part  is  a  coral  plateau  elevated  45  feet  above  the  sea  and  has  many 
huge  baobab  trees  on  it.*  The  reef  dries  off  to  distances  varying  from 
2  cables  to  one  mile,  following  the  line  of  coast,  and  is  steep-to. 

KILWA  KISIWANI  HARBOUR  is  the  lower  portion  of 
a  large  estuary,  which  extends  inland  for  about  15  miles  in  a  north- 
west, west,  and  south-west  direction,  where  the  Mavudyi  river 
discharges  into  it.  Port  Beaver  is  situated  in  this  estuary,  above 
Kilwa  Kisiwani  town ;  it  is  a  wide  arm  of  the  sea,  shallow  a  few 
miles  up,  and  dotted  with  islands  where  it  begins  to  contract  to  the 
river  Mavudyi,  which  is  said  to  be  navigable  for  canoes  some 
distance. 

The  harbour  is  mostly  bordered  by  mangroves,  and  has  a  bad 
reputation  for  malaria,  but  it  is  no  worse  than  Kivinje*  and  were  the 
site  of  the  dwelling-houses  as  a  rule  better  chosen,  would  be  more 

•  See  Admiralty  plan  : — Kilwa  Kisiwani,  No.  661,  with  enlarg^ed  plan  of  the 
harbour,  scale  m  =  1*95  inches. 


298 


LINDI  RIVBR  TO  KILWA  KIVINJB.  [Chap.  VIII. 


healthy.  It  is  an  admirable  one  for  steam  vessels  of  all  classes,  and 
much  more  adapted  for  shipping  goods  than  Kivinje,  where  a  vessel 
must  lie  1}  miles  from  the  shore,  and  at  times  exposed  to  a  swell.* 

Kilwa  Kisiwani  is  the  name  given  (in  contradistinction  to  Kilwa 
Kivinje,  a  few  miles  north)  to  the  village  occupying  the  site  of  the 
old  town  (Quiloa  of  the  Portuguese),  and  which  was  for  several 
centuries  the  most  important  place  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Africa. 
The  ruins  of  old  Quiloa  on  the  north-western  portion  of  the  island 
are  extensive,  but  are  mere  foundations,  excepting  the  castle,  some 
mosq;ies,  and  a  large  embattled  space,  the  walls  of  which  are  still 
standing.  The  importance  of  Kilwa  Kisiwani  is  long  a  thing  of 
the  past,  the  trade  all  passing  through  Kilwa  Kivinje. 

The  village  of  Kilwa  Kisiwani  is  small,  and  stands  behind  the  old 
castle.  An  Arab,  appointed  by  the  Liwali  of  Kilwa  Kivinje,  under 
the  government  of  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar,  is  in  charge.  A  few 
Hindis  reside  here.  The  old  castle,  a  tall,  keep-like  fortress,  formerly 
white,  is  conspicuous,  and  the  outer  wall^  are  in  tolerably  good 
preservation. 

Castle  islet  is  a  mass  of  mangrove  near  the  edge  of  the  reef  off  the 
castle,  from  which  it  is  distant  2  cables. 

Observation  spot. — ^A  large  baobab  tree  stands  on  an  open  park- 
like elevated  space,  45  feet  above  the  sea,  half  a  mile  east  of  the 
castle,  and  marks  the  observation  spot  which  is  in  lat.  8°  57'  32"  S., 
long.  39°  30'  50"  E.    The  word  Faivn  is  cut  on  the  tree. 

THE  CHANNEL  into  the  harbour  is  deep,  clear,  and  4  cables 
wide  between  the  reefs  which  front  both  shores  to  the  distance  of 
5  to  7  cables  ;  these  reefs  are  steep-to. 

Mwamba  Rukylra  is  a  tongue  of  reef  stretching  off  Ras  Matuso 
in  an  easterly  direction  for  3^  miles,  thence  northward  for  2  miles, 
terminating  in  Rukyira  spit  from  which  Ras  Matuso  bears  S.W. 
distant  4  miles.  It  is  all  dry  at  low  water  springs,  and  has  many 
small  mangrove  bushes  and  sand  heads  on  its  eastern  part ;  one  of 
the  latter,  situated  1^  miles  south  of  the  spit,  is  always  dry.  The 
reef  is  steep-to  on  its  eastern  sides,  and  the  sea  always  breaks  on  it. 

Cape  Kilwa  or  Has  Matuso  on  the  northern  side  of  the  entrance 
to  Kilwa  Kisiwani,  is  low,  sandy,  and  dotted  with  trees.  To  the  west- 
ward the  coast  is  composed  of  sand  and  cliff  for  If  miles  to  Ras  Mso, 
which  is  cliffy,  about  10  feet  high,  and  at  the  narrowest  part  of  the 
channel.    The  channel  may  be  said  to  commence  south  of  Ras  Matuso, 

*  See  Admiralty  plan :— Eilwa  Kisiwani,  No.  661,  with  enlarged  plan  of  the 
harbour,  scale,  m  =  1*95  inches. 


Chap.  VIII.]  KILWA  KLSIWANI  HARBOUR.  299 

where  the  southern  portion  of  Rukyira  reef  dries  off  about  half  a  mile, 
and  is  steep-to.  Near  the  edge  of  this  reef,  southward  of  Matuso,  is 
a  large  bush  of  mangrove,  which  is  conspicuous  on  approaching  the 
entrance. 

Ras  Kipakoni. — The  southern  side  of  the  entrance  is  formed  by 
Ras  Kipakoni,  fronted  by  Kipakoni  and  Balozi  spits,  which  extend 
about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  off,  and  are  steep-to.  On  the  edge  of 
the  reef,  eastward  of  Ras  Kipakoni,  is  an  islet,  12  feet  above  high 
water. 

Balozi  spit  is  rather  higher  than  the  part  of  the  reef  just  eastward 
of  it,  but  from  being  protected  by  the  Kipakoni,  only  breaks  when 
the  water  is  low.  Raa  Kipakoni  is  low,  with  mangrove  bushes  on  its 
western  part  which  project  IJ  cables  to  the  northward  along  the 
western  edge  of  Balozi  spit.  From  the  west  extreme  of  the  point 
to  the  town,  the  coast  is  of  a  cliffy  nature,  bordered  by  a  narrow 
belt  of  mangroves,  and  a  narrow  reef  which  is  steep-to. 

Between  Ras  Mso  and  Ras  Rongozi  is  Mso  bay,  which  is  shallow  ; 
the  shore  of  the  bay  is  sand,  terminating  abruptly  to  the  southward 
in  low,  rocky  cliffs,  which  are  chiefly  black,  but  showing  in  one  part 
a  yellow  face.  Southward  of  these  cliffs  the  shore  is  fringed  with 
mangroves  to  Ras  Rongozi  and  round  into  the  harbour.  A  sand 
and  mud  bank,  dry  at  low  water,  extends  1^  cables  south-westward 
of  Ras  Rongozi,  with  many  tide  whirls  off  it.     - 

The  channel  separating  Kilwa  island  from  the  main  is  at  its 
northern  end  very  shallow,  and  at  low  tides  fordable  ;  here  is  a  ferry 
communicating  with  the  island.  There  is  another  ferry  from  the 
village  to  a  break  in  the  mangroves  north  of  Ras  Rongozi. 

The  base  of  the  Mpara  hill,  a  flat-topped  eminence  460  feet 
high,  skirts  the  northern  bend  of  the  harbour  ;  the  hill  is  partially 
cultivated  but  mostly  covered  with  jungle. 

Anolioragre. — ^The  harbour  of  Kilwa  Kisiwani  is  very  deep,  but 
off  the  castle  there  is  ample  anchorage  for  many  vessels  in  from  9  to 
15  fathoms,  open  to  the  sea  breeze,  but  completely  protected  by  the 
projecting  points  of  reef  from  the  heavy  swell  that  almost  invariably 
beats  on  the  outer  shore. 

A  good  berth  is  in  12  fathoms,  with  the  Castle  islet  bearing 
W.  by  S.  I  S.,  the  Castle  S.S.W.  f  W.,  and  Ras  Kipakoni  W.  by  S. 
The  reef  dries  off  towards  this  position  nearly  2  cables.  The  tidal 
streams  are  strong,  and  at  this  anchorage  a  vessel  is  often  in  an 
eddy,  but  as  the  bottom  is  exceedingly  tenacious  mud,  a  short  scope 
of  cable  can  be  used  and  the  anchor  kept  clear.  There  are  convenient 
depths  more  northward,  but  farther  from  the  village. 


300  LINDI  RIVER  TO  KILWA  KIVINJB.  [Chap.  VIII. 

Outer  anchorage. — There  is  temporary  anchorage  in  the 
northerly  monsoon  period  in  the  month  of  the  harbour,  in  about  10 
fathoms,  sand,  abreast  the  large  mangrove  bush  lying  southward  of 
Ras  Matuso,  at  about  2  cables  from  the  reef  ;  the  farther  eastward 
the  better,  to  be  out  of  the  rush  of  the  tide. 

Supplies. — There  is  said  to  be  no  running  water  on  Kilwa  island  ; 
the  inhabitants  are  supplied  from  wells.  Cattle,  goats,  and  fowls  are 
fairly  plentiful,  and  the  island  abounds  with  bush  buck. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  at  Kilwa  Kisiwani,  full  and  change,  at 
3h.  45m. ;  springs  rise  12  feet,  neaps  7^  feet. 

Directions. — In  making  Kilwa  Kisiwani  from  any  direction,  the 
Mpara  hill,  situated  between  Kilwa  Kisiwani  and  Kilwa  Kivinje,  will 
be  seen  in  clear  weather  from  a  distance  of  20  miles.  It  is  flat-topped 
and  in  no  way  remarkable,  except  being  near  Singino  hill  to  the 
northward  and  the  only  eminence  in  the  immediate  vicinity.  To 
the  southward  of  Songa  Manara  island  are  other  hills  rather  similar 
in  appearance,  but  they  are  continuous,  whereas  south  of  Mpara  is  a 
low  plain  forming  a  break  of  20  miles.  In  very  clear  weather  the 
Machinga  range,  1,200  feet  above  the  sea,  20  miles  inland,  will  also 
be  seen,  but  the  summits  are  not  well  marked.  Ras  Matuso  is 
tolerably  conspicuous  either  from  northward  or  southward,  as  it 
projects  considerably.  Mwamba  Rukyira  is  always  to  be  seen  from 
a  distance  of  3  miles  off,  either  dry  or  breaking. 

At  low  water,  no  other  guide  but  the  eye  is  necessary  for  entering 
the  harbour,  but  at  high  water  only  the  outermost  parts  break,  and  the 
Balozi  spit  does  not  show  its  existence  by  a  ripple,  rendering  a  leading 
mark  necessary.  A  stranger  should,  if  possible,  avoid  entering  with 
the  strength  of  the  flood,  with  the  sun  ahead,  as  the  tides  run  with 
great  velocity.  On  the  ebb,  the  rush  of  water  sometimes  raises  a  sea 
between  the  outermost  points  of  the  reefs,  which  at  springs  is  dangerous 
for  boats,  and  makes  it  difficult  to  realise  that  there  is  over  30  fathoms 
of  water  where  the  overfalls  take  place. 

To  enter,  steer  along  the  south-eastern  edge  of  Rukyira  reef  at  the 
distance  of  a  few  cables,  when,  except  with  the  sun  ahead,  the  old 
castle  will  be  seen,  dirty  white  and  appearing  like  a  white,  cliff  in  a 
mirage,  closely  backed  by  many  trees  of  thick  foliage  which  overtop 
it.  When  the  castle  is  seen,  steer  for  it  on  a  W.  ^  S.  bearing ;  from 
abreast  the  large  mangrove  bush  on  the  edge  of  the  reef,  south  of 
Ras  Matuso,  the  southern  extremity  of  the  white  sand  in  Mso  bay 
should  be  clearly  seen,  with  some  yellow  cliffs  just  to  the  left.  When 
this  extremity  of  the  sand  bears  N.W.  by  W.  ^  W.  steer  for  it,  which 


Chap.  VIII.]  KILWA  KISIWANI   HARBOUR.  301 

course  will  lead  in  mid-channel  past  Balozi  spit,  but  care  must  be 
taken  that  the  tide  does  not  sweep  the  vessel  off  the  line  of  bearing. 

When  Castle  islet  bears  W.  by  S.  (or  is  within  its  own  width  of 
Ras  Rongozi),  alter  course  to  S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.,  with  the  observation 
spotboabab  tree  (which  is  not  easy  to  identify  from  similar  trees  around 
it)  right  ahead ;  when  the  low  mangroves  off  Ras  Kipakoni  bear  East* 
alter  course  for  the  anchorage,  with  Castle  islet  a  little  on  the  port 
bow. 

These  directions,  reversed,  will  suffice  for  leaving  the  harbour. 
There  is  no  difficulty  in  sailing  out  in  the  early  morning  with  the 
land  wind. 

Caution. — The  current  runs  continually  to  the  northward  off  all 
this  part  of  the  coast,  and  frequently  sets  in  towards  the  land.  Vessels 
making  the  land  should  therefore  steer  to  the  southward  of  the  desired 
point,  and  if  closing  at  night  heave  to  in  ample  time  to  allow  for 
drift.  The  current  is  stronger  and  more  regular  during  the  southerly 
monsoon,  when  its  strength  increases  at  times  to  4  miles  an  hour. 

WINDS. — Easterly  winds  prevail  here  in  the  form  of  strong  sea 
breezes  during  the  greater  portion  of  the  year,  and  generally  occasion 
a  considerable  swell  outside  the  harbour,  so  that  in  working  out  in 
a  sailing  vessel,  if  the  wind  falls  light,  it  is  sometimes  difficult  to  get 
out :  this  consideration  gives  more  importance  to  the  outer  anchorage 
ground  mentioned,  which  is  the  only  position  where  a  vessel  can 
possibly  anchor  outside.    The  land  wind  blows  early  in  the  morning. 

COAST.t — From  Ras  Matuso  the  coast  trends  northward  for 
7^  miles  to  Ras  Tikwiri,  bordered  by  a  reef  which  dries  to  the 
distance  of  a  half  to  one  mile,  being  a  continuation  of  Mwamba 
Rukyira.  The  coast  is  sandy  and  flat  with  several  villages,  backed 
by  thick  jungle,  behind  which  rises  Mpara  hill. 

Ras  Tikwiri  (Kilwa  point),  is  a  mangrove  ,point  broken  at  its 
extremity  into  isolated  clumps  of  these  trees.  The  edge  of  the 
shore  reef  is  3  cables  beyond  the  extremity  of  the  mangroves. 

From  Ras  Tikwiri  the  coast  turns  sharply'south- westward,  forming 
a  deep  bight,  thence  it  trends  in  a  north-west  direction  for  about 
5  miles  to  Ras  Miramba,  densely  lined  with  mud  and  mangroves, 
and  with  sand  banks  drying  some  distance  off. 

*  The  bearings  of  these  mangroye  points  must  be  used  with  caution,  as  they  may 
be  growing  considerably  farther  out. 

t  See  Admiralty  chart : — Ras  Tikwiri  to  Zanzibar  channel,  No.  662  ;  and  plan  of 
channels  between  Ras  Tikwiri  (Kilwa  point)  and  Mafia  island,  Ko.  1032.  Scale, 
m  =  0*6  of  an  inch. 


302  LINDI  RIVER  TO  KILWA  KIVINJB.         [Chap.  VIII. 

Ruangale  reef,  dry  7  feet  at  low  water  springs,  and  separated 
by  a  boat  channel  from  the  shore  reef,  lies  2  miles  eastward  of  Has 
Tikwiri.    The  sea  always  breaks  on  its  outer  edge. 

Rukylra  bay,  between  Ras  Matuso^iand  Ras  Tikwiri,  has 
excellent  anchorage  at  its  southern  end,  where  the  Mwamba  Rukyira 
protects  a  vessel  from  the  swell.  It  is,  however,  of  little  use,  except 
to  small  vessels,  in  consequence  of  Rukyira  bar  blocking  the  entrance 
from  seaward. 

Rukyira  bar. — From  Rukyira  spit,  the  north  extreme  of 
Mwamba  Rukyira  (page  298),  a  narrow  rocky  bar,  parallel,  and  about 
5  miles  distant  from  the  coast,  extends  northward  for  9  miles,  with 
irregular  soundings  of  from  5  to  2  fathoms,  and  in  one  or  more 
spots  less.  Though  there  are  doubtless  places  where  vessels  can  at 
all  times  pass  over  it  into  Rukyira  bay,  yet  it  should  not  be  attempted 
without  good  cause,  as  there  is  usually  a  very  heavy  swell,  and  from 
the  irregularity  of  the  bottom  other  shoal  spots,  besides  those  marked 
on  the  chart,  may  exist.  This  bar  practically  blocks  the  southern 
passage  into  Kilwa  Kivinje. 

Mpovi  reef,  2^  miles  in  length,  with  a  sand  head  at  its  north- 
west extreme,  is  the  southernmost  of  the  mass  of  reefs  protecting 
the  anchorage  of  Kilwa  Kivinje  ;  its  south-eastern  end  lies  North 
2  miles  from  the  mangroves  off  Ras  Tikwiri.  There  are  a  few 
mangrove  bushes  near  the  eastern  edge  of  the  reef,  which  is  tolerably 
steep-to  and  dries  11  feet. 

On  all  other  sides  the  reef  shoals  gradually  off,  and  though 
1 J  miles  from  the  shore,  the  channel  within  it  is  only  available  for 
vessels  of  10  feet  draught.  Shallow  water  extends.  2  miles  north- 
ward of  the  sand  head. 

Mwanamkaya  reef,  forming  the  northern  side  of  the  south 
channel  to  Kilwa  Kivinje,  is  2^  miles  in  length,  and  situated  about 
2  miles  north-eastward  of  Mpovi  reef,  having  a  good  passage  with 
8  fathoms  water  between  ;  the  south-western  edge  is  not  steep-to,  but 
can  be  passed  at  the  distance  of  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  Near  the  north- 
west corner  is  a  large  sand  head,  which  only  covers  at  springs,  with 
depths  of  3  fathoms  only  at  three-quarters  of  a  mile  distant.  A 
patch  of  4  fathoms  lies  about  one  mile  eastward  of  the  reef,  one  of 
several  lying  off  the  north  end  of  Rukyira  bar. 

Funiru  Amana,  1^  miles  in  extent,  lies  about  one  mile  northward 
of  the  shoal  water  extending  from  Mpovi  reef,  with  Ras  Miramba 
bearing  S.W.  by  S.  about  2  miles  from  its  west  extreme.  It  shoals 
off  for  2  or  3  cables  all  round,  but  the  sea  nearly  always  breaks 


Chap.  VIII.]  KILWA  KIVINJB.  303 

on  its  north-eastern  edge.     The  sand  on  its  western  end  dries  at 
half  tide. 

Ras  Miramba  is  a  low  mangrove  point,  with  shallow  water 
extending  1^  miles  to  the  northward,  and  4  fathoms  between  it  and 
Fungu  Amana.  Westward  of  Ras  Miramba  the  coast  forms  a  shallow 
bay  as  far  as  Gingwera  river,  a  distance  of  3  miles. 

KILWA  KIVINJE  is  situated  one  mile  westward  of  Ras 
Miramba,  partly  enclosed  with  cocoa-nut  trees;  it  is  a  straggling 
collection  of  huts  and  ruins,  with  a  few  stone  houses  and  a  small 
bazaar,  and  may  contain  about  3,000  inhabitants.  Formerly,  it  was 
the  principal  port  for  the  exportation  of  slaves,  but  its  importance  has 
much  diminished  since  the  stoppage  of  that  traffic,  though  there 
might  be  a  considerable  legitimate  trade  were  it  properly  fostered, 
and  as  the  mail  steam  vessels  occasionally  call  here,  it  is  possible  the 
trade  may  increase. 

The  Liwali  or  Arab  governor  of  Kilwa  Kivinje  is  supreme  over  all 
the  coast  and  islands  from  cape  Delgado  to  the  north  of  the  Rufiji, 
including  Mafia  island.  He  has  a  guard  of  soldiers,  and  there  is  a 
prison  to  confine  offenders. 

At  the  back  of  Kilwa  Kivinje  is  Singino  hill,  a  flat  cultivated 
plateau  rising  to  a  height  of  550  feet,  and  about  3  miles  in  diameter. 
Its  rim  or  edge  is  tolerably  steep  on  all  sides,  and  may  be  used  for 
bearings.  To  the  westward,  connected  by  a  low  spur,  is  a  small 
conical  hill,  480  feet  in  height,  named  Nunguruku.  Other  small 
hills  stretch  away  to  the  westward,  but  the  general  prospect  in  that 
direction  is  flat  and  uninteresting. 

Mto  Gingwera  enters  the  sea  at  3  miles  north-westward  of  Kilwa 
Bavinje,  and  its  bar  dries  completely  across  at  springs.  The  river  can 
be  ascended  about  9  miles,  and  abounds  in  hippopotami. 

On  the  north  side  of  entrance  stands  a  high  casuarina  tree,  which 
shows  somewhat  above  the  surrounding  bushes,  from  outside  the 
reefs  ;  the  apparent  gap  in  the  coast  which  the  river  makes,  is  now, 
however,  a  better  mark  for  the  Main  pass. 

Supplies. — ^The  town  of  Kilwa  Kivinje  is  amply  supplied  with 
wells,  but  there  is  no  convenience  for  watering  a  ship.  Cattle,  sheep, 
poultry,  and  eggs  are  abundant,  but  vegetables  (beyond  the  staple 
native  crops  of  millet,  manioc,  and  sweet  potatoes)  are  not  so  easily 
procured. 

Anchorage. — The  anchorage  is  open,  though  good  protection  is 
afforded  by  the  reefs  to  the  north-eastward  in  ordinary  weather,  but 
when  the  monsoon  is  strong,  a  little  swell  fetches  through  the 


304  KILWA  KIVINJB.  [Chap.  VIII. 

passages.  The  sand  and  mud  bank  off  Ras  Miramba  and  the  town 
dries  off  about  half  a  mile  at  low  tide,  and  shallow  water  with 
patches  of  rock  extends  about  1^  miles  from  the  coast,  at  which 
distance  it  drops  suddenly  to  4  and  5  fathoms. 

A  vessel  should  therefore  be  careful  in  approaching  this  anchorage 
not  to  shoal  the  water  to  less  than  5  fathoms.  A  good  berth  in 
about  this  depth,  is  with  the  centre  of  Kilwa  Kivinje  bearing 
S.  by  W.  ^  W.,  the  Gingwera  tree  W.N.W.,  and  Ras  Miramba 
S.  by  E.  ^  E.    In  this  position  a  vessel  will  be  If  miles  from  the  town. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water  at  Kilwa  Kivinje,  full  and  change,  at 
4h.  Om. ;  springs  rise  15  feet,  neaps  9  feet,  and  neaps  range  2  to  3  feet. 
There  is  but  little  tidal  stream  at  the  anchorage. 

Reefs  in  the  approach. — Mwanamkaya  and  Amaua  reefs,  on 
the  south  side  of  the  approach,  are  described  on  page  302. 

Fungru  Jewe,  3J  miles  in  length  east  and  west,  and  steep-to  on 
all  sides,  lies  3  miles  northward  of  Fungu  Amana,  with  a  deep  and 
clear  channel  between,  which  is  the  main  passage  for  vessels  into 
Kilwa  Kivinje.  Along  the  south-east  face  it  breaks  heavily,  and  is 
at  all  times  visible.  At  half  tide  a  long  expanse  of  sand  uncovers, 
which  has  no  particular  head. 

Luala  reef,  2  miles  in  length  north  and  south,  and  IJ  miles  in 
breadth,  lies  1^  miles  eastward  of  the  north-east  extreme  of  Fungu 
Jewe,  with  a  deep  channel  between.  The  sea  breaks  on  its  eastern 
edge,  and  the  reef  dries  at  half  tide,  but  it  is  not  so  conspicuous  as 
Fungu  Jewe,  as  it  shows  less  white  sand. 

Luala  channel  lies  between  Fungu  Jewe,  and  Luala  and  Pweza 
reefs,  and  is  useful  to  vessels  coming  southward  that  have  taken  the 
inner  channel  so  far,  but  not  bound  *o  Kilwa  Kivinje.  The  channel 
is  1^  miles  wide,  deep  and  clear,  and  the  reefs  on  either  side  can 
generally  be  seen. 

Panjove  island. — This  small  island,  situated  about  5  miles 
northward  of  Kilwa  main  pass,  is  covered  with  tall  trees,  and  stands 
on  the  inner  part  of  a  reef  6  miles  in  length,  in  a  northerly  direction, 
on  the  edge  of  the  deep  ocean  water.  The  south  end  of  this  reef  is 
4  miles  southward  of  the  island.  The  outer  edge  of  the  reef  is  every- 
where steep-to,  and  the  sea  always  breaks  on  it ;  at  low  water  it  dries 
a  few  feet.  At  one  mile  W.S,W.  of  the  south  end  are  some  patches 
of  3  fathoms,  and  steep-to. 

KILWA  MAIN  PASS.— Directions.*— Themain passage  into 


*  Directions  for   approacMng  Kilwa,  by   Mafia  and  inner  channels,  tee  pages 
327—329. 


Chap.  VIII.]  KILWA  MAIN  PASS — RBBFS.  305 

Kilwa  Kivinje  lies  between  Fanjove,  Luala,  and  Jewe  reefs  on  the 
north,  and  the  Mwanamkaya  and  Amana  on  the  south.  This 
channel  is  3  miles  wide  and  clear  of  danger.  No  soundings  will 
be  obtained  with  the  hand  lead  until  midway  between  Jewe  and 
Amana  reefs. 

In  approaching  Kilwa  Kivinje  from  the  eastward,  Fanjove  and  the 
.  larger  island  of  Songa  Songa  will  be  sighted  on  a  clear  day  at  a 
distance  of  14  miles  ;  and  the  Singino  and  Mpara  hills  under  similar 
circumstances  at  18  or  20  miles  ;  both  hills  are  flat,  the  Singino  being 
the  longer.  To  the  southward  of  Mpara  hills  nothing  will  be  visible 
except  in  very  clear  weather,  when  the  distant  Machinga  hills  may 
perhaps  be  seen. 

Steer  to  pass  from  4  to  5  miles  southward  of  Fanjove  until  the 
breakers  on  the  reef  extending  southward  of  it  are  seen,  when  the 
eye  will  be  the  guide ;  give  them  a  berth  of  at  least  half  a  mile.  If  the 
weather  be  clear  and  the  sun  not  ahead  when  Fanjove  island  bears 
N.N.E.,  Gingwera  treer  showing  a  little  above  the  surrounding  bushes, 
may  perhaps  be  distinguished  in  the  gap  of  the  coast,  or  the  gap 
itself  will  suffice  for  a  mark,  see  view  on  chart.  Bring  the  tree  or 
centre  of  gap  to  bear  W.  ^  S.  and  steer  for  it  until  the  western  end 
of  Jewe  reef  bears  North,  when  alter  course  to  the  south-westward 
for  the  anchorage  off  the  town ;  the  latter  will  be  seen  under  the 
plateau  of  Singino. 

Inside  the  outer  reefs  the  water  is  discoloured. 

COAST. — From  Mto  Gingwera,  the  coast  trends  in  a  northerly 
direction,  with  some  slight  sinuosities  and  points  to  Ras  Samanga 
Fungu,  a  distance  of  18  miles.  For  about  7  miles,  or  2  miles  beyond 
Mtompiani  village,  the  shore  is  a  sandy  beach,  but  farther  on  it  is 
fringed  with  mangroves.  There  are  villages  all  along  the  coast,  but 
mostly  concealed  by  the  mangroves.  There  are  no  reefs,  except  off 
Ras  Wango,  but  a  sand  and  mud  flat  dries  off  to  a  considerable 
distance. 

The  coast  is  backed  by  a  flat  plain,  which  to  the  northward  gradually 
slopes  upwards  to  a  number  of  low  wooded  ridges,  parallel  to  the 
coast,  which  again  rise  to  the  Matumbi  range,  17  miles  from  the  sea, 
averaging  2,000  feet  in  height.  These  mountains  are  the  eastern 
termination  of  the  high  land  that  forms  the  southern  watershed  of 
the  valley  of  the  Rufiji. 

OUTER  ISLANDS  AND  REEFS.— Songa  Songa  island, 
situated  about  10  miles  eastward  of  Ras  Wango,  and  3^  miles  north- 
westward of  Fanjove  island,  is  a  coral  island  2^  miles  in  length,  covered 
with  trees.    It  stands  on  a  broad  reef  dry  at  spring  tides,  and  surrounded 
S.O.  10625.  U 


306  KILWA  KIVmJB  TO  MAFIA  ISLAND.        [Chap.  VIIl. 

by  extensive  shallow  water  on  all  sides  but  the  north-western,  where 
Pumbavu  a  small  sandy  islet  with  a  few  scattered  trees,  is  connected 
to  the  main  island  by  a  neck  of  sand  half  a  mile  long.  At  the 
distance  of  a  quarter  of  a  mile  off  this  islet  the  water  is  deep  and 
clear.  On  the  point  of  Songa  Songa  nearest  Pumbavu  is  a  clomp  of 
cocoa-nuts,  palms  and  casuarinas,  conspicuous  from  northward  and 
southward,  when  inside  the  reefs. 

Songa  Songa  has  a  village  near  its  eastern  shore,  and  wells  with 
tolerably  good  water  in  the  coral  nearly  in  its  centre  ;  these  are 
difficult  of  access  and  best  approached  from  its  western  side 
Bullocks  and  goats  are  bred  on  the  island. 

Anchorage. — There  is  anchorage  in  from  5  to  6  fathoms,  from 

3  to  5  cables  westward  of  Pumbavu  islet.     Small  craft  can  anchor  in 

4  fathoms,  nearer  the  west  side  of  the  island  by  passing  over  the  flat, 
joining  Pumbavu  islet  with  the  dry  sand-head  southward  of  it,  in  not 
less  than  2  fathoms,  at  low  water,  with  sheltered  anchorage,  abreast  a 
small  sandy  beach. 

Val  POOk,  with  6  feet  least  water  and  steep-to,  lies  2^  miles 
S.  by  W.  i  W.  from  Pumbavu  islet,  and  one  mile  from  Songa  Songa 
island  reef.    As  the  rock  does  not  show,  it  should  be  given  a  wide  berth. 

Pweza  is  a  small  reef  lying  1^  miles  northward  of  Luala  reef, 
with  a  small  sand-head  dry  8  feet  at  low  water  springs. 

Panjove  flats. — Northward  of  Fanjove  island,  the  outer  line  of 
reefs,  with  depths  of  about  3  fathoms,  is  continued  from  Fanjove  reef 
for  4  miles  along  the  edge  of  the  deep  water  to  Fungu  Imbi.  The 
tiderushes  over  this  flat,  and  in  strong  winds  the  sea  breaks  on  its  edge. 

Fungu  Imbi  is  2^  miles  in  length,  with  a  sand-head  dry  7  feet 
at  low  water  springs  ;  it  is  steep-to  along  its  outer  edge,  and  the 
sea  breaks  heavily. 

Nyunl  is  a  small  coral  and  sand  island  with  bushes,  and  two  or 
three  taller  casuarinas  on  its  eastern  side,  which  can  be  seen  from  a 
distance  of  12  miles.  The  outline  of  Nyuni  from  a  distance  is  flat, 
with  the  casuarina  trees  appearing  above  the  general  level. 

The  island  bears  N.  by  E.  11  miles  from  Fanjove  island,  and  lies 
on  the  western  side  of  a  reef,  3  miles  in  length,  dry  at  low  wat«r,  and 
steep-to  on  its  seaward  side.  Turtle  frequent  this  island  and  Okuza 
north  of  it,  from  February  to  July. 

Nyuni  pass.— Between  Fungu  Imbi  and  Nynni  island,  deep 
water  extends  in  to  the  westward  towards  a  narrow  6-fathom  channel 
through  the  reefs  southward  of  Nyuni,  but  as  no  good  leading  mark 


Chap.  VJII.]  ISLAND  AND  RBBFS  BETWEEN.  307 

can  be  given,  and  the  swell  being  heavy  on  the  edge  of  the  shoal 
water,  the  passage  is  not  recommended. 

Fung*u  Mombawaka  is  1^  miles  in  extent  at  ita.  seaward  edge, 
having  a  small  area  awash  at  low  water,  the  remainder  having  a  few 
feet  depth  always  over  it,  and  the  sea  generally  breaks.  It  lies 
northward  of  Nyuni  reef,  being  separated  by  a  5-fathom  channel,  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  wide. 

Okuza  island,  6  miles  northward  of  Nyuni  island,  is  small, 
sandy,  and  covered  with  casuarinas,  the  highest  of  which  are  at  the 
eastern  end,  and  can  be  seen  14  miles  in  clear  weather.  The  island 
is  on  the  north-west  part  of  a  reef,  3J  miles  in  length  at  its  seaward 
face ;  it  is  all  dry  at  low  water  springs,  steep-to  on  its  seaward  side  and 
tolerably  so  on  the  other  sides. 

Northward  of  Okuza  is  a  break  in  the  chain  of  reefs  for  8  miles  to 
the  reefs  of  Kibondo  island,  leaving  a  clear  deep  passage  into  Mafia 
channel. 

Anchorage. — There  is  anchorage  within  Okuza  reef,  in  from  8  to 
15  fathoms,  but  in  the  north-east  monsoon  a  berth  well  to  the  south- 
west should  be  chosen  to  avoid  the  swell. 

INNER  REEFS  AND  CHANNELS.— Between  the  outer  reefs 
and  islands  before  mentioned,  and  the  main  land  southward  of  the 
Rufiji,  is  an  inner  chain  of  reefs,  which  for  the  most  part  have 
navigable  channels  between  them.  There  are,  however,  two  main 
routes  that  will  generally  be  useful  to  vessels  when  the  sun  is  in  a 
favourable  position,  and  if  a  good  look-out  aloft  be  kept.  The  reefs 
bordering  these  will  be  described,  commencing  from  the  southward. 

PwajUU  reef  is  IJ  miles  in  length,  and  lies  south-westward, 
distant  3^  miles  from  Pumbavu  islet,  and  W.  by  N.,  21  miles  from 
Val  rock,  with  a  deep  channel  between.  A  long  extent  of  sand  on 
the  reef  dries  at  half  tide.  The  eastern  side  of  the  reef  is  steep-to,  and 
can  generally  be  seen. 

Polasi  reef,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  northward  of  Pwajuu,  is 
2i  miles  in  length,  and  half  a  mile  in  breadth.  The  sand  on  it  dries 
over  an  extent  of  IJ  miles,  the  highest  part  being  towards  the  north, 
where  it  dries  11  feet  at  springs.  The  eastern  edge  of  the  reef  is 
steep-to. 

Here  the  eastern  and  western  channels  divide  ;  the  reefs  bordering 
the  eastern  channel  are  Baniani,  Sanders,  Mzuaji,  Kimbore,  and 
Bawara. 

Pungu  Baniani,   3  miles  northward  of  Pumbavu  islet,  has  a 
S.O.  10625.  U  2 


308  KILWA  KIVINJB  TO  MAFIA  ISLAND.        [Chap.  VIII^ 

Band-head  which  dries  10  feet.     Its  eastern  edge  is  not  very  abrupt 
and  should  be  given  a  berth  of  half  a  mile. 

Sanders  rcrck,  with  7  feet  least  water,  lies  1  j  miles  S.  by  E.  of 
Fungu  Baniani ;  this  danger  cannot  be  seen. 

The  left  fall  of  Singino  hill  on  with  the  left  extreme  of  Pumbavu 
islet,  S.S.W.,  leads  in  4  fathoms,  between  Fungu  Baniani  and 
Sanders  rock. 

Mzuaji  reef  lies  3  miles  N.E.  J  E.  from  Pumbavu  islet ;  it  has  no 
sand  on  it,  and  dries  2  feet  at  low  water  springs. 

Kimbore  is  a  small  reef  one  mile  west  of  Newni  island,  with  a 
sand-head  and  a  large  rock,  both  of  which  dry  7  feet.  At  high 
water,  Kimbore  is  not  easily  seen  ;  its  western  edge  is  tolerably  steep, 
but  off  its  eastern  side  shallow  water  extends  half  way  to  Newni 
island. 

Bawara  is  the  general  name  of  a  number  of  reefs  which  lie 
north-westward  of  Newni  island,  the  nearest  being  2^  miles  distant, 
with  a  4-fathom  channel  H  miles  wide  between  it  and  Kimbore  reef. 
These  reefs  cover  an  area  of  2^  miles  north  and  south,  and  3  miles 
east  and  west,  and  show  four  sand-heads  when  dry.  The  eastern  reef 
is  not  steep,  and  a  vessel  taking  this  route  should  give  preference  to 
the  Kimbore  side.  The  reefs  on  the  west  side  can  be  passed  tolerably 
close,  but  there  is  no  necessity  to  do  so. 

A  small  coral  bank  with  3  fathoms  water  on  it  lies  2^  miles 
S.W.  ^  S.  of  Okuza  island.  Northward  of  "this  bank  the  passage 
is  clear. 

The  reefs  bordering  the  western  channel  are  the  Machangi,  Chocha, 
Membeuso,  Banda,  and  Simaya  islands. 

Machangri  is  the  name  of  a  collection  of  reefs  lying  from  5  to  7 
miles  northward  of  Songa  Songa.  The  south-western  reef  dries  at 
half  tide  ;  its  edge  is  steep,  but  does  not  show  well. 

The  north-western  reef  has  a  sand-head  which  is  only  covered  at 
high  water,  and  except  at  that  time  is  an  excellent  guide  for  the 
channel.  It  is  near  the  western  edge  of  the  reef,  which  is  fairly 
steep-to  on  that  side. 

CllOClia  is  2  miles  in  length,  uncovered  at  low  water,  with  sand  on 
its  north-west  extremity,  which  dries  9  feet.  The  south-east  end 
tails  off  for  2  cables,  but  it  can  generally  be  seen  showing  green 
under  water.  The  eastern  point  of  Chocha  is  West  IJ  miles  from  the 
sand-head  on  Machangi. 


Chap.  VIII.]       ISLETS  AND  RBBFS— RUFIJI  DELTA.  309 

Membeuso  lies  2|  miles  north  of  Machangi,  and  is  smaller ;  the 
sand  on  it  dries  8  feet,  and  its  eastern  edge  is  quite  steep.  Simaya 
island,  bearing  N.  by  E.,  leads  eastward  of  this  reef. 

Banda  is  a  small  reef  with  a  sand-head  which  dries  8  feet  at  low 
water  springs.  It  lies  north-eastward  2 J  miles  from  Machangi  sand, 
and  its  western  side  is  not  steep-to. 

Simaya  island,  of  sand,  is  covered  with  high  trees,  and  visible 
at  a  distance  of  14  miles.  The  island  is  surrounded  by  a  reef,  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  in  length,  which  is  steep-to, 

COAST. — Ras  Samanga  Plingru,  situated  18  miles  northward 
of  Gingwera  river,  is  a  point  of  high  mangroves  conspicuous  from 
the  northward  when  in  shore.  Immediately  north  of  it  is  Samanga 
Fungu  creek  with  a  small  village  of  the  same  name. 

Samanga  NdumbO  is  the  name  of  a  large  village  and  creek. 
If  miles  north  of  Ras  Samanga  Fungu.  It  is  the  largest  village 
between  Kilwa  Kivinje  and  the  Rufiji,  and  is  quite  concealed  from 
the  sea ;  there  are  Banians  here.  The  estuary  contracts  at  a  short 
distance  from  the  sea,  and  is  said  to  join  another  creek  which 
debouches  at  one  mile  to  the  north-eastward. 

Ras  Ndumbo  is  a  mangrove  point  with  a  large  detached  bush 
off  it. 

Molioro  bay  is  the  deep  indentation  with  shallow  water  between 
Ras  Ndumbo  and  Ras  Pombwe.  It  is  lined  with  a  thick  belt  of 
mangroves,  and  a  large  portion  dries  at  low  water. 

Kitope  bill  is  a  conspicuous  flat-topped  hill,  780  feet  high,  rising 
in  the  plain  5  miles  from  the  head  of  Mohoro  bay.  It  is  thickly 
wooded,  and  has  a  lower  spur  to  the  northward  with  a  small  conical- 
shaped  summit. 

RUFIJI  DELTA. — In  Mohoro  bay  commences  the  remarkable 
maze  of  creeks  which  form  the  delta  of  the  Rufiji  and  Mohoro. 
Some  of  these  creeks  do  not  communicate  at  ordinary  times  with 
either  river,  neither  do  the  rivers  themselves  ever  join,  though  at 
one  point  in  their  courses  they  approach  one  another  closely  ;  but  in 
the  rainy  season  of  the  interior,  December  and  the  two  following 
months,  the  whole  plain  is  frequently  flooded,  when  the  water 
doubtless  escapes  by  either  river  indifferently,  and  all  the  large 
mouths  that  open  to  the  sea  assist  to  carry  off  the  surplus. 

The  delta  has  been  pushed  forward  in  advance  of  the  general  line 
of  the  land,  and  now  forms  a  convex  projection  with  a  coast  line 
50  miles  in  length,  which  is  all  low  and  of  a  uniform  outline  as 


310  KILWA  KIVINJB  TO  MAFIA  ISLAND.  [Chap.  VIII. 

viewed  from  the  sea.  Mangroves  occupy  the  greatest  portion  of  the 
shore  line,  and  extend  back  for  a  varying  distance  from  it.  Inside 
the  swamp>'  belt  is  a  broad  flat  plain,  covered  with  long  grass  and  a 
few  trees,  and  dotted  here  and  there  with  small  villages,  in  the 
vicinity  of  which  and  near  the  rivers  is  cultivation.  This  plain  is 
35  miles  north  and  south  between  the  boundary  lines  of  Matumbi 
and  Mtoti  hills. 

In  Mohoro  bay,  westward  of  Ras  Pombwe,  are  the  two  mouths  of 
the  Mohoro,  and  a  large  salt  water  creek.  BVom  Ras  Pombwe,  the 
general  direction  of  the  coast  is  north-north-east  for  30  miles  to  Ras 
Twana  ;  here  the  coast  turns  sharply  to  the  north-west  for  11  miles 
to  the  village  of  Kikunguni,  standing  on  the  northern  shore  of  the 
entrance  of  the  Kikunya.  On  this  extent  of  41  miles  of  coast, 
ten  large  mouths  open  into  the  sea,  eight  of  which  are  connected  at 
all  times  with  the  Rufiji,  the  other  two  being  only  salt  water  creeks. 
All  these  mouths  are  connected  by  a  series  of  small  creeks,  through 
the  mangroves  near  the  sea,  that  serve  at  high  water  as  passages  for 
canoes  from  one  village  to  another  without  the  necessity  of  crossing 
the  bars. 

The  Rufiji  river  is  described  on  page  313. 

Best  Entrances. — If  going  to  ascend  the  Lufiji,  the  Simba 
Uranga  and  the  Kikunya  (p.  312,  313),  are  the  best  months  to  choose, 
on  account  of  the  absence  of  bars.     No  dhows  go  above  the  delta. 

Kikwaju,  a  broad  but  shoal  water  creek,  lies  at  the  north-west 
comer  of  Mohoro  bay.  On  the  western  shore,  a  short  distance  up,  is 
the  village  of  Marendego. 

Between  the  Kikwaju  and  Ras  Pombwe  are  the  two  mouths  of  the 
Mohoro. 

Utaglte  and  Lokotonasi  are  huge  mangrove  lined  creeks, 
with  from  2  to  3  fathoms  at  low  water  springs,  which  join  together 
3  miles  to  the  northward  where  the  Mohoro  proper  begins.  The 
Utagite  has  a  depth  of  3  feet  at  low  water  springs  on  its  bar,  which  is 
2  miles  outside  the  entrance.  There  is  no  swell  on  the  bar,  and  the 
channel  is  straight.  The  west  bank  of  the  river  kept  N.  by  W  f  W. 
will  lead  a  boat  through  it.  The  sea  breaks  on  the  sand  banks  on 
either  side  at  half-tide  with  any  wind. 

Mohoro  river  is  200  yards  wide  where  it  joins  the  Utagite,  and 
at  the  highest  point  reached  by  the  FatvrCs  boats,  14  miles  in  a  direct 
line  from  the  coast,  was  80  yards  in  breadth,  but  had  at  that  distance 
become  so  shallow  that  the  steam  cutter  could  get  no  farther  ;  here 


Chap.  VIII.]  RUFIJI  DELTA.  311 

were  nnmerons  villages  and  cultivation.  The  banks  of  the  river 
were  from  10  to  20  feet  in  height,  and  where  not  scoured  into  cliffs 
by  the  current,  densely  covered  with  vegetation.  The  tidal  influence 
extends  above  this  point. 

The  Mohoro  is  probably  fed  from  the  Matumbi  hills,  which  extend 
far  to  the  westward.  The  land  route  from  Kilwa  to  Dar-es-Salaam 
passes  through  these  villages.  Coasting  craft  ascend  the  river  for 
trade. 

Ras  Pombwe,  the  eastern  point  of  Mohoro  bay,  is  of  mangrove. 

Fungu  Okambara  is  a  coral  and  mud  reef  that  stretches  off  for 
3^  miles  in  a  south-east  direction,  and  dries  8  feet. 

Northward  of  Okambara,  is  Mwamba  Mkuu,  another  large  reef, 
which  also  dries  8  feet.  There  is  a  bight  with  8  fathoms  water, 
between  the  two. 

Pombwe  creek  is  a  lake  like  estuary,  with  a  mouth  half  a  mile 
wide,  extending  in  a  north-west  direction  from  Ras  Pombwe  for 
2^  miles,  when  it  ends  in  mangrove  swamps.  Bachambao  is  the 
name  given  to  the  southern  branch  of  it,  and  Ras  Pombwe  is  also 
known  by  some  as  Bachambao. 

Yaya  moutb,  4  miles  northward  of  Ras  Pombwe,  is  the  southern- 
most creek  having  a  connection  with  the  Rufiji.  There  are  several 
ramifications  of  it  unexplored  which  probably  lead  north  and  south 
into  the  adjacent  mouths!  The  river  is  called  the  Kiegieni  or 
Rufiji-ya-wake  and  meets  the  Rufiji  at  a  point  N.N.W.  12  miles  from 
this  mouth.  The  upper  part  of  this  branch  is  too  shallow  to  allow 
a  boat  to  reach  the  Rufiji  in  the  dry  season.* 

The  Yaya  is  1^  miles  wide  at  the  entrance,  and  the  bar  which  is 
1^  miles  outside  never  entirely  dries,  but  there  is  usually  a  nasty 
swell  on  it.  Several  patches,  awash  at  low  water,  and  6  to  7  fathoms 
close-to,  lie  from  2  to  4  miles  off  the  entrance.  Yaya  village  is  on 
its  north  bank  at  the  entrance,  and  one  mile  to  the  northward  is 
a  double-headed  clump  of  tall  trees. 

Bumbura,  the  next  creek,  to  the  northward,  was  not  explored, 
as  the  bar  could  not  be  crossed.  It  is  reported  as  only  a  blind  creek, 
connecting  by  narrow  passages  the  branches  north  and  south  of  it. 

NdaM  mouth  is  7^  miles  north-eastward  of  the  Yaya,  and  may  be 
distinguished  by  a  thick  and  high  grove  of  casuarinas  on  its  northern 
bank.    The  sea  rolling  in  through  the  break  in  the  outer  reefs  south 

*  See  also  Admiralty  plan  r^Mafia  island  and  channels,  No.  458  ;  scale,  m  =  0*5 
of  an  inch. 


312  KILWA  KIVINJB  TO  MAFIA  ISLAND.        [Chap.  VIII. 

of  KibondOy  makes  the  bar  bad  at  all  times.    At  a  distance  of  2^  miles 
within  the  month,  it  joins  the  Kiassi, 

Kiassi  mouth,  5^  miles  north-eastward  of  the-Ndahi,  is  a  broad 
arm,  joining  the  latter  at  5  miles  to  the  sonth- westward. 

Above  the  fork  it  takes  the  name  of  Bamero,  and  runs  through 
open  grassy  country.  At  3  miles  farther  westward  is  the  junction  of 
the  tTsembe,  which  leaves  the  Rufiji  3  miles  below  the  Kimero. 
Neither  of  these  rivers  afford  a  passage  for  a  small  steam  launch  in 
the  dry  season,  unless  perhaps  at  spring  tides. 

The  Kimero  leaves  the  main  river  at  a  point  10^  miles  in  a  straight- 
line  from  the  Kiassi  mouth,  and  has  a  course  of  17  miles. 

Msala  mouth  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  true  mouth  of  the 
Rufiji,  although  one  of  the  smallest ;  but  fresh  water  and  terra  firma 
are  much  sooner  reached  than  in  the  larger  mangrove  entrances. 
It  opens  abreast  Boydu  island,  from  which  it  bears  N.W.  by  W.  ^  W. 
distant  5^  miles.  Sand  and  mud  banks  dry  off  the  Msala  for  3  miles, 
and  at  low- water  springs  entrance  is  impossible ;  there  is  a  con- 
siderable swell  on  the  bar  when  the  wind  is  fresh.  The  deepest 
water  will  be  found  rather  to  the  northward  of  a  line  joining  Boydu 
island  and  the  entrance. 

Immediately  inside  is  a  large  creek  trending  to  the  southward,  and 
where  is  situate  the  village  of  Msala.  At  5  miles  up  the  main  branch, 
at  a  distance  of  3  miles  in  a  direct  line  from  the  sea,  the  mangrove 
belt  is  passed  ;  for  7  farther  it  is  bordered  by  dense  forest,  in  which 
are  rice  clearings,  and  then  at  the  point  where  it  branches,  and  where 
the  Rufiji  proper  is  reached,  it  emerges  into  open  country.  A  few 
miles  from  the  sea,  it  takes  the  name  of  Bumba  ;  its  average 
breadth  is  from  80  to  150  yards,  with  a  depth  of  2  fathoms. 

Ras  Twana,  the  eastern  point  of  the  delta  of  low  mangroves,  is 
8^  miles  north-north-westward  from  Boydu  island,  and  6  miles  north- 
east of  Msala  mouth.  The  sand  and  mud  bank  stretches  off  for 
3^  miles,  and  is  tolerably  steep-to,  but  not  visible  unless  when  the 
sea  is  breaking. 

Twana  creek  lies  immediately  to  the  westward,  but  it  is  only  a 
blind  creek. 

Kiomboni  mouth  is  2  miles  north-west  from  Ras  Twana,  and  is 
one  of  the  large  mouths  of  the  Rufiji.  The  river  runs  through  dense 
mangroves,  with  a  width  of  400  yards,  and  a  depth  of  from  a  half  to 
3  fathoms,  for  12  miles,  before  Jt  joins  the  Simba  Uranga. 

Simba  Uranga  is  the  branch  of  the  Rufiji  best  known  to  the 


Chap.  VIII.]  RUPIJI  DELTA  AND  RIVBR.  ^  31 

coast  traders,  who  resort  there  to  load  with  timber  for  house  rafters 
for  Zanzibar.  It  has  no  bar,  but  the  water  is  shallow  for  more  than 
5  miles  from  the  land,  and  at  low  water  there  is  sometimes  a  con- 
siderable sea,  raised  by  the  ebbing  tide.  There  are  some  mud  banks 
just  awash  at  low  water  springs,  lying  3  miles  from  the  entrance  ; 
these  must  be  kept  on  the  port  hand  when  entering  the  river. 

Steering  S.W.  ^  S.  for  the  centre  of  the  entrance  a  boat  will  carry 
8  feet  water  in,  at  the  lowest  tides.*  Inside,  the  water  deepens  to  as 
much  as  10  fathoms,  but  only  for  a  short  distance.  Above,  the 
estuary  is  300  to  400  yards  wide,  and  carries  a  depth  of  from  one  to  3 
fathoms,  to  its  junction  with  the  Kiomboni  10  miles  to  the  south- 
westward.  Several  creeks  to  the  northward  communicate  with  the 
Kikunya  branch. 

Immediately  inside  the  entrance,  the  large  ramifications  of  Suninga, 
branches  to  the  southward  and  rejoins  again  8^  miles  to  the  south-west. 
There  are  several  villages  in  the  creek,  Suninga  being  the  largest. 
The  courses  of  both  the  Simba  Uranga  and  Suninga  lie  entirely 
through  mangrove  swamps.  If  going  to  ascend  the  Rufiji,  the 
Simba  Uranga  or  the  Kikunya  are  the  best  mouths  to  choose  on 
'  account  of  the  absence  of  bars. 

Kikunya  moutll  is  the  northernmost  and  largest  of  these  great 
openings.  It  is  3  miles  north-westward  of  Simba  Uranga,  and 
2^  miles  wide  at  the  entrance.  There  is  no  bar,  and  a  depth  of 
2  fathoms  at  low  water  springs  can  be  carried  in  steering  S.W.  ^  W., 
for  the  centre  of  the  entrance.  Kikunya  village  stands  on  firm  land 
near  the  head  of  a  little  branch  creek,  9  miles  from  the  coast,  and  is 
the  most  important  in  the  neighbourhood. 

The  passage  of  the  river  presents  no  difficulties  until  within  2  miles 
of  Kikunya  ;  here  the  river  becomes  narrow,  with  sharp  bends,  with 
only  about  3  feet  at  half  tide.  At  the  landing  place,  one  mile  below 
the  village,  there  is  a  deep  pool  with  from  4  to  6  fathoms  water, 
where  the  dhows  receive  their  cargoes.f 

The  Kikunya  is  only  connected  with  the  Rufiji  by  side  com- 
munications to  the  Simba  Uranga,  and  has  no  fresh  water  in  it.  In 
all  the  branches  northward  of  Msala,  the  water  is  salt,  as  the  amount 
of  fresh  water  which  finds  its  way  into  them  is  so  small  compared 
with  their  vast  area,  that  it  produces  no  effect. 

RUFIJI  RIVER,  indifferently  called  Lufiji,  is  most  disappoint- 
ing above  the  delta.    The  number  and  size  of  its  mouths,  and  the 


*  It  is  probable  that  this  varies  from  year  to  year. 

t  Remark  Book  :— Lieutenant  G.  Robertson,  H.M.S.  Kingfisher,  1885. 


314  KILWA  KIVINJK  TO  MAFIA  ISLAND.        [Chap.  VIII. 

undoubted  distance  of  its  source,  leads  the  traveller  to  expect  a 
much  larger  stream  than  he  will  find.  When  the  inundation  caused 
by  the  interior  rains  has  subsided,  and  the  current  of  the  river  some- 
what reduced,  so  as  to  allow  a  boat  to  ascend,  the  water  channel  is 
limited  and  obstructed  by  many  shoals  and  banks,  and  whenever  the 
river  widens  with  a  straight  reach  it  is  frequently  all  more  or  less 
shallow. 

With  the  exception  of  these  hindrances,  the  steam  cutter  of  the 
Fawrty  drawing  3  feet,  made  her  way  without  difficulty  for  30  miles 
to  Kisoma,  which  is  20  miles  in  a  straight  line  from  the  Msala  mouth, 
and  carried  from  9  to  10  feet  water  all  the  way,  except  at  one  spot 
rather  above  Ukema  village,  where  there  seemed  to  be  no  deep 
channel  but  a  bar  with  2  to  3  feet  across  the  river,  which  would 
probably  be  altered  by  the  next  inundation.  The  ordinary  depth  in 
the  channel  was  from  2  to  3  fathoms. 

•  At  Mpembeno,  the  river  was  over  300  yards  wide  from  bank  to 
bank,  but  the  water  channel  was  not  over  80  yards.  The  deep 
channel  was  not  wide,  and  in  all  probability  nothing  larger  than 
steam  launches  will  ever  navigate  the  Rufiji.  Natives  at  Kisoma 
reported  that  higher  up,  the  river  was  more  encumbered  with  banks, 
but  as  they  did  not  profess  to  navigate  it,  too  much  confidence  cannot 
be  placed  in  their  report.  The  tide  reaches  to  near  the  fork  of  the 
Kimero  ;  above  this,  the  current  was  on  an  average  1|  miles  an  hour. 
The  country  is  perfectly  fiat  and  uninteresting,  having  very  few 
trees.     The  villages  are  small  and  few  in  number. 

At  •Mpembeno,  is  the  main  ferry  by  which  the  land  route  from 
Kilwa  to  Dar-es-Salaam  crosses  the  Rufiji.  The  villages  here  are 
rather  larger  than  usual.  Grain,  roots,  and  pumpkins  grow  well 
here.  No  dhows  go  above  the  delta.  The  Rufiji  tribes  owe  no 
allegiance  to  Zanzibar,  and  each  village  is  independent. 


MAFIA  ISLAND.*— General  remarks.— Mafia  is  the  third 
in  point  of  size  and  importance  of  the  large  islands  under  the  authority 
of  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar.  The  island,  composed  of  coral,  is  27  miles 
in  length  in  a  north-east  and  south-west  direction,  with  an  extreme 
breadth  of  9  miles.  The  coast  of  the  island  generally  is  low,  but  it 
has  a  central  rocky  plateau  of  about  100  feet  in  height,  the  trees 
on  it  making  a  total  elevation  of  200  feet ;  its  outline  is  devoid  of  any 
feature. 

*  See  Admiralty  charts  : — Kilwa  point  to  Zanzibar  channel,  No.  662 ;  and  plan 
of  Mafia  island  and  channels,  No.  458  ;  scale  m  —  0*5  of  an  inch. 


Chap.  VIII.]  MAFIA  ISLAND.  315 

The  outer  or  easternside  is  all  cliffy,  and  fringed  by  a  narrow 
coral  reef,  which  is  steep-to,  and  on  which  the  sea  breaks  furiously. 
The  south  and  inner  coasts  are  bordered  with  reefs  of  varying 
widths,  and  have  many  shoals  off  them. 

The  island  is  much  cut  up  by  mangrove  swamps  and  creeks,  but  a 
large  part  is  fertile,  and  cultivated  with  cocoa-nut  trees,  manioc,  &c. 

The  most  considerable  village  is  on  the  island  of  Chole,  on  the 
south-east  side  of  Mafia,  at  the  entrance  to  the  bay  of  the  same  name. 
From  the  fact  of  the  main  trade  being  carried  on  here,  there  seems  to 
be  a  general  inclination  of  the  natives  to  call  the  whole  island  of 
Mafia  by  the  name  of  Chole,  which  leads  to  some  confusion.  The 
other  villages,  though  numerous,  afe  all  very  small. 

Mafia  is  opposite  to  the  delta  of  the  Rufiji,  from  which  it  is 
separated  by  a  channel  9  miles  wide.  This  channel,  though  much 
encumbered  by  reefs,  is  nevertheless  perfectly  navigable  by  day,  and 
may  be  of  great  assistance  to  a  vessel  with  small  steam  power  on  her 
way  south  against  the  south-west  monsoon. 

SOUTH  COAST.— Tutia  reef  is  a  detached  reef,  at  the 
extremity  of  a  reef  extending  5^  miles  south-westward  from  Kibondo 
island,  and  is  the  southern  danger  of  Mafia.  A  sandbank  on  the 
north-western  part  of  Tutia  reef  dries  12  feet  at  springs,  and  the 
outer  edge  of  the  reef  breaks  heavily,  always  showing  its  position  ; 
a  rocky  ridge  on  this  edge  is  as  high  as  the  sand  cay,  but  being  black 
is  not  conspicuous.  Tutia  is  separated  by  a  4-fathom  channel  from 
Kibondo  reef,  but  the  passage  is  too  narrow  to  navigate. 

Caution. — It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  sandbank  is  on  the 
inner  side  of  Tutia  reef,  and  a  good  berth  should  be  given  in  rounding 
it  from  seaward,  as  the  current  sweeps  rapidly  up  towards  it.  There 
are  depths  of  10  to  12  fathoms  water,  nearly  one  mile  southward  of 
Tutia  reef. 

Kibondo  island  is  a  flat  coral  island  1|  miles  in  length,  lying 
3|  miles  from  the  south  coast  of  Mafia.  There  is  a  village  on  the 
island,  but  no  water  or  supplies.  A  clump  of  tall  trees  on  the 
southern  end  are  conspicuous,  and  some  palms  on  the  north-west 
point  also  show  well. 

A  broad  reef  that  dries  several  feet  at  springs,  with  several  islet 
on  it,  extends  4^  miles  south-westward  from  Kibondo  island ;  its 
outer  edge  is  steep-to  and  the  sea  breaks  heavily. 

Anclioragra. — ^There  is  capital  anchorage  sheltered  from  all 
swell  within  Kibondo  reef.    A  good  berth  is  in  6  fathoms,  sand  and 


316  MAFIA  ISLAND.  [Chap.  VIII. 

mud,  with  the  southern  islet  of  Kibondo  E.  f  S.,  and  Tutia  sand 
S.  by  W. 

Juani  island  lies  northward  of  Kibondo,  on  the  same  reef,  and 
forms  the  southern  shore  of  Chole  bay.  It  presents  seaward  a 
straight  face  of  cliffs  10  feet  high,  4^  miles  in  length,  and  which  are 
fringed  by  a  narrow  reef.  Its  inner  coast  is  cliff  and  mangrove. 
The  channel  between  Kibondo  and  Juani  is  1^  miles  wide,  and  quite 
dry  at  low  water. 

GllOle  island  is  one  mile  in  length,  and  lies  north-westward  of 
Juani  on  the  same  reef.  Chole  is  the  principal  place  for  trade  in 
Mafia  ;  it  contains  about  2,000  inhabitants,  and  is  locally  celebrated 
for  its  mats.  The  Arab  governor,  who  is  under  the  authority  of  the 
Liwali  of  Kilwa,  resides  here,  and  also  numerous  Banians  and  Hindis. 
It  is  a  difficult  place  to  communicate  with,  as  a  vessel  cannot  get 
nearer  than  the  anchorage  inside  Kibondo,  8  miles  distant,  and  the 
water  is  so  shallow  between  the  anchorage  and  Chole,  that  at  low 
water  springs,  it  is  not  easy  even  for  a  light  boat  to  find  the  passage. 
Supplies  of  fresh  provisions  are  scarce. 

Chole  bay  is  4^  miles  in  diameter,  formed  by  a  deep  bay  in  the 
south-east  shore  of  Mafia  island,  and  nearly  blocked  to  seaward  by 
the  islands  of  Juani,  Chole,  and  Miewi.  There  is  deep  water  in  a 
limited  area,  but  Kinasi  pass,  the  entrance  from  seaward,  is  so  choked 
with  rocks,  and  the  tide  runs  with  such  extreme  velocity  through  it, 
that  unless  well  buoyed  it  would  be  unsafe  for  a  vessel  to  use. 

The  channel  from  the  south-westward  is  also  only  fit  for  boats, 
though  a  vessel  of  10  feet  draught  could,  if  necessary,  pass  in  at  high 
water  springs,  with  but  little  risk,  as  the  water  is  smooth.  The 
shores  of  Chole  bay  are  well  cultivated  and  populated. 

Tides. — It  is  high  water,  full  and  change,  in  Chole  bay,  at  4h. ; 
springs  rise  15  feet,  neaps  10  feet. 

Coast. — OkutO  reef. — From  the  south  entrance  to  Chole  bay,  the 
south  coast  of  Mafia  trends  westward  in  a  gentle  curve  for  8^  miles 
to  the  red  cliffs  of  Dongo  Jekundu,  which  are  60  feet  high,  and 
conspicuous.  It  is  all  low,  mostly  fringed  with  mangroves,  backed 
by  groves  of  cocoa-nut  trees,  and  bordered  by  Okuto  reef,  and  other 
shallow  water,  extending  3|  miles  to  the  southward,  partly  blocking 
the  extensive  bay  formed  by  Kibondo  reef.  From  the  red  cliffs  the 
coast  turns  north-westward  for  2|  miles  to  Ras  Kisimani. 

Mangre  reef,  situated  south-westward  of  Okuto  reef,  and  on  the 
east  side  of  Mafia  channel,  is  2  miles  in  length,  uncovers  considerably 


Chap.  VIII.]  CHOLK  ISLAND — MAFIA  CHANNEL.  317 

at  springs,  and  a  sandhead  on  its  northern  extremity  dries  12  feet. 
From  the  centre  of  this  sandhead  Ras  Kisimani  bears  N.  ^  E.  distant 
6J  miles.  A  vessel  can  pass  on  either  side  of  the  reef,  but  the 
western  is  the  better  channel.  Mange  reef  can  always  be  made  out 
even  when  the  sand  is  covered.  At  low  water  springs,  it  will  be 
sighted  6  miles  distant. 

Ras  Kisimani,  the  east  point  of  entrance  to  Mafia  channel  from 
the  southward,  is  the  western  point  of  Mafia  island,  and  situated 
in  lat.  7^  56'  42"  S.,  long.  39^  35'  32"  E. ;  it  is  low,  sandy,  and  steep-to, 
with  a  lai^e  swamp  at  the  back.  A  reef,  which  dries.  5  feet  at  springs, 
begins  immediately  southward  of  the  point,  and  can  always  be  dis- 
tinguished. Tolerably  good  water  is  obtained  for  the  dhows,  by 
digging  holes  in  the  sand  on  the  northern  side  of  the  point,  but  it  is 
difficult  to  obtain  any  other  supplies,  though  there  is  a  small  village. 

Boydu  island  lies  opposite  Ras  Kisimani,  and  in  the  centre  of 
Mafia  channel.  It  is  a  narrow  sandy  island,  1^  miles  in  length  east 
and  west,  and  covered  with  tall  casuarinas.  Its  eastern  point  is 
3J  miles  from  Ras  Kisimani,  and  its  western  4|  miles  from  the  main- 
land. Boydu  island  lies  on  a  large  reef,  which  dries  for  a  consider- 
able distance  round  it. 

MAFIA  CHANNEL,*  between  Ras  Kisimani  and  the  mouths 
of  the  Rufiji,  is  about  9  miles  wide,  with  Boydu  island  situated  nearly 
midway.  Around  Boydu  island  are  many  small  reefs  and  shallow 
patches,  blocking  the  centre  of  Mafia  channel  for  navigation,  but 
leaving  a  passage  on  either  shore,  where  vessels  can  pass.  The  water 
off  and  to  the  northward  of  the  Rufiji  delta  is,  however,  so  thick, 
that  the  navigator  cannot  always  depend  upon  seeing  sunken  dangers. 

The  channel  west  of  Boydu  is  marred  by  a  shoal  at  its  southern  end 
abreast  the  Kiassi  mouth  of  the  Rufiji,  with  a  least  depth  of  one 
fathom,  and  which  is  difficult  to  be  seen ;  other  shoals  lie  between 
this  shoal  and  Boydu  island,  and  the  channel  being  besides  somewhat 
tortuous,  will  not  be  further  referred  to. 

The  channel  east  of  Boydu,  between  Kauri  and  Mange  reefs,  and 
thence  close  by  Ras  Kisimani,  is  however  straight,  with  a  minimum 
breadth  of  half  a  mile,  and  depth  of  5  fathoms.  As  before  mentioned, 
it  may  be  safely  used  in  the  daytime  by  vessels  of  moderate  draught ; 
the  best  time  to  navigate  it  is  at  low  water,  when  the  reefs  are  more 
easily  seen  ;  the  current  sets  fairly  through  this  channel  as  far  north- 
ward as  Sef  o  reef  ;  see  tides  page  319. 

Reefs. — Marima,  3  miles  in  length,  which  dries  4  feet,  and 

*  For  Directions,  see  p.  327. 


18  MAFIA  ISLAND  AND  CHANNEL.  [Chap.  VIII. 

FuBgu  Kauri,  which  dries  6  feet,  lie  on  the  west  side  of  the  main 
channel,  southward  of  Boydu.  Mange  reef, -2  miles  eastward  of 
Kauri,  has  been  described  on  page  316. 

Belami,  the  next  northward  of  Kauri,  lies  with  its  northern  part 
bearing  S.W.  by  W.  ^  W.  If  miles  from  Ras  Kisimani.  This  portion 
is  awash  at  lo